164 relations: Acceleration, Acoustic lubrication, Acrylic rubber, Adhesion, Adhesion railway, Adhesive tape, Adsorption, Albert Einstein, Aluminium magnesium boride, Angle of repose, Aristotle, Arthur Morin, Asperity (materials science), Atmosphere, Atomic force microscopy, Atomic units, Ball bearing, Bearing (mechanical), Bernard Forest de Bélidor, Biodiversity Heritage Library, Boundary layer, Bowed string instrument, Brake, Brake pad, Brake shoe, Carbon monoxide, Cello, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, Chemical bond, Cobalt, Computer simulation, Conservation of energy, Contact area, Contact dynamics, Contact mechanics, Copper, Curling, David Tabor, Deformation (engineering), Deformation (mechanics), Dimensionless quantity, Disc brake, Dither, Drag (physics), Drag equation, Drag racing, Drum brake, Electric charge, Empirical evidence, Empirical research, ..., Engineering, Engineering tolerance, Erhu, Euclidean vector, Experiment, Explosion, First principle, Fleeming Jenkin, Fluid, Fluid bearing, Force, Fractal, Frame of reference, Frank Philip Bowden, Free body diagram, Fretting, Friction torque, Friction welding, Frictional contact mechanics, Frictionless plane, Fundamental interaction, Galling, George G. Adams (engineer), German language, Glass harp, Granular material, Graphite, Gravity, Guillaume Amontons, Hardness, Heat, High-density polyethylene, Hurdy-gurdy, Irreversible process, James Alfred Ewing, João Arménio Correia Martins, Johann Andreas Segner, John Leslie (physicist), John Theophilus Desaguliers, Kinetic energy, Leonardo da Vinci, Leonhard Euler, Line integral, Lubricant, Mass, Match, Measurement, Mechanical energy, Microscopic scale, Molecular machine, Molecular mass, Motor vehicle, Mu (letter), Multibody system, Nature (journal), Navier–Stokes equations, Non-smooth mechanics, Normal contact stiffness, Normal force, Numerical integration, Nylon, Osborne Reynolds, Painlevé paradox, Perfect fluid, Philosophical Magazine, Pieter van Musschenbroek, Platinum, Pliny the Elder, Polishing, Polyethylene, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Richard Feynman, Road, Road slipperiness, Road texture, Roadway noise, Rolling-element bearing, Saturated model, Scalar (physics), Science (journal), Self-oscillation, Shear stress, Sheri D. Sheppard, Silicone rubber, Split friction, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard gravity, Stick-slip phenomenon, Sticky pad, Stiction, Stress (mechanics), Superfluidity, Superlubricity, Surface roughness, Talc, Temperature, Themistius, Thermal energy, Thermoplastic, Titanium diboride, Traction (engineering), Transient friction loading, Triboelectric effect, Tribology, Tribometer, Unilateral contact, Vehicle, Velocity, Violin, Viscosity, Vitruvius, Wear, Work (physics), 20th century. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Acoustic or sonic lubrication occurs when sound (measurable in a vacuum by placing a microphone on one element of the sliding system) permits vibration to introduce separation between the sliding faces.
Acrylic rubber, known by the chemical name alkyl acrylate copolymer (ACM) or the tradename HyTemp, is a type of rubber that has outstanding resistance to hot oil and oxidation.
Adhesion is the tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another (cohesion refers to the tendency of similar or identical particles/surfaces to cling to one another).
An adhesion railway relies on adhesion traction to move the train.
Adhesive tape refers to any one of a variety of combinations of backing materials coated with an adhesive.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Aluminum magnesium boride or BAM is a chemical compound of aluminium, magnesium and boron.
The angle of repose, or critical angle of repose, of a granular material is the steepest angle of descent or dip relative to the horizontal plane to which a material can be piled without slumping.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arthur Jules Morin (19 October 1795 – 7 February 1880) was a French physicist.
In materials science, asperity, defined as "unevenness of surface, roughness, ruggedness" (OED, from the Latin asper — "rough"), has implications (for example) in physics and seismology.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
Atomic units (au or a.u.) form a system of natural units which is especially convenient for atomic physics calculations.
A ball bearing is a type of rolling-element bearing that uses balls to maintain the separation between the bearing races.
A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.
Bernard Forest de Bélidor (1698, Catalonia, Spain – 8 September 1761, Paris, France) was a French engineer, significant to the development of the science of hydraulics and ballistics.
The Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) is a consortium of natural history and botanical libraries that cooperate to digitize and make accessible the legacy literature of biodiversity held in their collections and to make that literature available for open access and responsible use as a part of a global “biodiversity commons.” The BHL consortium works with the international taxonomic community, rights holders, and other interested parties to ensure that this biodiversity heritage is made available to a global audience through open access principles.
In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.
Bowed string instruments are a subcategory of string instruments that are played by a bow rubbing the strings.
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.
Brake pads are a component of disc brakes used in automotive and other applications.
A brake shoe is the part of a braking system which carries the brake lining in the drum brakes used on automobiles, or the brake block in train brakes and bicycle brakes.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806) was a French military engineer and physicist.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
When two objects touch, a certain portion of their surface areas will be in contact with each other.
Contact dynamics deals with the motion of multibody systems subjected to unilateral contacts and friction.
Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
David Tabor, FRS (23 October 1913 – 26 November 2005) was a British physicist who was an early pioneer of tribology, the study of frictional interaction between surfaces, and well known for his influential undergraduate textbook "Gases, Liquids and Solids".
In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction.
Dither is an intentionally applied form of noise used to randomize quantization error, preventing large-scale patterns such as color banding in images.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid.
For the drag queen reality competition program, see RuPaul's Drag Race. Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles (usually specially prepared for the purpose) compete, usually two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line.
A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Engineering tolerance is the permissible limit or limits of variation in.
The erhu is a two-stringed bowed musical instrument, more specifically a spike fiddle, which may also be called a Southern Fiddle, and sometimes known in the Western world as the Chinese violin or a Chinese two-stringed fiddle.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
A first principle is a basic, foundational, self-evident proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
Prof Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin FRS FRSE LLD (25 March 1833 – 12 June 1885) was Regius Professor of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh, remarkable for his versatility.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Fluid bearings are bearings in which the load is supported by a thin layer of rapidly moving pressurized liquid or gas between the bearing surfaces.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
Frank Philip Bowden CBE FRS (2 May 1903 – 3 September 1968) was an Australian physicist.
In physics and engineering, a free body diagram (force diagram, or FBD) is a graphical illustration used to visualize the applied forces, movements, and resulting reactions on a body in a given condition.
Fretting refers to wear and sometimes corrosion damage at the asperities of contact surfaces.
Friction torque is the torque caused by the frictional force that occurs when two objects in contact move.
Friction welding (FRW) is a solid-state welding process that generates heat through mechanical friction between workpieces in relative motion to one another, with the addition of a lateral force called "upset" to plastically displace and fuse the materials.
Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points.
The frictionless plane is a concept from the writings of Galileo Galilei.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
Galling is a form of wear caused by adhesion between sliding surfaces.
George G. Adams (born 1948) is an American mechanical engineer specializing in tribology, contact mechanics, dynamics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A glass harp (also called musical glasses, singing glasses, angelic organ, verrilion or ghost fiddle) is a musical instrument made of upright wine glasses.
A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide).
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Guillaume Amontons (31 August 1663 – 11 October 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum.
The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a hand crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings.
In science, a process that is not reversible is called irreversible.
Sir James Alfred Ewing KCB FRS FRSE MInstitCE (27 March 1855 − 7 January 1935) was a Scottish physicist and engineer, best known for his work on the magnetic properties of metals and, in particular, for his discovery of, and coinage of the word, hysteresis.
João Arménio Correia Martins was born on November 11, 1951 at the southern town of Olhão in Portugal.
Johann Segner (János András Segner, Johann Andreas von Segner, Ján Andrej Segner, Iohannes Andreas de Segner; October 9, 1704 – October 5, 1777) was a Hungarian scientist.
Sir John Leslie, FRSE KH (10 April 1766 – 3 November 1832) was a Scottish mathematician and physicist best remembered for his research into heat.
John Theophilus Desaguliers FRS (12 March 1683 – 29 February 1744) was a French-born British natural philosopher, clergyman, engineer and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as experimental assistant to Isaac Newton.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve.
A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
A match is a tool for starting a fire.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
In physical sciences, mechanical energy is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine, refers to any discrete number of molecular components that produce quasi-mechanical movements (output) in response to specific stimuli (input).
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ, μι or μυ—both) or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Multibody system is the study of the dynamic behavior of interconnected rigid or flexible bodies, each of which may undergo large translational and rotational displacements.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.
Non-smooth mechanics is a modeling approach in mechanics which does not require the time evolutions of the positions and of the velocities to be smooth functions anymore.
Normal contact stiffness is a physical quantity related to the generalized force displacement behavior of rough surfaces in contact with a rigid body or a second similar rough surface.
In mechanics, the normal force F_n\ is that component of the contact force that is perpendicular to the surface that an object contacts.
In numerical analysis, numerical integration constitutes a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Osborne Reynolds FRS (23 August 1842 – 21 February 1912) was a prominent Irish innovator in the understanding of fluid dynamics.
The Painlevé paradox (also called by Jean Jacques Moreau frictional paroxysms) is a well-known example by Paul Painlevé in rigid-body dynamics that showed that rigid-body dynamics with both contact friction and Coulomb friction is inconsistent.
In physics, a perfect fluid is a fluid that can be completely characterized by its rest frame mass density \rho_m; and isotropic pressure p. Real fluids are "sticky" and contain (and conduct) heat.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
Pieter van Musschenbroek (14 March 1692 – 19 September 1761) was a Dutch scientist.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.) In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Road slipperiness (low skid resistance due to insufficient road friction) is the technical term for the cumulative effects of snow, ice, water, loose material and the texture of the road surface on the traction produced by the wheels of a vehicle.
Road surface textures are deviations from a planar and smooth surface, affecting the vehicle/tyre interaction.
Roadway noise is the collective sound energy emanating from motor vehicles.
A rolling-element bearing, also known as a rolling bearing, is a bearing which carries a load by placing rolling elements (such as balls or rollers) between two bearing rings called races.
In mathematical logic, and particularly in its subfield model theory, a saturated model M is one which realizes as many complete types as may be "reasonably expected" given its size.
A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Self-oscillation is the generation and maintenance of a periodic motion by a source of power that lacks any corresponding periodicity.
A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.
Sheri D. Sheppard (born 1956) is the Burton J. and Deedee McMurtry University Fellow in Undergraduate Education; Associate Vice Provost of Graduate Education; and Associate Chair for Undergraduate Curriculum, Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University.
Silicone rubber is an elastomer (rubber-like material) composed of silicone—itself a polymer—containing silicon together with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Split friction (or μ (mu) - split) is a road condition that occurs when the friction significantly differs between the left and the right wheelpath.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The standard acceleration due to gravity (or standard acceleration of free fall), sometimes abbreviated as standard gravity, usually denoted by or, is the nominal gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the Earth.
The stick-slip phenomenon, also known as the slip-stick phenomenon or simply stick-slip, is the spontaneous jerking motion that can occur while two objects are sliding over each other.
Sticky pad is a friction device used to prevent objects from sliding on a surface, by effectively increasing the friction between the object and the surface.
Stiction is the static friction that needs to be overcome to enable relative motion of stationary objects in contact.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
Superlubricity is a regime of motion in which friction vanishes or very nearly vanishes.
Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface texture.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
Titanium diboride (TiB2) is an extremely hard ceramic which has excellent heat conductivity, oxidation stability and resistance to mechanical erosion.
Traction, or tractive force, is the force used to generate motion between a body and a tangential surface, through the use of dry friction, though the use of shear force of the surface is also commonly used.
Transient friction loading, also known as TFL, is the mechanical stress induced on an object due to transient or vibrational frictional forces.
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.
Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion.
A tribometer is an instrument that measures tribological quantities, such as coefficient of friction, friction force, and wear volume, between two surfaces in contact.
In mechanics, a unilateral contact denotes a mechanical constraint which prevents penetration between two bodies; see figure 1a.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Wear is the damaging, gradual removal or deformation of material at solid surfaces.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
Angle of friction, Coefficient of friction, Coefficient of kinetic friction, Coefficient of sliding friction, Coefficient of static friction, Contact friction, Coulomb friction, Coulomb's law of friction, Dry friction, Dynamic friction, Force of friction, Friction angle, Friction coefficient, Friction coefficients, Friction physics, Frictional Force, Frictional coefficient, Frictional force, Frictionless, Internal friction, Kinetic Friction, Kinetic friction, Limiting friction, Sliding Friction, Sliding friction, Starting Friction, Starting friction, Static Friction, Static friction.