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Madden, Thomas Robert Bugeaud, Tirailleur, Toleration, Trade union, Treaties of the European Union, Tunisia, Ubaye Valley, United Kingdom, United States, United States Census, Universalism, Uruguay, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Varieties of Arabic, Venezuela, Vercingetorix, Vikings, Visigoths, Volk (German word), Vulgar Latin, West Flemish, West Indies, Westhoek (region), What Is a Nation?, Women's suffrage, Works council, World Health Organization, World War I, World War II, Yugoslavia, Zacatecas, Zoreilles, 16 May 1877 crisis, 2005 French riots. Expand index (435 more) » « Shrink index
Acadia (Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River.
The Acadians (Acadiens) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.
Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Isaac-Jacob Adolphe Crémieux (30 April 1796 – 10 February 1880) was a French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Justice under the Second Republic (1848) and Government of National Defense (1870–1871).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law.
Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).
Allain Caillé (born 1944, Paris) is a French sociologist and economist.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alicia Moreau de Justo (October 11, 1885 – May 12, 1986) was an Argentine physician, politician, pacifist and human rights activist.
In law, an alien is a person who is not a national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree.
An allegiance is a duty of fidelity said to be owed, or freely committed, by the people, subjects or citizens to their state or sovereign.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Alsatian (Alsatian and Elsässerditsch (Alsatian German); Frankish: Elsässerdeitsch; Alsacien; Elsässisch or Elsässerdeutsch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a formerly disputed region in eastern France that has passed between French and German control five times since 1681.
The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines (Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, 1853–1855) is the famous work of French writer Joseph Arthur, Comte de Gobineau, which argues that there are differences between human races, that civilizations decline and fall when the races are mixed and that the white race is superior.
Ancestry.com LLC is a privately held online company based in Lehi, Utah.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
André Gorz (né Gerhart Hirsch; born 9 February 1923 – 22 September 2007) more commonly known by his pen names Gérard Horst and Michel Bosquet was an Austrian social philosopher and journalist.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Antoine Augustin Cournot (28 August 180131 March 1877) was a French philosopher and mathematician who also contributed to the development of economics theory.
The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.
Arab-Berbers (العرب والبربر; Arabo-berbères) are an ethnic group native to Maghreb, a North African region along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The La Araucanía, La Araucanía Region (Región de La Araucanía) is one of Chile's 15 first order administrative divisions and comprises two provinces: Malleco in the north and Cautín in the south.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Armenians in France (ֆրանսահայեր fransahayer; Arméniens de France) are French citizens of Armenian ancestry.
Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (14 July 1816 – 13 October 1882) was a French aristocrat who is best known today for helping to legitimise racism by use of scientific racist theory and "racial demography" and for his developing the theory of the Aryan master race.
Augustin Thierry (or Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry; 10 May 1795 – 22 May 1856) was a French historian.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Auvergnat or Auvergnat language (endonym: auvernhat) is an idiom spoken in France in part of the Massif Central and in particular, in most of Auvergne, province that gives it its name.
Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.
Éditions Gallimard is one of the leading French publishers of books.
Île-de-France ("Island of France"), also known as the région parisienne ("Parisian Region"), is one of the 18 regions of France and includes the city of Paris.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
Barcelonnette is a commune of France and a subprefecture in the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn; Bearno or Biarno) is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France.
The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bernardo Alberto Houssay (April 10, 1887 – September 21, 1971) was an Argentine physiologist who, in 1947, received one half Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in animals.
Bigorre (Gascon: Bigòrra) is a region in southwest France, historically an independent county and later a French province, located in the upper watershed of the Adour, on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees, part of the larger region known as Gascony.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Imperial Family is a cadet branch of the Portuguese Royal House of Braganza that ruled the Empire of Brazil from 1822 to 1889, after the proclamation of independence by Prince Pedro of Braganza who was later acclaimed as Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
The Bretons (Bretoned) are a Celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
The Cagots were a persecuted and despised minority found in the west of France and northern Spain: the Navarrese Pyrenees, Basque provinces, Béarn, Aragón, Gascony and Brittany.
The Cajuns (Louisiana les Cadiens), also known as Acadians (Louisiana les Acadiens) are an ethnic group mainly living in the U.S. state of Louisiana, and in The Maritimes as well as Québec consisting in part of the descendants of the original Acadian exiles—French-speakers from Acadia (L'Acadie) in what are now the Maritimes of Eastern Canada.
Caldoche is the name given to European inhabitants of the French overseas collectivity of New Caledonia, mostly native-born French settlers.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France in 1535 during the second voyage of Jacques Cartier.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
Carlota of Mexico (7 June 1840 – 19 January 1927) was a Belgian princess who became Empress of Mexico by marriage to Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.
The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.
Cartago is a city in Costa Rica, about east of the capital, San José.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Central Franconian (mittelfränkische Dialekte, mittelfränkische Mundarten, Mittelfränkisch) refers to the following continuum of West Central German dialects.
Charente (Saintongeais: Chérente, Occitan: Charanta) is a department in southwestern France, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, named after the Charente River, the most important river in the department, and also the river beside which the department's two largest towns, Angoulême and Cognac, are sited.
Charente-Maritime is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente River.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Pasqua (18 April 1927 – 29 June 2015) was a French businessman and Gaullist politician.
Charles III (17 September 879 – 7 October 929), called the Simple or the Straightforward (from the Latin Carolus Simplex), was the King of West Francia from 898 until 922 and the King of Lotharingia from 911 until 919–23.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Central Valley (Valle Central), Intermediate Depression, or Longitudinal Valley is the depression between the Chilean Coastal Range and the Andes Mountains.
Chilean wine has a long history for a New World wine region, as it was the 16th century when the Spanish conquistadors brought Vitis vinifera vines with them as they colonized the region.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Citizenship of the European Union (EU) is afforded to qualifying citizens of European Union member states.
Civic engagement or civic participation is any individual or group activity done with the intent to advocate on behalf of the public.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community.
Concepción (in full: Concepción de la Madre Santísima de la Luz, "Conception of the Blessed Mother of Light") is a Chilean city and commune belonging to the metropolitan area of Greater Concepción, it is one of the largest urban conurbations of Chile.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
A counter-revolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Crémieux Decree was a law that granted French citizenship to the majority of the Jewish population in French Algeria (around 35,000), signed by the Government of National Defense on 24 October 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War.
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cultural Anthropology is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Anthropological Association on behalf of the Society for Cultural Anthropology.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
Davina Lucy Pascale McCall (born 16 October 1967) is an English television presenter and model.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century, and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.
A demonstration or street protest is action by a mass group or collection of groups of people in favor of a political or other cause; it normally consists of walking in a mass march formation and either beginning with or meeting at a designated endpoint, or rally, to hear speakers.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (born 14 November 1953) is a French retired diplomat and politician who served as the Prime Minister of France from 31 May 2005 to 17 May 2007.
Dominique Schnapper (born 9 November 1934 in Paris) of German descant, was a member of the Constitutional Council of France from 2001 to 2010.
Dordogne (Dordonha) is a department in southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux.
Doxa (ancient Greek δόξα; from verb δοκεῖν dokein, "to appear", "to seem", "to think" and "to accept") is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion.
The Dreyfus Affair (l'affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
Emmanuel Todd (born 16 May 1951) is a French historian, anthropologist, demographer, sociologist and political scientist at the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) in Paris.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm (9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism.
Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Esther Benbassa (born 27 March 1950) is a French-Turkish-Israeli award-winning historian and politician.
An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups.
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The 1994 European Parliamentary Election was a European election held across the 12 European Union member states in June 1994.
Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social group.
The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation and Le Grand Dérangement, was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island— parts of an area also known as Acadia. The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War) and was part of the British military campaign against New France. The British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, and after 1758 transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region, approximately 11,500 Acadians were deported (a census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony, presumably having eluded capture). During the War of the Spanish Succession, the British captured Port Royal, the capital of the colony, in a siege. The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, which concluded the conflict, ceded the colony to Great Britain while allowing the Acadians to keep their lands. Over the next forty-five years, however, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. During the same period, some also participated in various military operations against the British, and maintained supply lines to the French fortresses of Louisbourg and Fort Beauséjour. As a result, the British sought to eliminate any future military threat posed by the Acadians and to permanently cut the supply lines they provided to Louisbourg by removing them from the area. Without making distinctions between the Acadians who had been neutral and those who had resisted the occupation of Acadia, the British governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council ordered them to be expelled. In the first wave of the expulsion, Acadians were deported to other British colonies. During the second wave, they were deported to Britain and France, from where they migrated to Louisiana. Acadians fled initially to Francophone colonies such as Canada, the uncolonized northern part of Acadia, Isle Saint-Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island) and Isle Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island). During the second wave of the expulsion, these Acadians were either imprisoned or deported. Throughout the expulsion, Acadians and the Wabanaki Confederacy continued a guerrilla war against the British in response to British aggression which had been continuous since 1744 (see King George's War and Father Le Loutre's War). Along with the British achieving their military goals of defeating Louisbourg and weakening the Mi'kmaq and Acadian militias, the result of the Expulsion was the devastation of both a primarily civilian population and the economy of the region. Thousands of Acadians died in the expulsions, mainly from diseases and drowning when ships were lost. On July 11, 1764, the British government passed an order-in-council to permit Acadians to legally return to British territories, provided that they take an unqualified oath of allegiance. The American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow memorialized the historic event in his poem about the plight of the fictional character Evangeline, which was popular and made the expulsion well known. According to Acadian historian Maurice Basque, the story of Evangeline continues to influence historic accounts of the deportation, emphasising neutral Acadians and de-emphasising those who resisted the British Empire.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Faubourg is an ancient French term approximating "suburb" (now generally termed banlieue).
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Ferdinand-Eugène-Jean-Baptiste Brunot (6 November 1860 – 7 January 1938) was a French linguist and philologist, editor of the ground-breaking Histoire de la langue française des origines à 1900 ("History of the French Language from its Origins to 1900").
Fernand Braudel (24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Franconian (Frankisch; Frankies; Fränkisch; Francique) includes a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD.
Francophonie, sometimes also spelt Francophonia in English, is the quality of speaking French.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
French Americans (French: Franco-Américains) are citizens or nationals of the United States who identify themselves with having full or partial French or French Canadian heritage, ethnicity, and/or ancestral ties.
French Argentines (Franco-Argentins, franco-argentinos) refers to Argentine citizens of full or partial French ancestry, or persons born in France who reside in Argentina.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
French Australians (Franco-Australiens), some of whom refer to themselves as Huguenots, are Australian citizens or residents of French ancestry, or French-born people who reside in Australia.
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
French Brazilians (Franco-Brésilien, Franco-brasileiro or Galo-brasileiro) refers to Brazilian citizens of full of partial French ancestry, or persons born in France who reside in Brazil.
French-Canadian Americans are Americans of French Canadian descent.
French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are an ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada from the 17th century onward.
A French Chilean (Franco-Chilien, franco-chileno) is a Chilean citizen of full or partial French ancestry.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French Flemish (French Flemish: Fransch vlaemsch, Standard Dutch: Frans-Vlaams, flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French migration to the United Kingdom is a phenomenon that has occurred at various points in history.
French nationality law is historically based on the principles of jus soli (Latin for "right of soil"), according to Ernest Renan's definition, in opposition to the German definition of nationality, jus sanguinis (Latin for "right of blood"), formalized by Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
Historically, there was a significant French community residing in Hungary, who firstly came during the 11–13th century and then, once more, in a separate wave of settlement starting in the 18th century.
The French community in India consists mainly of Indian citizens of French ancestry who are descended from former French settlers, and colonists who settled in India since the 17th century, as well as recent expatriates from France.
There is a small but recognizable community of French people in Madagascar, of whom the vast majority are born in Madagascar and are descended from former settlers and colonists from France who settled in Madagascar during the 19th and 20th centuries.
French Peruvians (French: français-péruvien; Spanish: franco-peruano) are Peruvian citizens of French ancestry; a French of Peruvian descent or a person of both French and Peruvian descent.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
French Uruguayans (Franco-Uruguayen, franco-uruguayo) are Uruguayan citizens of full or partial French ancestry.
The term French West Indies or French Antilles (Antilles françaises) refers to the seven territories currently under French sovereignty in the Antilles islands of the Caribbean.
Gallo is a regional language of France.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
The genetic history of Europe since the Upper Paleolithic is inseparable from that of wider Western Eurasia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Gers is a department in the Occitanie region in the southwest of France named after the Gers River.
Giorgio Agamben (born 22 April 1942) is an Italian philosopher best known for his work investigating the concepts of the state of exception, form-of-life (borrowed from Ludwig Wittgenstein) and homo sacer.
Gironde (in Occitan Gironda) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France.
Global citizenship is the idea of all persons having rights and civic responsibilities that come with being a member of the world, with whole-world philosophy and sensibilities, rather than as a citizen of a particular nation or place.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara.
Guaranteed minimum income (GMI), also called minimum income, is a system of social welfare provision that guarantees that all citizens or families have an income sufficient to live on, provided they meet certain conditions.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Henri de Boulainvilliers (21 October 1658, Saint-Saire, Normandy – 23 January 1722, Paris) was a French nobleman, writer and historian.
The history of the Jews in France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.
HLM is the acronym of Habitation à Loyer Modéré ("rent-controlled housing"), a form of private or public housing in France, Switzerland, Algeria, Senegal, and Quebec.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
Homo sacer (Latin for "the sacred man" or "the accursed man") is a figure of Roman law: a person who is banned and may be killed by anybody, but may not be sacrificed in a religious ritual.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The 4th House of Orléans, sometimes called House of Bourbon-Orléans (Maison de Bourbon-Orléans) to distinguish it, is the fourth holder of a surname previously used by several branches of the Royal House of France, all descended in the legitimate male line from the dynasty's founder, Hugh Capet.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
A large number of people of European heritage in South Africa are descended from Huguenots.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
According to the French national institute of statistics INSEE, the 2014 census counted nearly 6 million immigrants (foreign-born people) in France, representing 9.1% of the total population.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Indirect rule is a system of government used by the British and French to control parts of their colonial empires, particularly in Africa and Asia, through pre-existing local power structures.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
International mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country.
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Jean-Marc Ferry (born 5 May 1946) is a French philosopher who is best known for his book Les puissances de l'expérience (1991), described by Paul Ricoeur as "one of the most important works recently published in the field of social and political philosophy".
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
John Lilburne (161429 August 1657), also known as Freeborn John, was an English political Leveller before, during and after the English Civil Wars 1642–1650.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
Josephine Baker (born Freda Josephine McDonald; 3 June 1906 – 12 April 1975) was an American-born French entertainer, activist, and French Resistance agent.
Joshua Prawer (יהושע פרַאוֶור; November 22, 1917 – April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem.
JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.
Julio Cortázar, born Julio Florencio Cortázar; (August 26, 1914 – February 12, 1984) was an Argentine novelist, short story writer, and essayist.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
Jus soli, meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.
Justin Vaïsse is a French historian, who is currently the director of the Policy Planning staff of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Khmer Rouge ("Red Khmers"; ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Kror-Horm) was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled Cambodia between 1975 and 1979.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
L'Esprit frappeur (French for "ghost" or "poltergeist"), is a French publishing house, specialized in low-cost books.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman Empire to denote communities of barbari ("barbarians") i.e. foreigners, or people from outside the Empire, permitted to settle on, and granted land in, imperial territory on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman military.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
France has one official language, the French language.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.
The langues d'oïl (French) or oïl languages (also in langues d'oui) are a dialect continuum that includes standard French and its closest autochthonous relatives historically spoken in the northern half of France, southern Belgium, and the Channel Islands.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latin peoples, also called Romance peoples, is a term used broadly to refer to those societies heavily influenced by Roman culture that, after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, started to diverge from the spoken Vulgar Latin language, creating localized versions which nowadays make up the Romance languages.
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
Le Défi Media Group is a mass media company based in Port Louis, Mauritius.
Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
French people of note include.
Below are lists of famous French people of immigrant origin (at least one great-grandparent).
This is a list of islands in the Indian Ocean.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lorraine Franconian (Lorraine Franconian: Plàtt, lothrìnger Plàtt; francique lorrain, platt lorrain; Lothringisch) is an ambiguous designation for dialects of West Central German (Westmitteldeutsch), a group of High German dialects spoken in the Moselle department of the former north-eastern French region of Lorraine (See Linguistic boundary of Moselle).
Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
Louis Sebastian Theroux (born 20 May 1970) is a British documentary filmmaker and broadcaster.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana Creole people (Créoles de Louisiane, Gente de Louisiana Creole), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule.
Low Franconian, Low Frankish (Nederfrankisch, Niederfränkisch, Bas Francique) are a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the Nord department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from the Frankish language.
The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The Mascarene Islands or Mascarenes or Mascarenhas Archipelago is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar consisting of Mauritius, Réunion and Rodrigues.
A Mauritian of French origin, as the name implies, is a Mauritian person whose ancestors are from France.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to indigenous North Americans and European settlers.
The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture or vice versa, for a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through the influx of foreign elements with different cultural background with a potential creation of disharmony with the previous culture.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Michel de Certeau (17 May 1925 – 9 January 1986) was a French Jesuit and scholar whose work combined history, psychoanalysis, philosophy, and the social sciences.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born 29 September 1951) is a Chilean politician who was the President of Chile twice, from 2006 to 2010 and from 2014 to 2018, the first woman in her country to occupy this position.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Midi-Pyrénées (Occitan: Miègjorn-Pirenèus or Mieidia-Pirenèus; Mediodía-Pirineos) is a former administrative region of France.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
Monterrey is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, Mexico.
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.
The National Rally (Rassemblement national, RN), formerly known as the National Front (Front national,; FN) until 2018, is a right-wing populist and nationalist political party in France.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Paltz is in Ulster County located in the U.S. state of New York.
New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nicolas Fréret (15 February 1688 – 8 March 1749) was a French scholar.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Nord-Pas-de-Calais (is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France. It consisted of the departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel (west), the North Sea (northwest), Belgium (north and east) and Picardy (south). The majority of the region was once part of the historical (Southern) Netherlands, but gradually became part of France between 1477 and 1678, particularly during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and (partially) Picardy. These provincial designations are still frequently used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille. The second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain away; this makes Nord-Pas-de-Calais the closest continental European connection to the Great Britain. Other major towns include Valenciennes, Lens, Douai, Béthune, Dunkirk, Maubeuge, Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Olivier Le Cour Grandmaison (born 19 September 1960), is a French historian and author whose work chiefly centres on colonialism.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and free, unrestricted access to knowledge and information, as well as collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Paternity law refers to body of law underlying legal relationship between a father and his biological or adopted children and deals with the rights and obligations of both the father and the child to each other as well as to others.
Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta (born Marie Edme Patrice Maurice; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France.
Patrick Weil (born 14 October 1956 in Neuilly sur Seine) is a French historian and political scientist.
Patriotism or national pride is the ideology of love and devotion to a homeland, and a sense of alliance with other citizens who share the same values.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peruvians in France (Peruanos en Francia), who form part of the larger Latin American community in France.
A petition is a request to do something, most commonly addressed to a government official or public entity.
Philippe Van Parijs (born 23 May 1951) is a Belgian political philosopher and political economist, best known as a proponent and main defender of the concept of a basic income and for the first systematic treatment of linguistic justice.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.
Picard is a langues d'oïl dialect spoken in the northernmost part of France and southern Belgium.
Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.
Pol Pot (ប៉ុល ពត; 19 May 1925 – 15 April 1998) was a Cambodian revolutionary and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976 to 1979.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Pondicherry (or; French: Pondichéry) is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Positive liberty is the possession of the capacity to act upon one's free will, as opposed to negative liberty, which is freedom from external restraint on one's actions.
Postnationalism or non-nationalism is the process or trend by which nation states and national identities lose their importance relative to cross nation and self organized or supranational and global entities.
Presses universitaires de France (PUF, English: University Press of France), founded in 1921 by Paul Angoulvent (1899–1976), is the largest French university publishing house.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur; Provenza-Alpi-Costa Azzurra; PACA) is one of the 18 administrative regions of France.
The Provisional Government of the French Republic (gouvernement provisoire de la République française or GPRF) was an interim government of Free France between 1944 and 1946 following the liberation of continental France after Operations ''Overlord'' and ''Dragoon'', and lasted until the establishment of the French Fourth Republic.
Puebla (Spanish: Puebla de Zaragoza), formally Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza and also known as Puebla de los Ángeles, is the seat of Puebla Municipality, the capital and largest city of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important Spanish colonial cities in Mexico.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Pirinio Atlantiarrak or Pirinio Atlantikoak) is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France.
“Que sais-je?” (Literally: "What do I know?") is a series of books published by the Presses universitaires de France (PUF).
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Quebec diaspora consists of Quebec immigrants and their descendants dispersed over the North American continent and historically concentrated in the New England region of the United States, Ontario, and the Canadian Prairies.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racialism is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, that are ostensibly distinct biological categories.
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saint Martin (Saint-Martin; Sint Maarten) is an island in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately east of Puerto Rico.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí (Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Paris Institute of Political Studies (Institut d'études politiques de Paris), commonly referred as Sciences Po, is a highly selective French university (legally a grande école).
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a limited hereditary monarchy declared by the Assembly of Notables on July 10, 1863, during the Second French intervention in Mexico.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area.
Sinaloa, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social integration is the process during which newcomers or minorities are incorporated into the social structure of the host society.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
The Sorbonne is an edifice of the Latin Quarter, in Paris, France, which was the historical house of the former University of Paris.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
A supranational union is a type of multinational political union where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Origins of Totalitarianism (Elemente und Ursprünge totaler Herrschaft, "Elements and Origins of Totalitarian Rule"; 1951), by Hannah Arendt, describes and analyzes Nazism and Stalinism, the major totalitarian political movements of the first half of the 20th century.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thomas F. Madden (born 1960) is an American historian, a former Chair of the History Department at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri, and Director of Saint Louis University's Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.
Thomas Robert Bugeaud, marquis de la Piconnerie, duc d'Isly (15 October 178410 June 1849) was a Marshal of France and Governor-General of Algeria.
A tirailleur, in the Napoleonic era, was a type of light infantry trained to skirmish ahead of the main columns.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union (EU) member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The Ubaye Valley is an area in the Alpes de Haute-Provence département, in the French Alps, having approximately 7,700 residents.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The German noun Volk translates to people, both uncountable in the sense of people as in a crowd, and countable (plural Völker) in the sense of a people as in an ethnic group or nation (compare the English term folk).
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
West Flemish (West-Vlaams, flamand occidental) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in western Belgium and adjoining parts of the Netherlands and France.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Westhoek (Dutch for "west corner") or Maritime Flanders (Flandre maritime) is a region in Belgium and France and includes the following areas.
"What is a Nation?" ("Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?") is an 1882 lecture by French historian Ernest Renan (1823–1892), known for the statements that a nation is "a daily referendum", and that nations are based as much on what the people jointly forget, as what they remember.
Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
A works council (very rarely called "work council") is a "shop-floor" organization representing workers that functions as a local/firm-level complement to trade unions but is independent of these at least in some countries.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Zacatecas), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Zoreille is a Réunion Creole term to describe French people born in Metropolitan France and recently arrived in Réunion.
The 16 May 1877 crisis (Crise du seize mai) was a constitutional crisis in the French Third Republic concerning the distribution of power between the President and the legislature.
The 2005 French riots was a three-week period of riots in the suburbs of Paris and other French cities, in October and November 2005, that involved the burning of cars and public buildings at night.