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Index Frostbite

Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues. [1]

92 relations: Alcohol, Alcoholic drink, Aloe vera, Antarctic, Antibiotic, Antiseptic, Arthritis, Aspirin, Autoamputation, Beck Weathers, Bleeding, Blister, Blood vessel, Bone scintigraphy, Bullous pemphigoid, Cell membrane, Cellulitis, Chilblains, Chlorhexidine, Coagulation, Compartment syndrome, Computed tomography angiography, Debridement, Diabetes mellitus, Dominique Jean Larrey, Dressing (medical), Emergency medicine, Epidemiology, Epiphyseal plate, Eschar, Fasciotomy, Fibroblast, Freezing, Gangrene, Heparin, History of wound care, Hugh Herr, Human body temperature, Hyperbaric medicine, Hypothermia, Ibuprofen, Iloprost, Incidence (epidemiology), Intravenous therapy, Ischemia, Jamie Andrew, Lawrence Oates, Levamisole, Levamisole-induced vasculitis, Magnetic resonance imaging, ..., Management of dehydration, Mast cell, Medical history, Mental disorder, Moisturizer, Mont Blanc massif, Mount Washington (New Hampshire), Mountaineering, Mummy, Napoleon, Necrosis, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Opioid, Orthopedic surgery, Paresthesia, Perspiration, Platelet, Povidone-iodine, Prostaglandin, Randomized controlled trial, Raynaud syndrome, Reperfusion injury, Reserpine, Scar, Sepsis, Sympathectomy, Sympatholytic, Technetium-99m, Tetanospasmin, Tetanus vaccine, Thrombolysis, Thrombus, Tissue plasminogen activator, Tobacco, Trench foot, Ulcer, Vasculitis, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasospasm, Wilderness Medical Society, 1996 Mount Everest disaster. Expand index (42 more) »


In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Aloe vera

Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe.

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The Antarctic (US English, UK English or and or) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Autoamputation is the spontaneous detachment (amputation) of an appendage from the body.

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Beck Weathers

Seaborn Beck Weathers (born December 16, 1946) is an American pathologist from Texas.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Bone scintigraphy

A bone scan or bone scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging technique of the bone.

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Bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid is an acute or chronic autoimmune skin disease, involving the formation of blisters, more appropriately known as bullae, at the space between the epidermis and dermis skin layers.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin.

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Chilblains — also known as pernio, chill burns and perniosis — is a medical condition that occurs when a predisposed individual is exposed to cold and humidity, causing tissue damage.

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Chlorhexidine is a disinfectant and antiseptic that is used for skin disinfection before surgery and to sterilize surgical instruments.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Compartment syndrome

Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within one of the body's compartments results in insufficient blood supply to tissue within that space.

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Computed tomography angiography

Computed tomography angiography (also called CT angiography or CTA) is a computed tomography technique used to visualize arterial and venous vessels throughout the body.

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Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dominique Jean Larrey

Dominique Jean Larrey (8 July 1766 – 25 July 1842) was a French surgeon in Napoleon's Grande Armée and an important innovator in battlefield medicine and triage.

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Dressing (medical)

A dressing is a sterile pad or compress applied to a wound to promote healing and protect the wound from further harm.

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Emergency medicine

Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epiphyseal plate

The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.

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An eschar (Greek: eschara) is a slough or piece of dead tissue that is cast off from the surface of the skin, particularly after a burn injury, but also seen in gangrene, ulcer, fungal infections, necrotizing spider bite wounds, spotted fevers and exposure to cutaneous anthrax.

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Fasciotomy or fasciectomy is a surgical procedure where the fascia is cut to relieve tension or pressure commonly to treat the resulting loss of circulation to an area of tissue or muscle.

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A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

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Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.

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Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.

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Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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History of wound care

The history of wound care spans from prehistory to modern medicine.

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Hugh Herr

Hugh Herr (born October 25, 1964) is an American rock climber, engineer, and biophysicist.

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Human body temperature

Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.

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Hyperbaric medicine

Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.

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Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Iloprost is a drug used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), scleroderma, Raynaud's phenomenon and other diseases in which the blood vessels are constricted and blood can't flow to the tissues.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Jamie Andrew

Jamie Andrew (born 1969) is a Scottish mountaineer.

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Lawrence Oates

Captain Lawrence Edward Grace "Titus" Oates (17 March 188017 March 1912) was a British army officer, and later an Antarctic explorer, who died during the Terra Nova Expedition.

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Levamisole, sold under the trade name Ergamisol among others, is a medication used to treat parasitic worm infections.

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Levamisole-induced vasculitis

Levamisole Induced Necrosis Syndrome (LINES) is a complication of adulterated cocaine recognized in 2011, caused by the use of levamisole as a cutting agent for cocaine.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Management of dehydration

The management of dehydration typically involves the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS).

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Moisturizers or emollients are complex mixtures of chemical agents (often occlusives help hold water in the skin after application, humectants attract moisture and emollients help smooth the skin.) specially designed to make the external layers of the skin (epidermis) softer and more pliable.

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Mont Blanc massif

The Mont Blanc massif (Massif du Mont-Blanc; Massiccio del Monte Bianco) is a mountain range in the Alps, located mostly in France and Italy, but also straddling Switzerland at its northeastern end.

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Mount Washington (New Hampshire)

Mount Washington, called Agiocochook by some Native American tribes, is the highest peak in the Northeastern United States at and the most prominent mountain east of the Mississippi River.

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Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.

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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Orthopedic surgery

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.

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Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.

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Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Povidone-iodine (PVP-I), also known as iodopovidone, is an antiseptic used for skin disinfection before and after surgery.

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The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Raynaud syndrome

Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.

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Reperfusion injury

Reperfusion injury or reperfusion insult, sometimes called ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) or reoxygenation injury, is the tissue damage caused when blood supply returns to tissue (re- + perfusion) after a period of ischemia or lack of oxygen (anoxia or hypoxia).

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Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.

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A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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A sympathectomy is an irreversible procedure during which at least one sympathetic ganglion is removed.

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A sympatholytic (or sympathoplegic) drug is a medication that opposes the downstream effects of postganglionic nerve firing in effector organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).

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Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.

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Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus.

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Tetanus vaccine

Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid (TT), is an inactive vaccine used to prevent tetanus.

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Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication.

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A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.

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Tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Trench foot

Trench foot is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions.

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An ulcer is a discontinuity or break in a bodily membrane that impedes the organ of which that membrane is a part from continuing its normal functions.

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Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.

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Vasospasm refers to a condition in which an arterial spasm leads to vasoconstriction.

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Wilderness Medical Society

The Wilderness Medical Society was created on 15 February 1983 by three physicians from California, United States — Dr.

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1996 Mount Everest disaster

The 1996 Mount Everest disaster occurred on 10–11 May 1996, when eight people caught in a blizzard died on Mount Everest during attempts to descend from the summit.

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Cold burn, Cold injury, Congelatio, Freezing cold injury, Frost bite, Frost burn, Frost-bite, Frostbite (medical condition), Frostbite with tissue necrosis, Frostbitten, Frostnip, Neonatal cold injury, Resistance Index for Frostbite, Resistance Index of Frostbite, Superficial frostbite.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frostbite

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