217 relations: Adolf Hitler, Albrecht Adam, Aleksotas, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Tormasov, Alexander von Benckendorff, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Armand-Augustin-Louis de Caulaincourt, Arrondissement, Arsenal, Ashmyany, Auguste Raffet, Austrian Empire, Baltic Germans, Baltic nobility, Battle of Berezina, Battle of Borodino, Battle of Dresden, Battle of Krasnoi, Battle of Leipzig, Battle of Maloyaroslavets, Battle of Poltava, Battle of Smolensk (1812), Battle of Vyazma, Belarus, Berezina River, Białystok, Bivouac shelter, Borodino (village), Mozhaysky District, Moscow Oblast, Carl von Clausewitz, Caulkin, Celsius, Charles Joseph Minard, Charles XII of Sweden, Chernyakhovsk, Claude François de Malet, Confederation of the Rhine, Continental System, Convention of Tauroggen, Cossacks, Decembrist revolt, Denmark–Norway, Discipline, DjVu, Dominic Lieven, Dorling Kindersley, Duchy of Warsaw, Dysentery, Eastern Front (World War II), ..., Edward Tufte, Elba, Elbląg, Emperor of All Russia, Eugène de Beauharnais, European Russia, February Revolution, Fire of Moscow (1812), First French Empire, Fyodor Rostopchin, Głogów, Gdańsk, General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland, George Nafziger, Georges Lefebvre, Gestapo, Governorate of Estonia, Governorate of Livonia, Grand Duchy of Berg, Grande Armée, Great Patriotic War (term), Great power, Grodno, Guerrilla warfare, Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas, Gunpowder, Gusev, Kaliningrad Oblast, Gvardeysk, Habsburg Monarchy, Hammer and anvil, Hegemony, Horse training, Illarion Pryanishnikov, Imperial Russian Army, Influenza, Intendant, Jacques MacDonald, James Marshall-Cornwall, Jérôme Bonaparte, Józef Poniatowski, Joachim Murat, Julian calendar, Julius von Grawert, Kaluga, Karl Ludwig von Phull, Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, Kaunas, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic), Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Saxony, Kingdom of Spain under Joseph Bonaparte, Kostrzyn nad Odrą, Leipzig, Leo Tolstoy, Levin August von Bennigsen, List of battles by casualties, Lithuania, Logistics, Louis-Alexandre Berthier, Louis-François Lejeune, Louis-Nicolas Davout, Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg, Magdeburg, Malbork, Malet coup of 1812, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, Michel Ney, Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Miloradovich, Military camp, Military hospital, Minsk, Modlin Fortress, Molėtai, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Moscow, Moscow 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March, Moscow Kremlin, Moskva River, Mozhaysk, Nadezhda Durova, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Neman, Nemenčinė, Neris, Nicholas I of Russia, Nicolas Oudinot, Operation Barbarossa, Orientalism, Orsha, Outline of war, Ox, Paper cartridge, Partisan (military), Partitions of Poland, Paul Britten Austin, Pavel Chichagov, Płock, PDF, Peninsular War, Peter the Great, Peter Wittgenstein, Philippe Paul, comte de Ségur, Poklonnaya Hill, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pontoon bridge, Prussia, Pyotr Bagration, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Pyrrhic victory, Rasputitsa, Réaumur scale, Rhine, Riga, Road surface, Runivers, Russian culture, Russian Empire, Russian language, Russian Winter, Russian–German Legion, Saint Petersburg, Sapper, Scorched earth, Second Battle of Polotsk, Sergei Prokofiev, Six Days' Campaign, Smolensk, Soviet Union, Swedish Army, Swedish invasion of Russia (1708–1709), Switzerland in the Napoleonic era, Szczecin, Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery, Toruń, Treaty of Schönbrunn, Tsar, Tsardom of Russia, Two-front war, Typhus, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States Army Command and General Staff College, Vasilisa Kozhina, Vileyka, Vilnius, Vistula, Vitebsk, Waffen-SS, War and Peace, War and Peace (opera), War of 1812, War of the Fourth Coalition, War of the Sixth Coalition, Warsaw, West Galicia, Western Front (World War II), William I of Württemberg, World War II, Wrocław, Wyszogród, Yevgeny Tarle, 1812 Overture. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Albrecht Adam (16 April 1786 – 28 August 1862) was a German painter of battles and horses, who became famous for his depictions of Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812.
Aleksotas is an elderate in the southern section of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, bordering the left bank of the Nemunas River.
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Count Alexander Petrovich Tormasov (Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Торма́сов; 22 August 1752 – 25 November 1819) was a Russian cavalry general prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
Count Alexander Carl Wilhelm Christoph von Benckendorff, (граф Александр Христофорович Бенкендорф, Aleksandr Khristoforovich Benkendorf), was a Russian Cavalry General and statesman, Adjutant General of Tsar Alexander I, a commander of partisan (Kossak irregular) units during the War of 1812-13.
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (Universal German Biography) is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.
Armand-Augustin-Louis, Marquis de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza (9 December 177319 February 1827) was a French soldier, diplomat, grand officer of the Grand Orient de France and close personal aide to Napoleon I.
An arrondissement is any of various administrative divisions of France, Belgium, Haiti, certain other Francophone countries, and the Netherlands.
An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination, whether privately or publicly owned.
Ashmyany (Ашмя́ны; Łacinka: Ašmiany; Ошмя́ны; Ašmena; Oszmiana; אָשמענע, Oshmene) is a town in Grodno Region, Belarus, located at 50 km from Vilnius, capital of the Ashmyany raion.
Denis Auguste Marie Raffet (2 March 180416 February 1860) was a French illustrator and lithographer.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Baltic Germans (Deutsch-Balten or Deutschbalten, later Baltendeutsche) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia.
The Baltic or Baltic German nobility was the privileged social class in the territories of today's Estonia and Latvia.
The Battle of Berezina (or Beresina) took place from 26 to 29 November 1812, between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina (near Borisov, Belarus), and the Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov, Peter Wittgenstein and Admiral Pavel Chichagov.
The Battle of Borodino (la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Dresden (26–27 August 1813) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Krasnoi (Krasny) (November 15 to 18, 1812) was a series of skirmishes fought in the final stage of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.
The Battle of Maloyaroslavets took place on 24 October 1812, between the Russians, under Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov, and part of the corps of Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon's stepson, under General Alexis Joseph Delzons which numbered about 20,000 strong.
The Battle of Poltava (Slaget vid Poltava; Полта́вская би́тва; Полта́вська би́тва) on 27 June 1709 (8 July, N.S.) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.
The Battle of Smolensk was the first major battle of the French invasion of Russia.
The Battle of Vyazma (November 3, 1812), occurred at the beginning of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Berezina or Biarezina (Бярэ́зіна) is a river in Belarus and a tributary of the Dnieper River.
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
A bivouac shelter is any of a variety of improvised camp site or shelter that is usually of a temporary nature, used especially by soldiers, persons engaged in scouting and mountain climbing.
Borodino (Бородино́) is a rural locality (a village) in Mozhaysky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located west of Mozhaysk.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
A caulkin (or caulk; US spelling "calkin" or "calk") from the Latin calx (the heel) is a blunt projection on a horseshoe that is often forged, welded or brazed onto the shoe.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Charles Joseph Minard (27 March 1781 – 24 October 1870) was a French civil engineer recognized for his significant contribution in the field of information graphics in civil engineering and statistics.
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Chernyakhovsk (Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name (Įsrutis; Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya.
Claude François de Malet (June 28, 1754 – October 31, 1812) was born in Dole to an aristocratic family.
The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin, but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire.
The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Convention of Tauroggen was an armistice signed 30 December 1812 at Tauroggen (now Tauragė, Lithuania) between General Ludwig Yorck on behalf of his Prussian troops and General Hans Karl von Diebitsch of the Imperial Russian Army.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.
DjVu (like English "déjà vu") is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned documents, especially those containing a combination of text, line drawings, indexed color images, and photographs.
Dominic Lieven (born 19 January 1952) is a research professor at Cambridge University (Senior Research Fellow, Trinity College) and a Fellow of the British Academy and of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edward Rolf Tufte (born March 14, 1942) is an American statistician and professor emeritus of political science, statistics, and computer science at Yale University.
Elba (isola d'Elba,; Ilva; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago.
Elbląg (Elbing; Old Prussian: Elbings) is a city in northern Poland on the eastern edge of the Żuławy region with 124,257 inhabitants (December 31, 2011).
The Emperor or Empress of All Russia ((pre 1918 orthography) Императоръ Всероссійскій, Императрица Всероссійская, (modern orthography) Император Всероссийский, Императрица всероссийская, Imperator Vserossiyskiy, Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya) was the absolute and later the constitutional monarch of the Russian Empire.
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg (3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824) was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I. He was born in Paris, France, and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon I. His biological father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The 1812 Fire of Moscow broke out on 14 September 1812, when Russian troops and most of the remaining residents abandoned the city of Moscow just ahead of Napoleon's vanguard troops entering the city after the Battle of Borodino.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Count Fyodor Vasilyevich Rostopchin (Фёдор Васи́льевич Ростопчи́н) (&ndash) was a Russian statesman, who served as governor of Moscow during the French invasion of Russia.
Głogów (Glogau, rarely Groß-Glogau, Hlohov) is a town in southwestern Poland.
Gdańsk (Danzig) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast.
General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland (Polish Konfederacja Generalna Królestwa Polskiego) was a Polish confederation established by emperor Napoleon Bonaparte on the eve of his campaign in Russia.
George F. Nafziger (born 1949) is an American writer and editor of numerous books and articles in military history.
Georges Lefebvre (6 August 1874 – 28 August 1959) was a French historian, best known for his work on the French Revolution and peasant life.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.
The Governorate of Livonia (Лифляндская губерния, Liflyandskaya guberniya; Gouvernement Livland, Livländisches Gouvernement; Vidzemes guberņa, after the Latvian inhabited Vidzeme region) was one of the Baltic governorates of the Russian Empire, now divided between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia.
The Grand Duchy of Berg (Großherzogtum Berg) was established by Napoleon Bonaparte after his victory at the 1805 Battle of Austerlitz on territories between the French Empire at the Rhine river and the German Kingdom of Westphalia.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The Great Patriotic War (translit) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for some Baltic States) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Guillaume Mathieu, comte Dumas (23 November 1753 – 16 October 1837) was a French general.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Gusev (Гу́сев), previously known by its German name Gumbinnen (Gumbinė; Gąbin), is a town and the administrative center of Gusevsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Pissa and Krasnaya Rivers, near the border with Poland and Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk.
Gvardeysk (a), known prior to 1946 by its German name (Tepliava; Tapiawa/Tapiewo), is a town and the administrative center of Gvardeysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River east of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hammer and Anvil tactic is a military tactic used since the beginning of organized warfare.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Horse training refers to a variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans.
Illarion Mikhailovich Pryanishnikov (Илларио́н Миха́йлович Пря́нишников; &ndash) was a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Peredvizhniki artistic cooperative.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
The title of intendant (intendant, Portuguese and intendente) has been used in several countries through history.
Étienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald, 1st Duke of Taranto (17 November 1765 – 25 September 1840) was a Marshal of the Empire and military leader during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
General Sir James Handyside Marshall-Cornwall KCB, CBE, DSO, MC (27 May 1887 – 25 December 1985) was a British Army officer and linguist.
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Girolamo Buonaparte; 15 November 1784 – 24 June 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon I and reigned as Jerome I (formally Hieronymus Napoleon in German), King of Westphalia, between 1807 and 1813.
Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski (7 May 1763 – 19 October 1813) was a Polish leader, general, minister of war and army chief, who became a Marshal of the French Empire.
Joachim-Napoléon Murat (born Joachim Murat; Gioacchino Napoleone Murat; Joachim-Napoleon Murat; 25 March 1767 – 13 October 1815) was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Julius August Reinhold von Grawert (1746–1821) was a Prussian general.Julius was the son of Johann Benjamin von Grawert (1709–1759) and his wife Christiane Sophie, née von Schollenstern (1717–1796).
Kaluga (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow.
Karl Ludwig von Phull (or Pfuel) (6 November 1757 – 25 April 1826) was a German general in the service of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Empire.
Karl Philipp, Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Charles Philip, Prince of Schwarzenberg; 18/19 April 1771 – 15 October 1820) was an Austrian field marshal.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia; Royaume d'Italie) was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
Napoleonic Spain was the part of Spain loyal to Joseph I during the Peninsular War (1808–1813) after the country was partially occupied by French forces.
Kostrzyn nad Odrą (Küstrin) is a town in Gorzów County, Lubusz Voivodeship in western Poland, close to the border with Germany.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Count Levin August Gottlieb Theophil von Bennigsen (10 February 1745 in Braunschweig – 3 December 1826 in Banteln) was a German general in the service of the Russian Empire.
The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world history.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
Louis-Alexandre Berthier (20 November 1753 – 1 June 1815), 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.
Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (3 February 1775 in Strasbourg – 29 February 1848) was a French general, painter, and lithographer.
Louis-Nicolas d'Avout (10 May 17701 June 1823), better known as Davout, 1st Duke of Auerstaedt, 1st Prince of Eckmühl, was a French general who was Marshal of the Empire during the Napoleonic era.
Johann David Ludwig Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (26 September 1759 – 4 October 1830) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall instrumental in the switching of the Kingdom of Prussia from a French alliance to a Russian alliance during the War of the Sixth Coalition.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Malbork (Marienburg; Civitas Beatae Virginis) is a town in northern Poland in the Żuławy region (Vistula delta), with 38,478 inhabitants (2006).
The Malet coup of 1812 was an attempted coup d'état in Paris, France, aimed at removing Napoleon I, then campaigning in Russia, from power.
Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.
Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva (10 January 1769 – 7 December 1815), popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.
Count Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich (Михаи́л Андре́евич Милора́дович), spelled Miloradovitch in contemporary English sources (&ndash) was a Russian general of Serbian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
A military camp or bivouac (see Bivouac shelter) is a semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army.
A military hospital is a hospital that is owned and operated by the armed forces.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Modlin Fortress (Polish Twierdza Modlin) is one of the biggest 19th century fortresses in Poland.
Molėtai (Malaty) is a town in north eastern Lithuania.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moscow 1812: Napoleon's Fatal March is a non-fiction book analysing the events and circumstances during the French Invasion of Russia and the events during the reign of Napoleon, which would, ultimately, mark the ending of the Napoleonic empire after his troops were defeated after attempting to access Moscow.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
The Moskva River (река Москва, Москва-река, Moskva-reka) is a river of western Russia.
MozhayskAlternative transliterations include Mozhaisk, Mozhajsk, Mozhaĭsk, and Možajsk.
Nadezhda Andreyevna Durova (Наде́жда Андре́евна Ду́рова) (September 17, 1783 – March 21, 1866), also known as Alexander Durov, Alexander Sokolov and Alexander Andreevich Alexandrov, was a woman who, while disguised as a man, became a decorated soldier in the Russian cavalry during the Napoleonic wars.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Neman, Nemunas, Nyoman, Niemen or Memel, a major Eastern European river.
Nemenčinė (see names section for alternate and historic names) is a city in Vilnius district municipality, Lithuania, it is located about north-east of Vilnius.
The Neris or Viliya (Ві́лія, Wilia) is a river rising in Belarus.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nicolas Charles Oudinot, 1st Comte Oudinot, 1st Duc de Reggio (25 April 1767 in Bar-le-Duc – 13 September 1847 in Paris), was a Marshal of France.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
Orsha (Orša, Ворша; О́рша; Orša, Orsza) is a city in Belarus in the Vitebsk Region, on the fork of the Dnieper and Arshytsa rivers.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors – is characterised by extreme violence, social disruption, and economic destruction.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
This article addresses older paper small-arms cartridges, for modern metallic small arms cartridges see Cartridge (firearms).
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paul Britten Austin (5 April 1922 – 25 July 2005) was an English author, translator, broadcaster, administrator, and scholar of Swedish literature.
Pavel Vasilievich Chichagov or Tchichagov (Па́вел Васи́льевич Чича́гов) (20 August 1849) was a Russian military and naval commander of the Napoleonic wars.
Płock (pronounced) is a city on the Vistula river in central Poland.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Ludwig Adolph Peter, Fürst zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (Пётр Христиа́нович Ви́тгенштейн, Pyotr Khristianovich Vitgenshtein) in Pereiaslav – 11 June 1843 in Lemberg, Austrian Empire) was a Russian Field Marshal distinguished for his services in the Napoleonic wars.
Philippe-Paul, comte de Ségur (4 November 1780 in Paris – 25 February 1873) was a French general and a historian.
Poklonnaya Gora (Покло́нная гора́, literally "bow-down hill"; metaphorically "Worshipful Submission Hill"') was, at 171.5 meters, one of the highest spots in Moscow.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pyotr Bagration (10 July 1765 – 24 September 1812) was a Russian general and prince of Georgian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.
Rasputitsa (p) is a Russian language term for two periods of the year (or "seasons") when travel on unpaved roads becomes difficult, owing to muddy conditions from rain or thawing snow.
The Réaumur scale (°Ré, °Re, °r), also known as the "octogesimal division", is a temperature scale for which the freezing and boiling points of water are defined as 0 and 80 degrees respectively.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Riga (Rīga) is the capital and largest city of Latvia.
A road surface or pavement is the durable surface material laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular or foot traffic, such as a road or walkway.
Runivers (Руниверс) is a site devoted to Russian culture and history.
Russian culture has a long history.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.
The Russian–German Legion was a military unit set up in 1812 by the banished Graf Peter of Oldenburg on the instigation of Tsar Alexander I of Russia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses as well as building, and working on road and airfield construction and repair.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Battle of Polotsk (18–20 October 1812) took place during Napoleon's invasion of Russia.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
The Six Days Campaign (10–15 February 1814) was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.
Smolensk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Dnieper River, west-southwest of Moscow.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Swedish Army (Armén) is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces in which its main responsibility is land operations.
The invasion of Russia by Charles XII of Sweden was a campaign undertaken during the Great Northern War between Sweden and the allied states of Russia, Poland, and Denmark.
During the French Revolutionary Wars, the revolutionary armies marched eastward, enveloping Switzerland in their battles against Austria.
Szczecin (German and Swedish Stettin), known also by other alternative names) is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city. As of June 2011, the population was 407,811. Szczecin is located on the Oder, south of the Szczecin Lagoon and the Bay of Pomerania. The city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized. After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and then the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland, resulting in expulsion of the German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, and the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016.
The Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery (Tretiye Otdeleniye, or III отделение собственной Е.И.В канцелярии, sometimes translated as Third Department) was a secret police department set up in Imperial Russia, inherited from Tayny Prikaz, Privy Chancellery and Specialty Chancellery, effectively serving as the Imperial regime's secret police for much of its existence.
Toruń (Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River.
The Treaty of Schönbrunn (Traité de Schönbrunn; Friede von Schönbrunn), sometimes known as the Peace of Schönbrunn or Treaty of Vienna, was signed between France and Austria at Schönbrunn Palace near Vienna on 14 October 1809.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
In military terminology, a two-front war is a war in which fighting takes place on two geographically separate fronts.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
Vasilisa Kozhina (1780? — 1840?) — a hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.
Vileyka (officially transliterated as Viliejka, Віле́йка, also Вялейка; Вилейка; Vileika; Wilejka) is a city in Belarus and the administrative center of the Vileyka Raion in the Minsk Region.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Vitebsk, or Vitsebsk (Ві́цебск, Łacinka: Viciebsk,; Витебск,, Vitebskas), is a city in Belarus.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
War and Peace (pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform translit) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy.
War and Peace (Op. 91) (Война и мир, Voyna i mir) is an opera in two parts (an Epigraph and 13 scenes), sometimes arranged as five acts, by Sergei Prokofiev to a Russian libretto by the composer and Mira Mendelson, based on the novel War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The Fourth Coalition fought against Napoleon's French Empire and was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
New Galicia or West Galicia (Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, Neugalizien or Westgalizien) was an administrative region of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, constituted from the territory annexed in the course of the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
William I (Friedrich Wilhelm Karl; 27 September 1781 – 25 June 1864) was King of Württemberg from 30 October 1816 until his death.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
Wyszogród (Hohenburg an der Weichsel) is a town in Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, in Płock County, by the Vistula River.
Yevgeny Viktorovich Tarle (Евгений Викторович Тарле) (– 6 January 1955) was a Soviet historian and academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The Year 1812, festival overture in flat major, Op.
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