331 relations: Abd el-Krim, Abolitionism, Acadia, Acadians, Afrikaners, Agadir Crisis, Albert Londres, Alexandre de Rhodes, Algeria, Algerian War, Algiers, Amédée-François Lamy, American Civil War, American Revolution, Annam (French protectorate), Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio, Army of the Levant, Arnold Pomerans, Auguste Febvrier Despointes, Édouard Manet, Émile Gentil, Battle of Annual, Battle of Palikao, Battle of Verdun, Béké, Benin, Benito Juárez, Blaise Diagne, Bonaparte, Boshin War, Bourbon, British Empire, British North America, Cajuns, Caldoche, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Colony, Carib Expulsion, Caribbean, Carlota of Mexico, Catholic Church, Cecil Rhodes, Central Africa, Central African Republic, Central Vietnam, Chad, Chad Basin, Chandannagar, Charles Cousin-Montauban, Comte de Palikao, ..., Charles de Gaulle, Charles Rigault de Genouilly, Charles X of France, Civilizing mission, Cobden–Chevalier Treaty, Cochinchina, Colonialism, Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique, Concession (territory), Confederate States of America, Congo River, Constitution of France, Cotton diplomacy, Cuba, Da Nang, Dakar, Dakar–Niger Railway, Dakar–Saint-Louis railway, Damascus, Decolonisation of Africa, Decolonization, Denshūtai, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Druze, Dutch Empire, East Africa, Emir Abdelkader, English overseas possessions, Equinoctial France, Evolution of the French Empire, Fall of Saigon, Fashoda Incident, Ferdinand de Lesseps, Ferhat Abbas, First Empire of Haiti, First Indochina War, Fort Caroline, Four Communes, Françafrique, France Antarctique, France in the American Revolutionary War, France–Thailand relations, Francisco Franco, Francization, Franco-Prussian War, Franco-Siamese War, Free France, French Algeria, French and Indian Wars, French Army, French Cameroons, French Canadians, French colonial flags, French colonization of the Americas, French Community, French Congo, French East India Company, French Fourth Republic, French franc, French Guiana, French India, French Indochina, French law on colonialism, French Madagascar, French military mission to Japan (1867–68), French North Africa, French Polynesia, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, French Section of the Workers' International, French Somaliland, French Third Republic, French Union, French Wars of Religion, French West Africa, French-speaking Quebecer, Gabon, Gaspé Bay, German colonial empire, German Empire, Giovanni da Verrazzano, Gojong of Korea, Gorée, Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Great Britain, Great Lakes, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guangzhou, Guangzhouwan, Guinea, Hai River, Haiti, Haiti indemnity controversy, Haitian Revolution, Hankou, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Hispaniola, History of France, History of Korea, History of Senegal, Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh City, Huguenots, Huguenots in South Africa, Ignacio Zaragoza, Illinois Country, Indian Ocean, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indochina, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, International Labour Organization, International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919), International Studies Quarterly, Isle de France (Mauritius), Ivory Coast, Jacques Cartier, Jacques Foccart, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, Japan, Jean Talon, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Joseph François Dupleix, Jules Ferry, Karaikal, Khedive, Khmer Rouge, Kingdom of Great Britain, Korea, Lake Chad, Laos, Léonce Verny, League of Nations, League of Nations mandate, Lebanese people (Maronite Christians), Lebanon, List of French possessions and colonies, List of islands in the Indian Ocean, List of largest empires, Louis Faidherbe, Louisiana, Louisiana (New France), Louisiana Purchase, Madagascar, Mahé, Puducherry, Malagasy Uprising, Mali, Marquesas Islands, Martinique, Mascarene Islands, Maurice de Saxe, Mauritania, Mauritian of French origin, Mauritius, Maximilian I of Mexico, Mayotte, Métis, Menorca, Mercantilism, Messali Hadj, Metropolitan France, Mississippi River, Monroe Doctrine, Morocco, Napoleon III, Napoleonic Wars, Neocolonialism, New Caledonia, New France, New Hebrides, New World, Newfoundland (island), Nguyễn dynasty, Niger, Niger River, Nigerian Civil War, Nivelle Offensive, Norodom of Cambodia, North Africa, Northern Vietnam, Nouméa, Nova Scotia, Old Summer Palace, Open Yale Courses, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Ottoman Empire, Overseas France, Pacific Ocean, Palace of Fontainebleau, Parfait-Louis Monteil, Paul Ramadier, Penal colony, Pied-Noir, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, Pol Pot, Port-Royal National Historic Site, Portuguese Empire, Postage stamps of the French colonies, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prosper de Chasseloup-Laubat, Puducherry district, Puebla, Quebec City, Quiet Revolution, Rabih az-Zubayr, Réunion, Republic of the Congo, Rif Republic, Rio de Janeiro, Robert Aldrich (historian), Ruben Um Nyobé, Saint Kitts, Saint Lawrence River, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint-Domingue, Saint-Louis, Senegal, Samuel de Champlain, São Luís, Maranhão, Sétif and Guelma massacre, Scramble for Africa, Second Hundred Years' War, Second Opium War, Senegal, Seven Years' War, Seychelles, Shanghai, Shanghai French Concession, Sharia, Shōgun, Shibata Takenaka, Siege of Puebla (1863), Slavery in Africa, Society Islands, South America, Sovereign Council of New France, Spahi, Spanish Empire, Suez Canal, Syria, Taiping Rebellion, Thailand, The Daily Telegraph, Timeline of European imperialism, Tirailleur, Tobago, Togo, Tokugawa shogunate, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Tonkin, Toussaint Louverture, Treaty of Amiens, Treaty of Bardo, Treaty of Paris (1783), Treaty of Tientsin, Treaty of Utrecht, Troupes coloniales, Troupes de marine, Tuamotus, Tunisia, Union of the Peoples of Cameroon, Vanuatu, Veracruz (city), Việt Minh, Vichy France, Vietnam, Voulet–Chanoine Mission, War of the Austrian Succession, Wars of national liberation, West Africa, West Indies, World War I, World War II, Wuhan, Yanaon, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Zaian War, Zoreilles, Zouave, 1804 Haiti massacre. 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Abd el-Krim (1882–83, Ajdir – February 6, 1963, Cairo) was a Riffian political and military leader.
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Agadir Crisis or Second Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Panthersprung in German) was a brief international crisis sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of Morocco in April 1911.
Albert Londres (1 November 1884 – 16 May 1932) was a French journalist and writer.
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was a French Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Amédée-François Lamy was a French military officer.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
Antoine Léon Morel-Fatio (born 1810 in Rouen − d. 1871 in Paris) was a French naval painter, peintre officiel de la Marine, curator of the naval and ethnographic museum of the Louvre, and mayor of the 20th arrondissement of Paris.
The Army of the Levant (Armée du Levant) identifies the armed forces of France and then Vichy France which occupied, and were in part recruited from, a portion of the "Levant" during the interwar period and early World War II.
Arnold Julius Pomerans (27 April 1920 – 30 May 2005) was a German-born British translator.
Auguste Febvrier-Despointes (1796 – 5 March 1855) was a French counter admiral.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.
Émile Gentil (4 April 1866 – 30 March 1914) was a French colonial administrator, naval officer, and military leader.
The Battle of Annual was fought on July 22, 1921, at Annual in Spanish Morocco, between the Spanish Army of Africa and Berber combatants of the Rif region during the Rif War.
The Battle of Palikao (La bataille de Palikao) was fought at the bridge of Palikao by Anglo-French forces against the Qing Empire during the Second Opium War on the morning of 21 September 1860.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.
Béké or beke is a Antillean Creole term to describe a descendant of the early European, usually French, settlers in the French Antilles.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and liberal politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.
Blaise Diagne (13 October 1872 – 11 May 1934) was a Senegalese-French political leader and mayor of Dakar.
Bonaparte is a French and Italian surname.
The, sometimes known as the Japanese Revolution, was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court.
Bourbon may refer to.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.
Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French overseas collectivity of New Caledonia, mostly native-born French settlers.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
The Carib Expulsion was the French-led ethnic cleansing that terminated most of the Carib population in 1660 from present-day Martinique.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carlota of Mexico (7 June 1840 – 19 January 1927) was a Belgian princess who became Empress of Mexico by marriage to Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Central Vietnam (Miền Trung) also known as Middle Vietnam or The Middle, formerly known as Trung Phần by the Republic of Vietnam, Trung Kỳ and Annam under French Indochina, is one of the three geographical regions within Vietnam.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chad Basin is the largest endorheic basin in Africa, centered on Lake Chad.
Chandannagar, formerly spelled as Chandernagore, is a city and a municipal corporation with former French colony located about north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India.
Charles Guillaume Marie Appollinaire Antoine Cousin-Montauban, 1er Comte de Palikao (1796–1878) was a French general and statesman.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Admiral Pierre-Louis-Charles Rigault de Genouilly (12 April 1807 – 4 May 1873) was a French naval officer.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.
The Cobden–Chevalier Treaty was an Anglo-French free trade agreement signed between the United Kingdom and France on 23 January 1860.
Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ; ''Kausangsin''.; Cochinchine) is a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam whose principal city is Saigon or Prey Nokor in Khmer.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Company of the American Islands (Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique) was a French chartered company that in 1635 took over the administration of the French portion Saint-Christophe island from Compagnie de Saint-Christophe which was the only French settlement in the Caribbean at that time, and was mandated to actively colonise other islands.
In international law, a concession is a territory within a country that is administered by an entity other than the state which holds sovereignty over it.This is usually a colonizing power, or at least mandated by one, as in the case of colonial chartered companies.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
Cotton diplomacy refers to the diplomatic methods employed by the Confederacy during the American Civil War to coerce the United Kingdom and France to support the Confederate war effort by implementing a cotton trade embargo against the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Da Nang (Đà Nẵng) is the fourth largest city in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Hanoi and Haiphong in terms of urbanization and economy.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
The Dakar–Niger Railway connects Dakar, Senegal to Koulikoro, Mali.
The railroad linking Dakar (Senegal) to Saint-Louis was the first railroad line in French West Africa when it opened in 1885.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
The was a corps of elite troops of the Tokugawa Bakufu during the Bakumatsu period in Japan.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
The Druze (درزي or, plural دروز; דרוזי plural דרוזים) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia who self-identify as unitarians (Al-Muwaḥḥidūn/Muwahhidun).
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine (6 September 1808 – 26 May 1883; عبد القادر ابن محيي الدين), known as the Emir Abdelkader or Abdelkader El Djezairi, was an Algerian religious and military leader who led a struggle against the French colonial invasion in the mid-19th century.
The English overseas possessions, also known as the English colonial empire, comprised a variety of overseas territories that were colonised, conquered, or otherwise acquired by the former Kingdom of England during the centuries before the Acts of Union of 1707 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Equinoctial France (French France équinoxiale) was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before "tropical" had fully gained its modern meaning: Equinoctial means in Latin "of equal nights", i.e., on the Equator, where the duration of days and nights is nearly the same year round.
The French colonial empire was the set of territories outside Europe that were under French rule from the 17th century to the late 1970s.
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
The Fashoda Incident or Crisis was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa, occurring in 1898.
Ferdinand Marie, Vicomte de Lesseps, GCSI (19 November 1805 – 7 December 1894) was a French diplomat and later developer of the Suez Canal, which in 1869 joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas, substantially reducing sailing distances and times between Europe and East Asia.
Ferhat Abbas (فرحات عباس; ALA-LC:; ⴼⴻⵔⵃⴰⵜ ⵄⴻⴱⴱⴰⵙ, Ferḥat Ɛebbas; 24 August 1899 – 24 December 1985) was an Algerian politician who acted in a provisional capacity as the yet-to-become independent country's President from 1958 to 1961.
The First Empire of Haiti (Empire d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Anpi an Ayiti) was an elective monarchy in North America.
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
Fort Caroline was an attempted French colonial settlement in Florida, located on the banks of the St. Johns River in present-day Duval County.
The "Four Communes" (French: quatre communes) of Senegal were the four oldest colonial towns in French controlled west Africa.
Françafrique is France's relationship with its former African colonies.
France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.
French involvement in the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, when France, a rival of the British Empire, secretly shipped supplies to the Continental Army.
France–Thailand relations cover a period from the 16th century until modern times.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franco-Siamese War of 1893 was a conflict between the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Siam.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts that occurred in North America between 1688 and 1763 and were related to the European dynastic wars.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
French Cameroons (Cameroun), or Cameroun, was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
Some of the colonies, protectorates and mandates of the French Colonial Empire used distinctive colonial flags.
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued on into the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere.
The French Community (Communauté française) was an association of former French colonies, mostly from Africa.
The French Congo (Congo français) or Middle Congo (Moyen-Congo) was a French colony which at one time comprised the present-day area of the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, and the Central African Republic.
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was François de la Faye, who was adjoined by two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, a trader from Isfahan, Persia.
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution.
The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The 23 February 2005 French law on colonialism was an act passed by the National Assembly, which imposed on high-school (lycée) teachers a requirement to teach the "positive values" of colonialism to their students (Article 4, Paragraph 2).
The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.
The French Military Mission to Japan of 1867-68 was one of the first foreign military training missions to Japan.
French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
The French Section of the Workers' International (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière, SFIO) was a French socialist political party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the current Socialist Party (PS).
French Somaliland (Côte française des Somalis, lit. "French Coast of the Somalis"; Dhulka Soomaaliyeed ee Faransiiska) was a French colony in the Horn of Africa.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The French Union was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system, colloquially known as the "French Empire" (Empire Français).
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
French-speaking Quebecers or Quebeckers (Québécois) are francophone residents of the province of Quebec in Canada.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gaspé Bay is a bay located on the northeast coast of the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The German colonial empire (Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.
Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919), was the twenty-sixth king of the Joseon dynasty and the first Emperor of Korea.
italic ("Gorée Island") is one of the 19 communes d'arrondissement (i.e. districts) of the city of Dakar, Senegal.
The Grand Banks of Newfoundland are a group of underwater plateaus south-east of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guangzhouwan (officially Kouang-Tchéou-Wan; also spelled Kwangchow Wan, Kwangchow-wan, Kwang-Chou-Wan or Quang-Tchéou-Wan) was a small enclave on the southern coast of China ceded by Qing China to France as a leased territory and administered as an outlier of French Indochina.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The Hai River (lit."Sea River"), formerly known as the Peiho, Pei He or ("White River"), is a Chinese river connecting Beijing to Tianjin and the Bohai Sea.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haiti indemnity controversy culminated in an agreement by Haiti to a 1825 gold demand by France for a FR₣150 million indemnity (later reduced to FR₣90 million in 1838, comparable to US$40 billion as of 2010 with consideration to inflation) to be paid by the Republic of Haiti in claims over property lost through the Haitian Revolution in return for diplomatic recognition.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Hankou p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan municipality, the capital of the Hubei province, China.
Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The first written records for the history of France appeared in the Iron Age.
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula began roughly half a million years ago.
The history of Senegal is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
A large number of people of European heritage in South Africa are descended from Huguenots.
Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín (March 24, 1829 – September 8, 1862) was a Mexican general and politician.
The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
This article covers worldwide diplomacy and, more generally, the international relations of the major powers from 1814 to 1919, particularly the "Big Four".
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
Isle de France (Île de France in modern French) was the name of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius and its dependent territories between 1715 and 1810, when the area was under the French East India Company and part of France's empire.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jacques Cartier (Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France.
Jacques Foccart (31 August 1913 – 19 March 1997) was a chief adviser for the government of France on African policy as well as the co-founder of the Gaullist Service d'Action Civique (SAC) in 1959 with Charles Pasqua, which specialized in covert operations in Africa.
James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, (20 July 1811 – 20 November 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat. He served as Governor of Jamaica (1842–1846), Governor General of the Province of Canada (1847–1854), and Viceroy of India (1862–1863). In 1857, he was appointed High Commissioner and Plenipotentiary in China and the Far East to assist in the process of opening up China and Japan to Western trade. In 1860, during the Second Opium War in China, in the retaliation of the torture and execution of almost twenty European and Indian prisoners, he ordered the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, an architectural wonder with immeasurable collections of artworks and historic antiques, inflicting invaluable loss of cultural heritage. Subsequently, he submitted the Qing Dynasty to the unequal treaty of the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean Talon, Count d'Orsainville (January 8, 1626 – November 23, 1694) was the first Intendant of New France.
Jean-Jacques Dessalines (Haitian Creole: Jan-Jak Desalin;; 20 September 1758 – 17 October 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti under the 1805 constitution.
Joseph Marquis Dupleix (23 January 1697 – 10 November 1763) was Governor-General of French India and rival of Robert Clive.
Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.
Karaikal (kāraikkāl) is a major port city of east coast of India and a municipality in Karaikal district in the Union Territory of Puducherry, India.
The term Khedive (خدیو Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Lake Chad (French: Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
François Léonce Verny, (2 December 1837 – 2 May 1908) was a French officer and naval engineerSims, Richard.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
Lebanese Maronite Christians (Arabic: المسيحية المارونية في لبنان) refers to Lebanese people who are adherents of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, which is the largest Christian denomination in the country.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial empire was the second largest colonial empire behind the British Empire; it extended over of land at its height in the 1920s and 1930s.
This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
Louis Léon César Faidherbe (3 June 1818 – 29 September 1889) was a French general and colonial administrator.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
The Malagasy Uprising (Insurrection malgache) was a Malagasy nationalist rebellion against French colonial rule in Madagascar, lasting from March 1947 to December 1948.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Marquesas Islands (Îles Marquises or Archipel des Marquises or Marquises; Marquesan: Te Henua (K)enana (North Marquesan) and Te FenuaEnata (South Marquesan), both meaning "the land of men") are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
The Mascarene Islands or Mascarenes or Mascarenhas Archipelago is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar consisting of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues.
Maurice, Count of Saxony (Hermann Moritz Graf von Sachsen, Maurice de Saxe; 28 October 1696 – 20 November 1750) was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
A Mauritian of French origin, as the name implies, is a Mauritian person whose ancestors are from France.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to indigenous North Americans and European settlers.
Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).
Ahmed Ben Messali Hadj, commonly known as Messali Hadj, مصالي الحاج, was an Algerian nationalist politician dedicated to the independence of his homeland from French colonial rule.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that is now Vanuatu.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Nhà Nguyễn; Hán-Nôm:, Nguyễn triều) was the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about.
The Nigerian Civil War, commonly known as the Biafran War (6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970), was a war fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra.
The Nivelle Offensive of 1917, was a Franco-British offensive on the Western Front in the First World War.
Norodom (នរោត្តម), known previously as Ang Voddey (អង្គវតី) (February 1834 – 24 April 1904), ruled as king of Cambodia from 1860 to 1904.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern Vietnam (Miền Bắc) is one of the three geographical regions within Vietnam.
Nouméa is the capital and largest city of the French special collectivity of New Caledonia.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan, and originally called the Imperial Gardens, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District, Beijing, China. It is located northwest of the walls of the former Imperial City section of Beijing.
Open Yale Courses is a project of Yale University to share full video and course materials from its undergraduate courses.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Palace of Fontainebleau or Château de Fontainebleau, located southeast of the center of Paris, in the commune of Fontainebleau, is one of the largest French royal châteaux.
Parfait-Louis Monteil (1855 – 29 September 1925) was a French colonial military officer and explorer who made an epic journey in West Africa between 1890 and 1892, travelling east from Senegal to Lake Chad, and then north across the Sahara to Tripoli.
Paul Ramadier (17 March 1888, La Rochelle – 14 October 1961, Rodez) was a prominent French politician of the Third and Fourth Republics.
A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.
Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.
Pietro Paolo Savorgnan di Brazzà, then known as Pierre Paul François Camille Savorgnan de Brazza (26 January 1852 – 14 September 1905), was an Italian explorer.
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
Port-Royal National Historic Site is a National Historic Site located on the north bank of the Annapolis Basin in the community of Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
"French Colonies" is the name used by philatelists to refer to the postage stamps issued by France for use in the parts of the French colonial empire that did not have stamps of their own.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Justin Napoléon Samuel Prosper de Chasseloup-Laubat, 4th Marquis of Chasseloup-Laubat (29 May 1805, Alessandria, Department of Marengo, French Empire – 29 March 1873, Paris, France) was a French artistocrat and politician who became Minister of the Navy under Napoleon III and was an early advocate of French colonialism.
Puducherry district, formerly Pondicherry district is one of the four districts of the union territory of Puducherry in southern India.
Puebla, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Puebla (Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Quebec City (pronounced or; Québec); Ville de Québec), officially Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, (an increase of 3.0% from 2011) and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, (an increase of 4.3% from 2011) making it the second largest city in Quebec, after Montreal, and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in Canada. It is situated north-east of Montreal. The narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River proximate to the city's promontory, Cap-Diamant (Cape Diamond), and Lévis, on the opposite bank, provided the name given to the city, Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows". Founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, Quebec City is one of the oldest cities in North America. The ramparts surrounding Old Quebec (Vieux-Québec) are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the 'Historic District of Old Québec'. The city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac, a hotel which dominates the skyline, and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence. The National Assembly of Quebec (provincial legislature), the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec (National Museum of Fine Arts of Quebec), and the Musée de la civilisation (Museum of Civilization) are found within or near Vieux-Québec.
The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was a period of intense socio-political and socio-cultural change in the Canadian province of Quebec, characterized by the effective secularization of government, the creation of a welfare state (état-providence), and realignment of politics into federalist and sovereignist factions and the eventual election of a pro-sovereignty provincial government in the 1976 election.
Rabih az-Zubayr ibn Fadl Allah or Rabih Fadlallah (رابح فضل الله,رابح الزبير ابن فضل الله), usually known as Rabah in French (c. 1842 – April 22, 1900), was a Sudanese warlord and slave trader who established a powerful empire east of Lake Chad, in today's Chad.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
The Republic of the Rif (officially The Confederal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif) was a republic in northern Morocco that existed between 1921 and 1926.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Robert Aldrich (born July 29, 1954, in New York) is an Australian historian and writer.
Ruben Um Nyobé (1913 – 13 September 1958) was an anti-colonialist Cameroonian leader, slain by the French army on 13 September 1958, near his natal village of Boumnyebel, in the department of Nyong-et-Kellé in the maquis Bassa.
Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
São Luís (Saint Louis) is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão.
The Sétif and Guelma massacre was a series of widespread disturbances and killings in 1945 around the French Algerian market town of Sétif, west of Constantine, Algeria.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Hundred Years' War (c. 1689 - c. 1815) is a periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 (or some say 1714) to 1815.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai French Concession (Concession française de Changhaï) was a foreign concession in Shanghai, China from 1849 until 1943, which progressively expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868 (with exceptions).
was an emissary for Japan who visited France in 1865 to help prepare for the construction of the Yokosuka arsenal with French support.
The Siege of Puebla occurred between 16 March and 17 May 1863 during the Second French intervention in Mexico, between forces of the Second French Empire and forces of the Second Federal Republic of Mexico.
Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa, and still continues today in some countries.
The Society Islands (Îles de la Société or officially Archipel de la Société; Tōtaiete mā.) includes a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Sovereign Council (French: Conseil Souverain) was a governing body in New France.
Spahis were light cavalry regiments of the French army recruited primarily from the indigenous populations of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
This Timeline of European imperialism covers episodes of imperialism by western nations since 1400 but does not taken account of imperialism by other nations such as the Inca, the Chinese Empire or Japanese Imperialism, to give a few only of many examples.
A tirailleur, in the Napoleonic era, was a type of light infantry trained to skirmish ahead of the main columns.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
was the 15th and last shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (9 May 1743 – 7 April 1803), also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda, was the best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Treaty of Bardo (or Treaty of Qsar es-S'id, Treaty of Ksar Said) was signed on May 12, 1881 between representatives of the French Republic and Tunisian bey Muhammed as-Sadiq.
The Treaty of Paris, signed in Paris by representatives of King George III of Great Britain and representatives of the United States of America on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Tientsin, now also known as the Treaty of Tianjin, is a collective name for several documents signed at Tianjin (then romanized as Tientsin) in June 1858.
The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
The Troupes coloniales ("Colonial Troops") or Armée coloniale ("Colonial Army"), commonly called La Coloniale, were the military forces of the French colonial empire from 1900 until 1961.
The Troupe de marine (TDM) are a corps of the French Army which regroups several specialties: infantry, artillery, armoured and airborne.
The Tuamotus, also referred to in English as the Tuamotu Archipelago or the Tuamotu Islands (Îles Tuamotu, officially Archipel des Tuamotu), are a French Polynesian chain of almost 80 islands and atolls forming the largest chain of atolls in the world.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (- UPC) is a political party in Cameroon.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Voulet–Chanoine Mission or Central African-Chad Mission (mission Afrique Centrale-Tchad) was a French military expedition sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa.
The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Yanaon or Yanam was a French colony between 1731 and 1954.
is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.
The Zaian (or Zayan) War was fought between France and the Zaian confederation of Berber tribes in Morocco between 1914 and 1921.
Zoreille is a Réunion Creole term to describe French people born in Metropolitan France and recently arrived in Réunion.
The Zouaves were a class of light infantry regiments of the French Army serving between 1830 and 1962 and linked to French North Africa, as well as some units of other countries modelled upon them.
The 1804 Haiti massacre was carried out against the remaining white population of native French people and French Creoles (or Franco-Haitians) in Haiti by Haitian soldiers under orders from Jean-Jacques Dessalines.
Colonies of France, Colony of France, France Colonial Empire, France's colonies, Francuski kolonijalni imperij, French Africa, French Colonial Africa, French Colonial Empire, French colonial Empire, French colonial empires, French colonial regime, French colonial territory, French colonial wars, French colonialism, French colonialism in the Arab World, French colonialists, French colonization, French decolonisation, French dominion, French imperialism, French overseas empire, History of France Imperialism, History of French Imperialism, Second French colonial empire, The French colonial empire.