72 relations: Adam Smith, Age of Enlightenment, Aristotle, Atheism, Baruch Spinoza, Bavaria, Berlin Enlightenment, Charles Bonnet, Christian Wolff (philosopher), Christoph Martin Wieland, David Hume, Düsseldorf, Der Teutsche Merkur, Electoral Palatinate, Ethics, Faith, Fatalism, Franz Xaver von Baader, French Revolution, French Revolutionary Wars, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Geneva, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German Confederation, German idealism, Germans, God, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, Hermann Lotze, Holy Roman Empire, Immanuel Kant, Individualism, Jakob Friedrich Fries, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Johann Georg, Johann Georg Jacobi, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Karl von Prantl, Kingdom of Bavaria, Leo Strauss, Liberty, Literature, Ludwig Feuerbach, Martin Heidegger, Matthias Claudius, Mechanism (philosophy), Metaphysics, ..., Moses Mendelssohn, Munich, Nihilism, Philosopher, Philosophical methodology, Relativism, Religious philosophy, Revelation, Søren Kierkegaard, Scottish common sense realism, Socialite, Society of Jesus, Speculative reason, Spinozism, Sturm und Drang, Theology, Thomas Reid, University of Jena, Victor Cousin, Voltaire, Western philosophy, 19th-century philosophy. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
In 1740 Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, came to power in the Kingdom of Prussia.
Charles Bonnet (13 March 1720 – 20 May 1793), Genevan naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into the region by the religious persecution in the 16th century.
Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.
Christoph Martin Wieland (5 September 1733 – 20 January 1813) was a German poet and writer.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Der teutsche Merkur (English: The German Mercury) was a literary magazine published and edited by Christoph Martin Wieland.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
Fatalism is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to destiny.
Franz von Baader (27 March 1765 – 23 May 1841), born Benedikt Franz Xaver Baader, was a German Catholic philosopher, theologian, and mining engineer.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
German idealism (also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism) was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781) was a German writer, philosopher, dramatist, publicist and art critic, and one of the most outstanding representatives of the Enlightenment era.
Rudolf Hermann Lotze (21 May 1817 – 1 July 1881) was a German philosopher and logician.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Jakob Friedrich Fries (23 August 1773 – 10 August 1843) was a German post-KantianTerry Pinkard, German Philosophy 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
The German given name Johann Georg, or its variant spellings, may refer to.
Johann Georg Jacobi (September 2, 1740 – January 4, 1814) was a German poet.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Karl Leonhard Reinhold (26 October 1757 – 10 April 1823) was an Austrian philosopher who helped to popularise the work of Immanuel Kant in the late 18th century.
Carl (von) Prantl (28 January 1820 – 14 September 1888; after 1872 Ritter von Prantl) was a German philosopher and philologist.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Matthias Claudius (15 August 1740 – 21 January 1815) was a German poet and journalist, otherwise known by the pen name of “Asmus”.
Mechanism is the belief that natural wholes (principally living things) are like complicated machines or artifacts, composed of parts lacking any intrinsic relationship to each other.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Moses Mendelssohn (6 September 1729 – 4 January 1786) was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the Haskalah, the 'Jewish enlightenment' of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is indebted.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.
Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Religious philosophy is philosophical thinking that is inspired and directed by a particular religion.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
Scottish Common Sense Realism, also known as the Scottish School of Common Sense, is a school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart during the 18th century Scottish Enlightenment.
A socialite is a person (usually from a privileged, wealthy, or aristocratic background) who has a wide reputation and a high position in society.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought.
Spinozism (also spelled Spinoza-ism or Spinozaism) is the monist philosophical system of Baruch Spinoza which defines "God" as a singular self-subsistent substance, with both matter and thought being attributes of such.
Sturm und Drang (literally "storm and drive", "storm and urge", though conventionally translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and the early 1780s.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".
Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU; Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, shortened form Uni Jena) is a public research university located in Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
Victor Cousin (28 November 179214 January 1867) was a French philosopher.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influencing new generations of thinkers.