66 relations: Alec Issigonis, Audi, Audi A4, Audi Quattro, Austin Allegro, Austin Maxi, Auto Union, Auto Union 1000, Autobianchi Primula, Automobile handling, Automotive design, Axle, BMC ADO16, BMW, Buick Riviera, Cadillac Eldorado, Citroën 2CV, Citroën Traction Avant, City car, Dante Giacosa, DKW, DKW F89, Drive shaft, Fiat 127, Fiat 128, Ford Taunus, Front mid-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Front-wheel drive, Internal combustion engine, Jean-Albert Grégoire, Jensen FF, Kei car, Lancia Flavia, Lancia Fulvia, Mini, Mini (marque), Nissan Cherry, Oldsmobile Toronado, Overhang (car), Panhard Dyna X, Performance car, Peugeot 104, PSA-Renault X-Type engine, Quattro (four-wheel-drive system), Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Renault, Renault 14, Renault 4, ..., Renault 5, Saab 92, Saab 99, Suzuki Suzulight, Torque steer, Toyota, Toyota Camry, Toyota Corolla, Toyota Tercel, Traction (engineering), Understeer and oversteer, Universal joint, Vehicle frame, Volkswagen Group MLB platform, Weight distribution, World War II. Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Sir Alexander Arnold Constantine Issigonis, (Αλέξανδρος Αρνόλδος Κωνσταντίνος Ισηγόνης Alexandros Arnoldos Konstantinos Isigonis; 18 November 1906 – 2 October 1988) was a British-Greek designer of cars, widely noted for the groundbreaking and influential development of the Mini, launched by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) in 1959.
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.
The Audi A4 is a line of compact executive cars produced since 1994 by the German car manufacturer Audi, a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group.
The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group.
The Austin Allegro is a small family car that was manufactured by the Austin-Morris division of British Leyland from 1973 until 1982.
The Austin Maxi is a medium-sized 5-door hatchback car that was produced by Austin and later British Leyland between 1969 and 1981. It was the first British five-door hatchback to be fitted with a five-speed transmission.
Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, was an amalgamation of four German automobile manufacturers, founded in 1932 and established in 1936 in Chemnitz, Saxony, during the Great Depression.
The Auto Union 1000 is a luxury compact front-wheel-drive automobile manufactured by Auto Union GmbH between 1958 and 1965.
The Autobianchi Primula is a supermini economy car manufactured between 1964 and 1970 by the Italian automaker Autobianchi, a now defunct subsidiary of the Fiat Group.
Automobile handling and vehicle handling are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road.
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, and to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, coaches, and vans.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
The BMC ADO16 (Amalgamated Drawing Office project number 16) is a range of small family cars built by the British Motor Corporation (BMC) and, later, British Leyland.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
The Buick Riviera is a personal luxury car produced by Buick from 1963 to 1999.
The Cadillac Eldorado is a personal luxury car that was manufactured and marketed by Cadillac from 1952 to 2002 over ten generations.
The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality".
The Citroën Traction Avant is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1934 to 1957.
A city car (also known as urban car or a mini) is a small car designed to be used primarily in urban areas and conurbations.
Dante Giacosa (3 January 1905 - 31 March 1996) was an Italian automobile designer and engineer responsible for a range of Italian automobile designs — and for refining the front-wheel drive layout to an industry-standard configuration.
DKW (Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, steam-powered car) is a German car and motorcycle marque.
The DKW Meisterklasse (English: "Master Class") also known as the DKW F89 was a compact front-wheel drive saloon manufactured by Auto Union GmbH between 1950 and 1954.
A drive shaft, driveshaft, driving shaft, propeller shaft (prop shaft), or Cardan shaft is a mechanical component for transmitting torque and rotation, usually used to connect other components of a drive train that cannot be connected directly because of distance or the need to allow for relative movement between them.
The Fiat 127 is a supermini car produced by Italian car manufacturer FIAT from 1971 to 1983.
The Fiat 128 is a tranverse front-engine, front wheel drive small family car manufactured and marketed by Fiat from 1969 to 1985 as a two- or four-door sedan, three- or five-door station wagon as well as two- or three-door coupé.
The Ford Taunus is a family car that was sold by Ford Germany throughout Europe.
In automotive design, a Front Mid-engine, Front-wheel-drive layout (sometimes called FMF or just MF) is one in which the front road wheels are driven by an internal-combustion engine placed just behind them, in front of the passenger compartment.
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
Jean-Albert Grégoire (7 July 1899 in Paris – 19 August 1992) was one of the great pioneers of the front-wheel-drive car.
The Jensen FF is a four-wheel drive grand tourer produced by British car manufacturer Jensen Motors between 1966 and 1971.
Kei car, K-car, or (pronounced), is the Japanese legal category for the smallest and most limited power, highway-legal motor vehicles, including passenger cars (kei cars or kei-class cars), microvans, and Kei trucks (kei-class pickup trucks).
The Lancia Flavia (Tipo 815/819/820) is an executive car produced by Lancia in Italy from 1961 to 1971.
The Lancia Fulvia (Tipo 818) is an automobile produced by Lancia between 1963 and 1976.
The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000.
Mini (stylised as MINI) is a British automotive marque, owned by BMW since 2000, and used by them for a range of small cars.
The Datsun Cherry (チェリー), known later as the Nissan Cherry, was a series of subcompact cars which formed Nissan's first front-wheel drive supermini model line.
The Oldsmobile Toronado is a personal luxury car produced by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors from 1966 to 1992.
Overhangs are the lengths of a car which extend beyond the wheelbase at the front and rear.
The Panhard Dyna X was a lightweight berline designed by the visionary engineer Jean Albert Grégoire and first exhibited as the AFG (Aluminium Français Grégoire) Dyna at the Paris Motor Show in 1946.
A performance car is an automobile that is designed and constructed specifically for speed.
The Peugeot 104 is a city car motor car designed by Paolo Martin and produced by the French car manufacturer Peugeot between 1972 and 1988.
The PSA X engine is a family of internal combustion engines used in Citroën, Peugeot, Talbot and Renault automobiles.
Quattro (meaning four in Italian) is the sub-brand used by the car brand Audi to indicate that all-wheel drive (AWD) technologies or systems are used on specific models of its Audi automobiles.
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout (now simply known as MR or Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout) is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment.
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
The Renault 14 is a compact car produced by the French manufacturer Renault between 1976 and 1983.
The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994.
The Renault 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault.
Saab 92 is the first production automobile from Saab.
The Saab 99 is a compact executive car which was produced by Saab from 1968 to 1984.
Suzulight was the brand used for the kei cars built by the Suzuki Motor Corporation from 1955 to 1969.
Torque steer is the unintended influence of engine torque on the steering, especially in front-wheel drive vehicles.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The Toyota Camry (Japanese: トヨタ・カムリ Toyota Kamuri) is an automobile sold internationally by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota since 1982, spanning multiple generations.
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota.
The Toyota Tercel is a subcompact manufactured by Toyota from 1978 to 1999 across five generations, in five body configurations sized between the Corolla and the Starlet.
Traction, or tractive force, is the force used to generate motion between a body and a tangential surface, through the use of dry friction, though the use of shear force of the surface is also commonly used.
Understeer and oversteer are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering.
A universal joint (universal coupling, U-joint, Cardan joint, Spicer or Hardy Spicer joint, or Hooke's joint) is a joint or coupling connecting rigid rods whose axes are inclined to each other, and is commonly used in shafts that transmit rotary motion.
A vehicle frame, also known as its chassis, is the main supporting structure of a motor vehicle, to which all other components are attached, comparable to the skeleton of an organism.
The Volkswagen Group MLB platform is the company's platform strategy, announced in 2012, for shared modular construction of its longitudinal, front-engined automobiles.
Weight distribution is the apportioning of weight within a vehicle, especially cars, airplanes, and trains.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.