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Index Fresco

Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. [1]

191 relations: Aegean civilizations, Aegean Sea, Ajanta Caves, Alkali, Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (Cortona), Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Ancient Greece, Andrea Mantegna, Andrea Palladio, Andrea Pozzo, Annibale Carracci, Antioch, Arbore, Arezzo, Armamalai Cave, Aspergillus versicolor, Assisi, Azurite, École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Badami cave temples, Bagh Caves, Barcelona, Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, Binder (material), Bodhisattva, Brancacci Chapel, Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur, Bronze Age, Buon fresco, Butterworth-Heinemann, Byzantine Empire, Calcination, Calcium carbonate, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium oxide, Camera degli Sposi, Cappadocia, Carbon dioxide, Carbonatation, Carnavalet Museum, Castelseprio (archaeological park), Catalonia, Chola dynasty, Church frescos in Denmark, Church frescos in Sweden, Churches of Göreme, Churches of Moldavia, Clément Serveau, Colegio de San Ildefonso, ..., Colonies in antiquity, Crete, Cyprus, Dante Alighieri, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera, Dionisius, Divine Comedy, Diving, Dogra, Dogri language, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Ducal palace, Mantua, Duomo, Egg as food, Egypt, Ellora Caves, Ephesus, Etruscan art, Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Ferapontov Monastery, Fernando Leal (artist), Florence, Florence Cathedral, Foujita Chapel, Fresco-secco, Frida Kahlo, Gambier Parry process, Gautama Buddha, Giotto, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Giulio Romano, Gračanica Monastery, Haveli, Herculaneum, Himachal Pradesh, Humor Monastery, India, Intonaco, Investiture of Zimri-Lim, Islam, Italian Renaissance painting, Jammu, Jataka tales, José Clemente Orozco, Kandyan Era Frescoes, Kashyapa I of Anuradhapura, Kraków, La Fenice, Lapis lazuli, Leonardo da Vinci, Lime kiln, Lime plaster, Limestone, Liturgy, Luca Signorelli, Magna Graecia, Mahabharata, Mansion, Mantua, Mari, Syria, Masaccio, Meaux, Mexican muralism, Mexico City, Michelangelo, Middle Ages, Mileševa Monastery, Minoan civilization, Moldavia, Moldovița Monastery, Mural, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, Oil painting, Orvieto, Oxford University Press, Padua, Paestum, Palazzo Barberini, Palazzo del Te, Palazzo Farnese, Palazzo Pubblico, Piero della Francesca, Pietro da Cortona, Pietro Perugino, Pigment, Pisa, Plaster, Pompeii, Qasr Amra, Rajaraja Cholan, Ramayana, Raphael, Reims, Renaissance, Roman Empire, Romanesque architecture, Romania, Rossellini, Royal Palace of Mari, Saint Nicholas, Sandro Botticelli, Santa Maria Novella, Santiago Martínez Delgado, Santorini, School of Paris, Scrovegni Chapel, Shaivism, Siena, Sigiriya, Sinopia, Sistine Chapel, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Sittanavasal, Slaking (geology), Sri Lanka, Studenica Monastery, Sucevița Monastery, Symposium, Syria, Tempera, Temperature, Thanjavur Nayak kingdom, The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci), The Loves of the Gods, The School of Athens, Tomb, Tomb of Orcus, Tomb of the Diver, Tornabuoni Chapel, Tsuguharu Foujita, Veii, Venice, Villa Farnesina, Visoki Dečani, Voroneț Monastery, Water, Wawel Cathedral, Znojmo, Znojmo Rotunda. Expand index (141 more) »

Aegean civilizations

Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze Age civilizations of Greece around the Aegean Sea.

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Aegean Sea

The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Ajanta Caves

The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India.

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (Cortona)

The Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power is a fresco by Italian painter Pietro da Cortona, filling the large ceiling of the grand salon of the Palazzo Barberini in Rome, Italy.

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Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (or Ambruogio Laurati) (c. 1290 – 9 June 1348) was an Italian painter of the Sienese school.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Andrea Mantegna

Andrea Mantegna (September 13, 1506) was an Italian painter, a student of Roman archeology, and son-in-law of Jacopo Bellini.

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Andrea Palladio

Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.

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Andrea Pozzo

Andrea Pozzo (Latinized version: Andreas Puteus; 30 November 1642 – 31 August 1709) was an Italian Jesuit brother, Baroque painter and architect, decorator, stage designer, and art theoretician.

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Annibale Carracci

Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 – July 15, 1609) was an Italian painter, active in Bologna and later in Rome.

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Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.

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Arbore is a commune located in Suceava County, Romania.

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Arezzo is a city and comune in Italy, capital of the province of the same name located in Tuscany.

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Armamalai Cave

Armamalai Cave is known for its Indian cave paintings.

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Aspergillus versicolor

Aspergillus versicolor is a slow-growing filamentous fungus commonly found in damp indoor environments and on food products.

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Assisi (from the Asisium) is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. It is generally regarded as the birthplace of the Latin poet Propertius, born around 50–45 BC. It is the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi.

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Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.

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École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts

The École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts (ENSBA) is a fine arts grand school of PSL Research University in Paris, France.

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Badami cave temples

The Badami cave temples are a complex of four Hindu, a Jain and possibly Buddhist cave temples located in Badami, a town in the Bagalkot district in northern part of Karnataka, India.

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Bagh Caves

The Bagh Caves are a group of nine rock-cut monuments, situated among the southern slopes of the Vindhyas in Bagh town of Dhar district in Madhya Pradesh state in central India.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe

The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe) is a Roman Catholic church, basilica and National shrine of Mexico in the north of Mexico City.

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Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi

The Papal Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi (Basilica Papale di San Francesco, Basilica Sancti Francisci Assisiensis) is the mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Friars Minor Conventual in Assisi, a town of Umbria region in central Italy, where Saint Francis was born and died.

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Binder (material)

A binder or binding agent is any material or substance that holds or draws other materials together to form a cohesive whole mechanically, chemically, by adhesion or cohesion.

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In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.

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Brancacci Chapel

The Brancacci Chapel (in Italian, "Cappella dei Brancacci") is a chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence, central Italy.

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Brihadisvara Temple, Thanjavur

Brihadishvara Temple, also called Rajarajesvaram or Peruvudaiyar Kovil, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva located in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buon fresco

Buon Fresco Affresco, Italian for true fresco, is a fresco painting technique in which alkaline-resistant pigments, ground in water, are applied to wet plaster.

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Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.

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Calcium oxide

Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.

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Camera degli Sposi

The Camera degli Sposi ("bridal chamber"), sometimes known as the Camera picta ("painted chamber"), is a room frescoed with illusionistic paintings by Andrea Mantegna in the Ducal Palace, Mantua, Italy.

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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbonatation is a chemical reaction in which calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide and forms insoluble calcium carbonate: The process of forming a carbonate is sometimes referred to as "carbonation", although this term usually refers to the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water.

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Carnavalet Museum

The Carnavalet Museum (French: Musée Carnavalet) in Paris is dedicated to the history of the city.

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Castelseprio (archaeological park)

Castelseprio or Castel Seprio was the site of a Roman fort in antiquity, and a significant Lombard town in the early Middle Ages, before being destroyed and abandoned in 1287.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.

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Church frescos in Denmark

Church frescos or church wall paintings (Danish: kalkmalerier) are to be found in some 600 churches across Denmark, no doubt representing the highest concentration of surviving church murals anywhere in the world.

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Church frescos in Sweden

Church frescos or church wall paintings (kalkmålningar) are decorative paintings, mostly medieval, found in several Swedish churches where they adorn the vaults and sometimes walls of the buildings.

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Churches of Göreme

Göreme is a district of the Nevşehir Province in Turkey.

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Churches of Moldavia

The eight Romanian Orthodox Churches of Moldavia are located in Suceava County, northern Moldavia, and were built approximately between 1487 and 1583.

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Clément Serveau

Henri Clément Serveau, also known as Clément-Serveau (29 June 1886 – 8 July 1972), was a French painter, designer, engraver and illustrator.

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Colegio de San Ildefonso

The Colegio de San Ildefonso was a college situated in Cebu City in the then-Captaincy General of the Philippines.

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Colonies in antiquity

Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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David Alfaro Siqueiros

David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros, December 29, 1896, in Chihuahua – January 6, 1974, in Cuernavaca, Morelos) was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco.

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Diego Rivera

Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.

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Dionisius (Диони́сий, variously transliterated as Dionisy, Dionysiy, etc., also Dionisius the Wise) (ca. 1440 – 1502) was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while performing acrobatics.

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The Dogras are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in India and Pakistan that speaks the Dogri language.

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Dogri language

Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.

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Domenico Ghirlandaio

Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.

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Ducal palace, Mantua

The Palazzo Ducale di Mantova ("Ducal Palace") is a group of buildings in Mantua, Lombardy, northern Italy, built between the 14th and the 17th century mainly by the noble family of Gonzaga as their royal residence in the capital of their Duchy.

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Duomo is an Italian term for a church with the features of, or having been built to serve as, a cathedral, whether or not it currently plays this rôle.

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Egg as food

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Ellora Caves

Ellora (\e-ˈlȯr-ə\, IAST), located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India, is one of the largest rock-cut monastery-temple cave complexes in the world, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, featuring Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments, and artwork, dating from the 600-1000 CE period.

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Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.

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Etruscan art

Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC.

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Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne

The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exposition of Art and Technology in Modern Life) was held from 25 May to 25 November 1937 in Paris, France.

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Ferapontov Monastery

The Ferapontov convent (Ферапонтов монастырь), in the Vologda region of Russia, is considered one of the purest examples of Russian medieval art, a reason given by UNESCO for its inscription on the World Heritage List.

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Fernando Leal (artist)

Fernando Leal (February 26, 1896 - October 7, 1964) was one of the first painters to participate in the Mexican muralism movement starting in the 1920s.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Florence Cathedral

Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (in English "Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Flower") is the cathedral of Florence, Italy, or Il Duomo di Firenze, in Italian.

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Foujita Chapel

The chapel of Our Lady Queen of Peace, or Foujita Chapel, was constructed in 1965-1966 at Reims, France.

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Fresco-secco (or a secco or fresco finto) is a wall painting technique where pigments mixed with an organic binder and/or lime are applied onto a dry plaster.

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Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo de Rivera (born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits, and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico.

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Gambier Parry process

The Gambier Parry process is a development of the classical technique of fresco for painting murals, named for Thomas Gambier Parry.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.

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Giovanni Battista Tiepolo

Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.

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Giulio Romano

Giulio Romano, also known as Giulio Pippi, (c. 1499 – 1 November 1546) was an Italian painter and architect.

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Gračanica Monastery

Gračanica Monastery (Манастир Грачаница / Manastir Gračanica, Manastiri i Graçanicës) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located in Kosovo.

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Haveli is a traditional townhouse or mansion in India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh, usually one with historical and architectural significance.

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Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.

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Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.

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Humor Monastery

Humor Monastery located in Mănăstirea Humorului, about 5 km north of the town of Gura Humorului, Romania.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Intonaco is an Italian term for the final, very thin layer of plaster on which a fresco is painted.

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Investiture of Zimri-Lim

The Investiture of Zimri-Lim is a large colorful mural discovered at the Royal Palace of the ancient city-state of Mari in eastern Syria.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Italian Renaissance painting

Italian Renaissance painting is the painting of the period beginning in the late 13th century and flourishing from the early 15th to late 16th centuries, occurring in the Italian peninsula, which was at that time divided into many political areas.

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Jammu is the largest city in the Jammu Division and the winter capital of state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Jataka tales

The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.

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José Clemente Orozco

José Clemente Orozco (November 23, 1883 – September 7, 1949) was a Mexican painter, who specialized in political murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others.

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Kandyan Era Frescoes

Kandyan era frescoes are mural paintings created during the Kingdom of Kandy (1469–1815) in Sri Lanka, a time when kings gave a special place to arts and literature.

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Kashyapa I of Anuradhapura

Kashyapa I, also known as Kasyapa I, was a king of Sri Lanka, who ruled the country from 473 to 495 CE.

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Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.

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La Fenice

Teatro La Fenice ("The Phoenix") is an opera house in Venice, Italy.

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Lapis lazuli

Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Lime kiln

A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) to produce the form of lime called quicklime (calcium oxide).

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Lime plaster

Lime plaster is a type of plaster composed of sand, water, and lime, usually non-hydraulic hydrated lime (also known as slaked lime, high calcium lime or air lime).

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Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group, according to its beliefs, customs and traditions.

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Luca Signorelli

Luca Signorelli (16 October 1523) was an Italian Renaissance painter who was noted in particular for his ability as a draftsman and his use of foreshortening.

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Magna Graecia

Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.

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The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.

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A mansion is a large dwelling house.

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Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Mari, Syria

Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.

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Masaccio (December 21, 1401 – summer 1428), born Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone, was a Florentine artist who is regarded as the first great Italian painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance.

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Meaux is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.

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Mexican muralism

Mexican muralism was the promotion of mural painting starting in the 1920s, generally with social and political messages as part of efforts to reunify the country under the post Mexican Revolution government.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mileševa Monastery

Mileševa (Милешева, or) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located near Prijepolje, in southwest Serbia.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.

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Moldovița Monastery

The Moldovița Monastery (Romanian: Mânăstirea Moldovița) is a Romanian Orthodox monastery situated in the commune of Vatra Moldoviței, Suceava County, Moldavia, Romania.

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A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.

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Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (City of Paris' Museum of Modern Art) or MAMVP, is a major municipal museum dedicated to modern and contemporary art of the 20th and 21st centuries.

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Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya

The Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya (English: "National Art Museum of Catalonia"), abbreviated as MNAC, is the national museum of Catalan visual art located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

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Oil painting

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder.

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Orvieto is a city and comune in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.

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Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia (southern Italy).

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Palazzo Barberini

The Palazzo Barberini (Barberini Palace) is a 17th-century palace in Rome, facing the Piazza Barberini in Rione Trevi.

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Palazzo del Te

Palazzo del Te or Palazzo Te is a palace in the suburbs of Mantua, Italy.

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Palazzo Farnese

Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome.

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Palazzo Pubblico

The Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) is a palace in Siena, Tuscany, central Italy.

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Piero della Francesca

Piero della Francesca (c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Pietro da Cortona

Pietro da Cortona (1 November 1596/716 May 1669) was an Italian Baroque painter and architect.

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Pietro Perugino

Pietro Perugino (c. 1446/1452 – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

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Plaster is a building material used for the protective and/or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements.

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Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Qasr Amra

Qasr Amra (قصر عمرة / ALA-LC: Qaṣr ‘Amrah), also transcribed as Quseir Amra or Qusayr Amra, is the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan.

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Rajaraja Cholan

Rajaraja Cholan is a 1973 Tamil film about the life of the Chola king Rajaraja Chola.

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Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

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Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.

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Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

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Rossellini is a common Italian family name in Italy.

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Royal Palace of Mari

The Royal Palace of Mari was the royal residence of the rulers of the ancient kingdom of Mari in eastern Syria.

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Sandro Botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Santa Maria Novella

Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence, Italy, situated just across from the main railway station named after it.

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Santiago Martínez Delgado

Santiago Martínez Delgado (1906–1954) was a Colombian painter, sculptor, art historian and writer.

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Santorini (Σαντορίνη), classically Thera (English pronunciation), and officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland.

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School of Paris

School of Paris (École de Paris) refers to the French and émigré artists who worked in Paris in the first half of the 20th century.

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Scrovegni Chapel

The Scrovegni Chapel (Cappella degli Scrovegni, also known as the Arena Chapel), is a church in Padua, Veneto, Italy.

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Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.

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Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.

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Sigiriya or Sinhagiri (Lion Rock සීගිරිය, சிகிரியா, pronounced see-gi-ri-yə) is an ancient rock fortress located in the northern Matale District near the town of Dambulla in the Central Province, Sri Lanka.

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Sinopia (also known as sinoper, named after the now Turkish city Sinop) is a dark reddish-brown natural earth pigment, whose reddish colour comes from hematite, a dehydrated form of iron oxide.

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Sistine Chapel

The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.

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Sistine Chapel ceiling

The Sistine Chapel ceiling, painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, is a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.

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Sittanavasal (Tamil name: சித்தன்னவாசல்) is a small hamlet in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu, India.

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Slaking (geology)

Slaking is the process in which earth materials disintegrate and crumble when exposed to moisture.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Studenica Monastery

The Studenica Monastery (Манастир Студеница/Manastir Studenica) is a 12th-century Serbian Orthodox monastery situated southwest of Kraljevo and east of Ivanjica, in central Serbia.

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Sucevița Monastery

Sucevița Monastery is an Eastern Orthodox convent situated in the Northeastern part of Romania.

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In ancient Greece, the symposium (συμπόσιον symposion or symposio, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, dancing, recitals, or conversation.

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size).

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Thanjavur Nayak kingdom

Thanjavur Nayak kingdom or Thanjavur Nayak dynasty were the rulers of Thanjavur principality of Tamil Nadu between the 16th to the 17th century.

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The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci)

The Last Supper (Il Cenacolo or L'Ultima Cena) is a late 15th-century mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci housed by the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.

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The Loves of the Gods

The Loves of the Gods is a monumental fresco cycle, completed by the Bolognese artist Annibale Carracci and his studio, in the Farnese Gallery which is located in the west wing of the Palazzo Farnese, now the French Embassy, in Rome.

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The School of Athens

The School of Athens (Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael.

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A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.

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Tomb of Orcus

The Tomb of Orcus (Tomba dell'Orco), sometimes called the Tomb of Murina (Tomba dei Murina), is a 4th-century BC Etruscan hypogeum (burial chamber) in Tarquinia, Italy.

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Tomb of the Diver

The Tomb of the Diver is an archaeological monument, built in about 470 BC and found by the Italian archaeologist Mario Napoli on 3 June 1968 during his excavation of a small necropolis about 1.5 km south of the Greek city of Paestum in Magna Graecia, in what is now southern Italy.

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Tornabuoni Chapel

The Tornabuoni Chapel (Italian: Cappella Tornabuoni) is the main chapel (or chancel) in the church of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.

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Tsuguharu Foujita

was a Japanese–French painter and printmaker born in Tokyo, Japan, who applied Japanese ink techniques to Western style paintings.

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Veii (also Veius, Veio) was an important ancient Etruscan city situated on the southern limits of Etruria and only north-northwest of Rome, Italy.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Villa Farnesina

The Villa Farnesina is a Renaissance suburban villa in the Via della Lungara, in the district of Trastevere in Rome, central Italy.

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Visoki Dečani

Visoki Dečani (Високи Дечани, Manastiri i Deçanit), or simply Dečani is a medieval Serbian Orthodox Christian monastery located near Dečani, Kosovo.

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Voroneț Monastery

The Voroneț Monastery is a medieval monastery in the Romanian village of Voroneț, now a part of the town Gura Humorului.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Wawel Cathedral

The Royal Archcathedral Basilica of Saints Stanislaus and Wenceslaus on the Wawel Hill (królewska bazylika archikatedralna śś.), also known as the Wawel Cathedral (katedra wawelska), is a Roman Catholic church located on Wawel Hill in Kraków, Poland.

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Znojmo (Znaim) is a major town in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic, the administrative capital of the Znojmo District.

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Znojmo Rotunda

The Rotunda of St.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresco

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