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Friedrich Bessel

Index Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist. [1]

89 relations: Adolf Erman, Alpha Centauri, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Asteroid belt, Astronomer, Astronomy, Astrophysics Data System, Atmospheric refraction, Berlin Observatory, Bessel (crater), Bessel ellipsoid, Bessel function, Bessel's correction, Besselian elements, Bremen, British Science Association, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Christian Albrecht Jensen, Cosmic distance ladder, Daniel Bernoulli, Differential equation, Discovery of Neptune, Earth, Egyptology, Erman, Figure of the Earth, Franz Ernst Neumann, Frederick William III of Prussia, French Academy of Sciences, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, Geodesics on an ellipsoid, Geodesy, Georg Adolf Erman, Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach, Germany, Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Gotthilf Hagen, Halley's Comet, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, Hermann August Hagen, Honorary degree, James Bradley, Johann Gottfried Galle, Johann Hieronymus Schröter, John Herschel, Kaliningrad, Karl Christian Bruhns, Karl Gottfried Hagen, ..., Königsberg, Kingdom of Prussia, Koenigsberg Observatory, Lalande Prize, Lilienthal, Lower Saxony, List of things named after Friedrich Bessel, Longitude, Mare Serenitatis, Mathematician, Mathematics, Meridian circle, Minden, Minden-Ravensberg, Minute and second of arc, Nathaniel Torporley, Navigation, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Parallax, Personal equation, Physicist, Procyon, Province of Prussia, Prussian Academy of Sciences, Quantum mechanics, Retroperitoneal fibrosis, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Society, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Russia, Sirius, Stellar parallax, Thomas Harriot, Thomas Henderson (astronomer), University of Göttingen, University of Königsberg, Variance, Vega, Westphalia, 61 Cygni. Expand index (39 more) »

Adolf Erman

Johann Peter Adolf Erman (31 October 185426 June 1937) was a renowned German Egyptologist and lexicographer.

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Alpha Centauri

Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.

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American Academy of Arts and Sciences

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States of America.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astrophysics Data System

The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is an online database of over eight million astronomy and physics papers from both peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed sources.

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Atmospheric refraction

Atmospheric refraction is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height.

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Berlin Observatory

The Berlin Observatory (Berliner Sternwarte) is a German astronomical institution with a series of observatories and related organizations in and around the city of Berlin in Germany, starting from the 18th century.

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Bessel (crater)

Bessel is a small lunar impact crater that is located in the southern half of the Mare Serenitatis.

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Bessel ellipsoid

The Bessel ellipsoid (or Bessel 1841) is an important reference ellipsoid of geodesy.

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Bessel function

Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.

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Bessel's correction

In statistics, Bessel's correction is the use of n − 1 instead of n in the formula for the sample variance and sample standard deviation, where n is the number of observations in a sample.

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Besselian elements

The Besselian elements are a set of values used to calculate and predict the local circumstances of occultations for an observer on Earth.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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British Science Association

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

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Christian Albrecht Jensen

Christian Albrecht Jensen (26 June 1792 – 13 July 1870) was a Danish portrait painter who was active during the Golden Age of Danish Painting in the first half of the 19th century.

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Cosmic distance ladder

The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects.

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Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

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Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

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Discovery of Neptune

The planet Neptune was mathematically predicted before it was directly observed.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Egyptology

Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.

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Erman

Erman may refer to.

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Figure of the Earth

The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.

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Franz Ernst Neumann

Franz Ernst Neumann (11 September 1798 – 23 May 1895) was a German mineralogist, physicist and mathematician.

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Frederick William III of Prussia

Frederick William III (Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve

Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Василий Яковлевич Струве, trans. Vasily Yakovlevich Struve; 15 April 1793 –) was a German-Russian astronomer and geodesist from the famous Struve family.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander

Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (22 March 1799 – 17 February 1875) was a German astronomer.

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Geodesics on an ellipsoid

The study of geodesics on an ellipsoid arose in connection with geodesy specifically with the solution of triangulation networks.

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Geodesy

Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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Georg Adolf Erman

Georg Adolf Erman (12 May 1806 – 12 July 1877) was a German physicist.

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Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach

Georg Friedrich von Reichenbach (24 August 1771 – 21 May 1826), German scientific instrument maker, was born at Durlach in Baden on 24 August 1771.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society

The Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is the highest award given by the RAS.

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Gotthilf Hagen

Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen (March 3, 1797 – February 3, 1884) was a German civil engineer who made important contributions to fluid dynamics, hydraulic engineering and probability theory.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.

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Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers

Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (October 11, 1758 – March 2, 1840) was a German physician and astronomer.

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Hermann August Hagen

Hermann August Hagen (30 May 1817 – 9 November 1893) was a German entomologist who specialised in Neuroptera and Odonata.

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Honorary degree

An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.

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James Bradley

James Bradley FRS (March 1693 – 13 July 1762) was an English astronomer and priest and served as Astronomer Royal from 1742, succeeding Edmond Halley.

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Johann Gottfried Galle

Johann Gottfried Galle, 1880 Galle's signature Memorial plaque in Wittenberg Johann Gottfried Galle (9 June 1812 – 10 July 1910) was a German astronomer from Radis, Germany, at the Berlin Observatory who, on 23 September 1846, with the assistance of student Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, was the first person to view the planet Neptune and know what he was looking at.

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Johann Hieronymus Schröter

Johann Hieronymus Schröter (30 August 1745, Erfurt – 29 August 1816, Lilienthal) was a German astronomer.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Karl Christian Bruhns

Karl Christian Bruhns (22 November 1830 – 25 July 1881) was a German astronomer.

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Karl Gottfried Hagen

Karl Gottfried Hagen (24 December 1749 – 2 March 1829) was a German chemist.

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Königsberg

Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Koenigsberg Observatory

Koenigsberg Observatory (Sternwarte Königsberg; Königsberger Universitätssternwarte; obs. code: 058) was an astronomical observatory and research facility which was attached to the Albertina University in Königsberg, what is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Lalande Prize

The Lalande Prize (French: Prix Lalande) was an award for scientific advances in astronomy, given from 1802 until 1970 by the French Academy of Sciences.

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Lilienthal, Lower Saxony

The municipality of Lilienthal belongs to the administrative district of Osterholz, Lower Saxony and borders Bremen (Free Hanseatic City of Bremen).

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List of things named after Friedrich Bessel

This is a (partial) list of things named for Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, a 19th-century German scholar who worked in astronomy, geodesy and mathematical sciences.

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Longitude

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Mare Serenitatis

Mare Serenitatis ("Sea of Serenity") is a lunar mare located to the east of Mare Imbrium on the Moon.

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Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Meridian circle

The meridian circle is an instrument for timing of the passage of stars across the local meridian, an event known as a culmination, while at the same time measuring their angular distance from the nadir.

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Minden

Minden is a town of about 83,000 inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Minden-Ravensberg

Minden-Ravensberg was a Prussian administrative unit consisting of the Principality of Minden and the County of Ravensberg from 1719–1807.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Nathaniel Torporley

Nathaniel Torporley (1564–1632) was an English clergyman, mathematician, and astrologer.

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Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek

The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek (Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve and theke, a storing-place) is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Parallax

Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

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Personal equation

The term personal equation, in 19th- and early 20th-century science, referred to the idea that every individual observer had an inherent bias when it came to measurements and observations.

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Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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Procyon

Procyon, also designated Alpha Canis Minoris (α Canis Minoris, abbreviated Alpha CMi, α CMi), is the brightest star in the constellation of Canis Minor.

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Province of Prussia

The Province of Prussia (Prowincjô Prësë) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1829–1878.

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Prussian Academy of Sciences

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften) was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may also refer.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Retroperitoneal fibrosis

Retroperitoneal fibrosis or Ormond's disease is a disease featuring the proliferation of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneum, the compartment of the body containing the kidneys, aorta, renal tract, and various other structures.

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Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sirius

Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.

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Stellar parallax

Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.

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Thomas Harriot

Thomas Harriot (Oxford, c. 1560 – London, 2 July 1621), also spelled Harriott, Hariot or Heriot, was an English astronomer, mathematician, ethnographer and translator who made advances within the scientific field.

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Thomas Henderson (astronomer)

Thomas Henderson FRSE FRS FRAS (28 December 1798 – 23 November 1844) was a Scottish astronomer and mathematician noted for being the first person to measure the distance to Alpha Centauri, the major component of the nearest stellar system to Earth, the first to determine the parallax of a fixed star, and for being the first Astronomer Royal for Scotland.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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University of Königsberg

The University of Königsberg (Albertus-Universität Königsberg) was the university of Königsberg in East Prussia.

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Variance

In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

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Vega

Vega, also designated Alpha Lyrae (α Lyrae, abbreviated Alpha Lyr or α Lyr), is the brightest star in the constellation of Lyra, the fifth-brightest star in the night sky, and the second-brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.

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Westphalia

Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.

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61 Cygni

61 Cygni Not to be confused with 16 Cygni, a more distant system containing two G-type stars harboring the gas giant planet 16 Cygni Bb.

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Redirects here:

F. W. Bessel, Frederic Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, Friedrich bessel, Tabulae Regiomontanae, Wilhelm Bessel.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Bessel

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