132 relations: -ose, Acetyl-CoA, Active transport, Agave nectar, Aldolase B, Amino acid, Anomer, Apple, Apricot, Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut, Bacteria, Bakery, Banana, Beetroot, Berry, Beta cell, Blood sugar level, Breakfast cereal, Brown sugar, Calorie, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Cardiovascular disease, Carrot, Catabolism, Causality, Chemical compound, Chemical equilibrium, Chili pepper, Clinical research, Clinical trial, Corn syrup, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Cytosol, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diarrhea, Dietary fiber, Digestion, Dihydroxyacetone phosphate, Disaccharide, Dyslipidemia, Enterocyte, Enzyme, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, European Food Safety Authority, Facilitated diffusion, Fatty acid, Fermentation, Ficus, ..., Fructokinase, Fructolysis, Fructose 1-phosphate, Furanose, Galactose, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, GLUT2, GLUT5, Glycemic index, Glyceraldehyde, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, Glycolysis, Grape, Haworth projection, Heat of combustion, Hemiacetal, Hepatocyte, Hereditary fructose intolerance, High-fructose corn syrup, Honey, Hydrogen breath test, Hydrolysis, Hydroxymethylfurfural, Hypertension, Insulin resistance, Inverted sugar syrup, Isomer, Isomerization, Juice, Ketose, List of root vegetables, Low-density lipoprotein, Maillard reaction, Maize, Maple syrup, Meta-analysis, Metabolic syndrome, Mitochondrion, Mixture, Moiety (chemistry), Molasses, Monosaccharide, Mutagen, Nutrient, Obesity, Onion, Orange (fruit), Osmotic concentration, Palatability, Peach, Pear, Pediatrics, Phosphate, Phosphorylation, Pineapple, Plum, Portal vein, Powdered sugar, Prandial, Pyranose, Pyruvic acid, Relative humidity, Short-chain fatty acid, Small intestine, Soft drink, Starch gelatinization, Sucrose, Sugar, Sugar beet, Sugar substitute, Sugarcane, Sweet potato, Taste, Tonne, Triglyceride, Triokinase, Triose, Very low-density lipoprotein, William Allen Miller, Yam (vegetable), Yeast. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -ose is used in biochemistry to form the names of sugars.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Agave nectar (more accurately, agave syrup) is a sweetener commercially produced from several species of agave, including Agave tequilana (blue agave) and Agave salmiana.
Aldolase B also known as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B or liver-type aldolase is one of three isoenzymes (A, B, and C) of the class I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124), and plays a key role in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An anomer is a type of geometric variation found in at certain atoms in carbohydrate molecules.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Augustin-Pierre Dubrunfaut (1 September 1797, Lille – 7 October 1881) was a French chemist.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bakery (a.k.a. baker's shop or bake shop) is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cookies, cakes, pastries, and pies.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Breakfast cereal is a food product made from processed cereal grains that is often eaten as a breakfast in primarily Western societies.
Brown sugar is a sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.
The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP, also glycerone phosphate in older texts) is the anion with the formula HOCH2C(O)CH2OPO32-.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
Fructokinase (/fruc•to•ki•nase/), also known as D-fructokinase or D-fructose (D-mannose) kinase,.
Fructolysis refers to the metabolism of fructose from dietary sources.
Fructose-1-phosphate is a derivative of fructose.
A furanose is a collective term for carbohydrates that have a chemical structure that includes a five-membered ring system consisting of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) also known as solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (SLC2A2) is a transmembrane carrier protein that enables protein facilitated glucose movement across cell membranes.
GLUT5 is a fructose transporter expressed on the apical border of enterocytes in the small intestine.
The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.
Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, also known as triose phosphate or 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde and abbreviated as G3P, GA3P, GADP, GAP, TP, GALP or PGAL, is the metabolite that occurs as an intermediate in several central pathways of all organisms.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
A Haworth projection is a common way of writing a structural formula to represent the cyclic structure of monosaccharides with a simple three-dimensional perspective.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an inborn error of fructose metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aldolase B. Individuals affected with HFI are asymptomatic until they ingest fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
A hydrogen breath test (or HBT) is used as a diagnostic tool for small intestine bacterial overgrowth and carbohydrate malabsorption, such as lactose, fructose, and sorbitol malabsorption.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), also 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, is an organic compound formed by the dehydration of certain sugars.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.
A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.
Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Palatability is the hedonic reward (i.e., pleasure) provided by foods or fluids that are agreeable to the "palate", which often varies relative to the homeostatic satisfaction of nutritional, water, or energy needs.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
Powdered sugar, also called confectioners' sugar, icing sugar, and icing cake, is a finely ground sugar produced by milling granulated sugar into a powdered state.
Prandial relates to a meal.
Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
In enzymology, a triokinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-glyceraldehyde, whereas its two products are ADP and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
A triose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, containing three carbon atoms.
Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.
William Allen Miller FRS (17 December 1817 – 30 September 1870) was a British scientist.
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
ATC code V06DC02, ATCvet code QV06DC02, Beta-levulose, Crystalline Fructose, Crystalline fructose, D-Fructose, D-arabino-hexulose, D-fructose, Fructofuranose, Fructose intoxication, Fructose metabolism, Fructose metabolism, inborn errors, Fructose sweetener, Fruit sugar, High fructose syrup, L-Fructose, L-fructose, Laevulose, Levulose, Liquid fructose.