360 relations: Abidjan, Académie française, Academy, Acadian French, Active voice, Acute accent, Adjective, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, African French, Afroasiatic languages, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, Algeria, Alliance Française, Amnesty International, Ancient Greek, Andorra, Antoine Baudeau de Somaize, Aosta Valley, Aostan French, Appellate Body, Arabic, Article (grammar), Auxiliary verb, AZERTY, Baltic languages, Basque language, Belgian French, Belgium, Biel/Bienne, Bloomberg Businessweek, Brady Haran, Breton language, Brittany, Brussels, Burundi, Caldoche, Cambodia, Canada, Canadian French, Canton of Bern, Canton of Fribourg, Canton of Geneva, Canton of Jura, Canton of Neuchâtel, Canton of Valais, Canton of Vaud, Cantons of Switzerland, Caribbean Court of Justice, Catalan language, Cedilla, ..., Celtic languages, Celts, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Channel Islands, Chinese language, Circumflex, Classical Latin, Colonialism, Compulsory education, Conditional mood, Constitution of France, Contract, Council of Europe, Court of Justice of the European Union, De Morgen, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Demonstrative, Departments of France, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Dialect, Dictionary, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Diplomacy, Dutch language, Eastern Ontario, Education in France, El Pas de la Casa, Elision (French), English language, Eupen-Malmedy, Eurobarometer, Europa (Web portal), Europe, European Court of Human Rights, European Space Agency, European Union, Eurovision Song Contest, Fall of Saigon, Finistère, First language, Forbes, Français fondamental, France, Francien language, Francization, Francophile, Francophobia, Francophonie, Frankish language, Franks, French Basque Country, French Braille, French Guiana, French India, French Indochina, French Jews in Israel, French language, French language in Cambodia, French language in Canada, French language in Laos, French language in Lebanon, French language in the United States, French language in Vietnam, French Language Services Act, French orthography, French poetry, French Polynesia, French proverbs, French Revolution, French West Indies, French-based creole languages, Future perfect, Future tense, Gabon, Gallia Belgica, Gallo-Romance languages, Gaul, Gemination, Geneva, Geographical distribution of French speakers, German language, Germanic languages, Glossary of French expressions in English, Government of France, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grapheme, Grave accent, Haitian Creole, Haitian French, Harvard University, Henri Grégoire, Hiatus (linguistics), History of the Jews in Lebanon, Illinois, Illinois Country, Imperative mood, Imperfect, Imprimerie nationale, Indian French, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Indo-European languages, Infinitive, Inflection, INSEAD, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International English, International Olympic Committee, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Inversion (linguistics), Israel, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jacques Pelletier du Mans, Jersey Legal French, John McWhorter, Journalism, Jurisprudence, KU Leuven, Language education, Languages of Africa, Languages of Asia, Langues d'oïl, Laos, Latin, Latin declension, Latin script, Lebanese people, Lebanese pound, Lebanon, Lesser Antilles, Lexical similarity, Liaison (French), Libreville, Lingua franca, List of English words of French origin, List of French loanwords in Persian, List of German words of French origin, List of international organisations which have French as an official language, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of territorial entities where French is an official language, Los Angeles Times, Louis Maigret (grammarian), Louis XIV of France, Louisiana, Louisiana Creole, Louisiana French, Luxembourg, Maine, Manitoba, Mauritius, Médecins du Monde, Médecins Sans Frontières, Meridional French, Mickael Korvin, Middle Ages, Middle French, Minimal pair, Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, Missouri, Missouri French, Monaco, Montreal, Moroccan Jews in Israel, N, Nasal vowel, Natixis, NATO, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New England, New England French, New Hampshire, New York City, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newfoundland French, Nonprofit organization, North American Free Trade Agreement, Northern Ontario, Northwest Territories, Noun, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Object–subject–verb, Occitan language, Occitania, Octal, OECD, Office québécois de la langue française, Official bilingualism in Canada, Official language, Old French, Ontario, Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organization of American States, Pacific Islands, Paris, Participle, Passé composé, Passé simple, Passive voice, Patois, Persian language, Personal pronoun, Petit Larousse, Philippe Van Parijs, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Pluperfect, Pondicherry, Port au Port Peninsula, Preposition and postposition, Present tense, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prince Edward Island, Pronoun, Proto-Indo-European language, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Qatar, Quart, Aosta Valley, Quebec, Quebec French, Realis mood, Reforms of French orthography, Register (sociolinguistics), Republic of Ireland, Robert Estienne, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romandy, Romansh language, Rwanda, Saarland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Sanskrit, Schwa, Second language, Senegal, Set phrase, Signed French, Simple past, Slavic languages, South Vietnam, Spanish language, Standard Chinese, Standard French, Stratum (linguistics), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, Subjunctive mood, Swiss French, Switzerland, Syria, Tây Bồi Pidgin French, The New Republic, The New York Times, The New York Times International Edition, Trésor de la langue française, Treaty of Versailles, Typographic ligature, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Secretariat, United States, Université catholique de Louvain, Université Laval, University of Texas at Austin, Ursula Reutner, Uses of English verb forms, Vanuatu, Varieties of French, Vehicle registration plates of Lebanon, Verb, Verb–object–subject, Vergonha, Vermont, Vietnam, Vigesimal, Voiced uvular fricative, Vulgar Latin, Wallis and Futuna, Wallonia, Welsh language, Western Romance languages, Word order, World Economic Forum, World language, World Trade Organization, World War II, Yukon, 20 (number). 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Abidjan is the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire and is one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Acadian French (français acadien) is a dialect of Canadian French originally associated with the Acadian people of what is now the Canadian Maritimes.
Active voice is a grammatical voice common in many of the world's languages.
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
The African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights (the Court) is a continental court established by African countries to ensure protection of human and peoples' rights in Africa.
African French (français africain) is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF) (Francophonie University Association) is a global network of French-speaking higher-education and research institutions.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
L'Alliance Française (French Alliance), or AF, is an international organization that aims to promote French language and culture around the world.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Antoine Baudeau, sieur de Somaize (born c. 1630) was a secretary to Marie Mancini, niece of Cardinal Mazarin.
The Aosta Valley (Valle d'Aosta (official) or Val d'Aosta (usual); Vallée d'Aoste (official) or Val d'Aoste (usual); Val d'Outa (usual); Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Val d'Osta) is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy.
Aostan French (français valdôtain) is the variety of French spoken in the Aosta Valley, Italy.
The Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization is a standing body of seven persons that hears appeals from reports issued by panels in disputes brought on by WTO members.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
AZERTY is a specific layout for the characters of the Latin alphabet on typewriter keys and computer keyboards.
The Baltic languages belong to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belgian French (français de Belgique) is the variety of French spoken mainly among the French Community of Belgium, alongside related Oïl languages of the region such as Walloon, Picard, Champenois and Lorrain (Gaumais).
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Biel/Bienne (official bilingual wording;;; Bienna, Bienna, Belna) is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French overseas collectivity of New Caledonia, mostly native-born French settlers.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian French (français canadien) refers to a variety of dialects of the French language generally spoken in Canada.
The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.
The canton of Fribourg, also canton of Friburg (canton de Fribourg, Freiburg) is located in western Switzerland.
The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.
The Republic and Canton of the Jura (République et canton du Jura), also known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest (founded in 1979) of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland.
The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (la République et Canton de Neuchâtel) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ; Caribisch Hof van Justitie; Cour Caribéenne de Justice) is the judicial institution of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) (Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary.
De Morgen (Dutch for The Morning) is a Flemish newspaper with a circulation of 53,860.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Eastern Ontario (census population 1,603,625 in 2006) is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River.
The French educational system is highly centralized and organized, with many subdivisions.
El Pas de la Casa (Le Pas de la Case) is a ski resort (part of the Grandvalira resort), town, and mountain pass in the Encamp parish of Andorra, lying on the border with France.
In French, elision refers to the suppression of a final unstressed vowel (usually) immediately before another word beginning with a vowel.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eupen-Malmedy or Eupen-Malmédy is a small, predominantly German-speaking region in eastern Belgium.
Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly on behalf of the European Commission since 1973.
Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Eurovision Song Contest (Concours Eurovision de la chanson), often simply called Eurovision, is an international song competition held primarily among the member countries of the European Broadcasting Union.
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
Finistère (Penn-ar-Bed) is a department of France in the extreme west of Brittany.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Français fondamental ("Fundamental French") is a simplified version of the French language used for teaching the language to non-native speakers.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francien is a 19th-century term in linguistics that was applied to the French dialect that was spoken in the Île-de-France region (with Paris at its centre) before the establishment of the French language as a standard language.
Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.
A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.
Anti-French sentiment (Francophobia) refers to an extreme or irrational fear of France, the French people, the French government or the Francophonie (set of political entities that use French as an official language or whose French-speaking population is numerically or proportionally large).
Francophonie, sometimes also spelt Francophonia in English, is the quality of speaking French.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the French Jewish communities, who now reside within the state of Israel.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Cambodia is the smallest of the three Francophone communities in Southeast Asia, the others being found in Vietnam and Laos.
French is the mother tongue of about 7.2 million Canadians (20.6% of the Canadian population, second to English at 56%) according to Census Canada 2016.
French is spoken by a significant minority in Laos.
French language in Lebanon is the second language of the country, and is often used as a prestige language for business, diplomacy, and government, alongside English.
The French language is spoken as a minority language in the United States.
French was the official language of Vietnam from the beginning of French colonial rule in the mid-19th century until independence under the Geneva Accords of 1954, and maintained de facto official status in South Vietnam until its collapse in 1975.
The French Language Services Act (Loi sur les services en français) is a law in the province of Ontario, Canada which is intended to protect the rights of Franco-Ontarians, or French-speaking people, in the province.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French poetry is a category of French literature.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
Category:Temporary maintenance holdings.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
A French creole, or French-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which French is the lexifier.
The future perfect is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before a time of reference in the future, such as will have finished in the English sentence "I will have finished by tomorrow." It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.
In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Around 45% of English vocabulary is of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern English.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
Haitian French (français haïtien, Haitian Creole: fransè ayisyen) is the variety of French spoken in Haiti.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Henri Jean-Baptiste Grégoire (4 December 1750 – 28 May 1831), often referred to as Abbé Grégoire, was a French Roman Catholic priest, constitutional bishop of Blois and a revolutionary leader.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
The history of the Jews in Lebanon encompasses the presence of Jews in present-day Lebanon stretching back to Biblical times.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).
The Imprimerie nationale is the official printing works of the French government, in succession to the Manufacture royale d'imprimerie founded by Cardinal Richelieu.
Indian French (français indien) is a dialect of French spoken by Indians in the former colonies of Puducherry and Chandannagar.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
INSEAD is a graduate and proprofit business school with campuses in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), and the Middle East (Abu Dhabi).
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights is an autonomous judicial institution based in the city of San José, Costa Rica.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda; Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda) was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organization created by the mandate of the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea.
In linguistics, inversion is any of several grammatical constructions where two expressions switch their canonical order of appearance, that is, they invert.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Jacques Pelletier du Mans, also spelled Peletier, in Latin: Peletarius, (1517–1582) was a humanist, poet and mathematician of the French Renaissance.
Jersey Legal French, also known as Jersey French (français de jersey), was the official dialect of French used administratively in Jersey.
John Hamilton McWhorter V (born October 6, 1965) is an American academic and linguist who is Associate Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University, where he teaches linguistics, American studies, philosophy, and music history.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (in English: Catholic University of Leuven), abbreviated KU Leuven, is a research university in the Dutch-speaking town of Leuven in Flanders, Belgium.
Language education refers to the process and practice of acquiring a second or foreign language.
The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin words are declined, or have their endings altered to show grammatical case and gender.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The Lebanese people (الشعب اللبناني / ALA-LC: Lebanese Arabic pronunciation) are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon.
The Lebanese pound (ليرة lira; French: livre; sign:, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency of Lebanon.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The Lesser Antilles are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar.
Liaison is the pronunciation of a latent word-final consonant immediately before a following vowel sound.
Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
A great number of words of French origin have entered the English language to the extent that many Latin words have come to the English language.
A great number of words of French origin have entered the Persian language since the early modern period.
This is a list of German words and expressions of French origin.
List of international organisations which have French as an official, administrative or working language.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis Maigret (or Meigret) was the author of the Traité de la Grammaire française, which was published in 1550.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana Creole (kréyol la lwizyàn; créole louisianais) is a French-based creole language spoken by far fewer than 10,000 people, mostly in the state of Louisiana.
Louisiana French (français de la Louisiane, Louisiana Creole: françé la lwizyàn), also known as Cajun French (français cadien/français cadjin) is a variety of the French language spoken traditionally in colonial Lower Louisiana but as of today it is primarily used in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes, though substantial minorities exist in southeast Texas as well.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Médecins du monde (MdM) or Doctors of the World, provides emergency and long-term medical care to the world's most vulnerable people.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF; pronounced), also known in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organisation (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases.
Meridional French (français méridional), also referred to as Francitan, is a regional variant of the French language.
Mickael Korvin (born 1957 in Cuba) is a Franco-American author and translator, who is of Hungarian origin.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the ministry in the government of France that handles France's foreign relations.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Missouri French (français du Missouri), also known as Illinois Country French and nicknamed "Paw-Paw French" or, in the dialect itself, la française assimine, is a nearly extinct variety of the French language formerly spoken in the upper Mississippi River Valley in the Midwestern United States, particularly in eastern Missouri.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Moroccan Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Moroccan Jewish communities who now reside within the state of Israel.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
Natixis is a French corporate and investment bank created in November 2006 from the merger of the asset management and investment banking operations of Natexis Banque Populaire (Banque Populaire group) and IXIS (Groupe Caisse d'Epargne).
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New England French (français de Nouvelle-Angleterre) is a variety of Canadian French spoken in the New England region of the United States.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Northern Ontario is a primary geographic and administrative region of the Canadian province of Ontario; the other primary region being Southern Ontario.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
In linguistic typology, object–subject–verb (OSV) or object–agent–verb (OAV) is a classification of languages, based on whether the structure predominates in pragmatically-neutral expressions.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Board of the French Language), sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Quebec language police in English, is a public organization established on March 24, 1961 by the Liberal government of Jean Lesage.
The official languages of Canada are English and French, which "have equality of status and equal rights and privileges as to their use in all institutions of the Parliament and Government of Canada," according to Canada's constitution.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used partly by French courts.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
The passé composé (compound past) is the most used past tense in the modern French language.
The passé simple (simple past or preterite), also called the passé défini (definite past), is the literary equivalent of the passé composé in the French language, used predominantly in formal writing (including history and literature) and formal speech.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
Patois (pl. same or) is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
Le Petit Larousse Illustré, commonly known simply as Le Petit Larousse, is a French-language encyclopedic dictionary published by Éditions Larousse.
Philippe Van Parijs (born 23 May 1951) is a Belgian political philosopher and political economist, best known as a proponent and main defender of the concept of a basic income and for the first systematic treatment of linguistic justice.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.
The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.
Pondicherry (or; French: Pondichéry) is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry.
The Port au Port Peninsula (Péninsule de Port-au-Port, Mi'kmaq: Kitpu) is a peninsula in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Prince Edward Island (PEI or P.E.I.; Île-du-Prince-Édouard) is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, and several much smaller islands.
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (abbreviated) is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Pirinio Atlantiarrak or Pirinio Atlantikoak) is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quart (Valdôtain: Car; Issime Koart) is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of north-western Italy.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Québec French (français québécois; also known as Québécois French or simply Québécois) is the predominant variety of the French language in Canada, in its formal and informal registers.
A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.
The orthography of French was already more or less fixed and, from a phonological point of view, outdated when its lexicography developed in the late 17th century and the Académie française was mandated to establish an "official" prescriptive norm.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Robert I Estienne (1503 – 7 September 1559), known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and also referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romandy (la Romandie)Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (Suisse française) was. is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2010, about 1.9 million people, or 24.4% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva, Vaud and the Lower Valais.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
A set phrase or fixed phrase is a phrase whose parts are fixed in a certain order, even if the phrase could be changed without harming the literal meaning.
Signed French (Français Signé) is any of at least three manually coded forms of French that apply the words (signs) of a national sign language to French word order or grammar.
The simple past, past simple or past indefinite, sometimes called the preterite, is the basic form of the past tense in Modern English.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard French (in French: le français standard, le français normé, le français neutre or le français international, the last being a Quebec invention) is an unofficial term for a standard variety of the French language.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.
Swiss French (français de Suisse) is the variety of French spoken in the French-speaking area of Switzerland known as Romandy.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tây Bồi (Vietnamese: tiếng Tây bồi), or Vietnamese Pidgin French, was a pidgin spoken by non-French-educated Vietnamese, typically those who worked as servants in French households or milieux during the colonial era.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New York Times International Edition is an English-language newspaper printed at 38 sites throughout the world and sold in more than 160 countries and territories.
Le trésor de la langue française: dictionnaire de la langue du XIXe et du XXe siècle (1789–1960) (TLF) is a 16-volume dictionary of 19th- and 20th-century French published by the Centre de Recherche pour un Trésor de la Langue Française from 1971 to 1994.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Secretariat (le Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations, with the others being (a) the General Assembly; (b) the Security Council; (c) the Economic and Social Council; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council; and (e) the International Court of Justice.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Louvain (Université catholique de Louvain, UCL) is Belgium's largest French-speaking university.
Université Laval (Laval University) is a French-language, public research university in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.
The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.
Ursula Reutner (born 6 October in Bayreuth) is a German linguist.
This article describes the uses of various verb forms in modern standard English language.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Dialects of the French language are spoken in France and around the world.
Vehicle registration plates of Lebanon have a blue bar to the left like in EU countries (without the 12 golden stars) if the plate is wide and to the top if the plate is a normal rectangle.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistic typology, a Verb–object–subject or Verb–object–agent language – commonly abbreviated VOS or VOA – is one in which the most-typical sentences arrange their elements in that order which would (in English) equate to something like "Ate oranges Sam.".
La vergonha (meaning "shame") is what Occitans call the effects of various policies of the government of France on its citizens whose native language was a so-called patois, a language other than French, such as Occitan or one of the dialects of the langues d'oc.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21.
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