225 relations: Accessory fruit, Achene, Acorn, Agriculture, Alcoholic drink, Allspice, Amelanchier alnifolia, Animal, Annona, Apple, Apple juice, Apricot, Arctium, Asclepias, Banana, Bean, Beech, Beetroot, Bell pepper, Berry (botany), Biological dispersal, Black pepper, Blackberry, Blackcurrant, Blueberry, Botany, Boysenberry, Bramble, Brandy, Brazil nut, Breadfruit, Cake, Callicarpa, Calotropis, Cambridge University Press, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Capsule (fruit), Carrot, Caryopsis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cereal, Cherry, Chili pepper, Citrus, Citrus unshiu, Clematis, Cockroach, Coconut, Codeine, Coir, ..., Cold chain, Cookie, Cotoneaster, Cranberry, CRC Press, Cucumber, Cucurbita, Cucurbitaceae, Cultivar, Defecation, Dehiscence (botany), Dipsacus, Double fertilization, Drupe, Ecballium, Eggplant, Elm, Embryo, Endosperm, Ethylene, Evolution, Fiber, Ficus, Flowering plant, Follicle (fruit), Food contaminant, Food preservation, Food safety, Foodborne illness, Fraxinus, Fruit beer, Fruit tree, Fruitarianism, Fungus, Gametophyte, Germination, Gift basket, Ginkgo biloba, Gooseberry, Gourd, Grape, Grape juice, Grapefruit, Green bean, Guava, Gymnosperm, Gynoecium, Halloween, Hazelnut, Helicopter, Hesperidium, Hoarding, Holly, Human, Hura crepitans, Ice cream, Impatiens, Inflorescence, Jack-o'-lantern, Kiwifruit, Legume, Lemon, Lime (fruit), Liquidambar, Liriodendron, List of culinary fruits, List of fruit dishes, Lists of foods, Loment, Lunaria annua, Maclura pomifera, Magnolia, Maize, Mandarin orange, Mango, Maple, Melon, Morinda citrifolia, Morphine, Morus (plant), Muffin, Myrica, Natural dye, Nelumbo, Nix v. Hedden, Nut (fruit), Nutrition, Nypa fruticans, Okra, Olive, Olive oil, Opium, Orange (fruit), Orange juice, Ornamental plant, Ovary (botany), Ovule, Oxycodone, Pandanus, Papaver somniferum, Pappus (botany), Paprika, Parthenocarpy, Pea, Peach, Peanut, Pear, Peony, Petal, Petiole (botany), Pine nut, Pineapple, Plum, Pollination, Polyploid, Pome, Pomegranate, Pouteria lucuma, Proboscidea (plant), Prunus, Pseudanthium, Pumpkin, Pyracantha, Radish, Ranunculus, Raspberry, Redcurrant, Rhubarb, Rice, Ripening, Rosaceae, Rose, Rose hip, Rubus, Samara (fruit), Schizocarp, Seed, Seed dispersal, Seedless fruit, Sepal, Silique, Simon & Schuster, Skimmia, Spice, Spore, Squirrel, Stamen, Stenospermocarpy, Still life, Strawberry, Sumac, Supreme Court of the United States, Sycamore, Symbiosis, Table grape, Taraxacum, Taxon, Tomato, Tragopogon, Umami, Vanilla, Vegetable, Velcro, Viburnum, Vitamin C, Walnut, Water, Watermelon, Wheat, Wine, Wing, Xanthium, Yogurt, Zucchini, Zygote. Expand index (175 more) » « Shrink index
An accessory fruit (sometimes called false fruit, spurious fruit, pseudofruit, or pseudocarp) is a fruit in which some of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue exterior to the carpel.
An achene (Greek ἀ, a, privative + χαίνειν, chainein, to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants.
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Allspice, also called pimenta, Jamaica pimenta, or myrtle pepper, is the dried unripe fruit (berries, used as a spice) of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world.
Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry, is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north-central United States.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Annona (from Taíno annon) is a genus of flowering plants in the pawpaw/sugar apple family, Annonaceae.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple.
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Arctium is a genus of biennial plants commonly known as burdock, family Asteraceae.
Asclepias L. (1753), the milkweeds, is an American genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants that contains over 140 known species.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.
The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, red beet, or golden beet.
The bell pepper (also known as sweet pepper, pepper or capsicum) is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
In botany, a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus.
The blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its piquant berries.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The boysenberry is a cross among the European raspberry (Rubus idaeus), European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), American dewberry (Rubus aboriginum), and loganberry (Rubus × loganobaccus).
In British English, a "bramble" is any rough (usually wild) tangled prickly shrub—specifically the blackberry bush (Rubus fruticosus)—or any hybrid of similar appearance, with thorny stems.
Brandy is a spirit produced by distilling wine.
The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and also the name of the tree's commercially harvested edible seeds.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family (Moraceae) originating in the South Pacific and eventually spreading to the rest of Oceania. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century, and today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, breadfruit has its origins in the region of Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia. The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the trees' light, sturdy timber has been used for outriggers, ships and houses in the tropics.
Cake is a form of sweet dessert that is typically baked.
Callicarpa (beautyberry) is a genus of shrubs and small trees in the family Lamiaceae.
Calotropis is a genus of flowering plants in the dogbane family, Apocynaceae, first described as a genus in 1810.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capsella bursa-pastoris, known by its common name shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant in the mustard family Brassicaceae that grows up to tall.
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry, though rarely fleshy dehiscent fruit produced by many species of angiosperms (flowering plants).
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
In botany, a caryopsis (plural caryopses) is a type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Citrus unshiu is a seedless and easy-peeling citrus species, also known as unshu mikan, cold hardy mandarin, satsuma mandarin, satsuma orange, and tangerine.
Clematis is a genus of about 300 species within the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Coir, or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes and mattresses.
A cold chain or cool chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain.
A cookie is a baked or cooked food that is small, flat and sweet.
Cotoneaster is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, native to the Palaearctic region (temperate Asia, Europe, north Africa), with a strong concentration of diversity in the genus in the mountains of southwestern China and the Himalayas.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera, the most important of which are.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.
Dipsacus is a genus of flowering plant in the family Caprifoliaceae.
Double fertilization is a complex fertilization mechanism of flowering plants (angiosperms).
In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrene) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.
Ecballium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cucurbitaceae containing a single species, Ecballium elaterium, also called the squirting cucumber or exploding cucumber (but not to be confused with Cyclanthera brachystachya).
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
In botany, a follicle is a dry unilocular fruit formed from one carpel, containing two or more seeds.
Food contamination refers to the presence in food of harmful chemicals and microorganisms which can cause consumer illness.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
Fruit beer is beer made with fruit added as an adjunct or flavouring.
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.
Fruitarianism is a diet that consists entirely or primarily of fruits in the botanical sense, and possibly nuts and seeds, without animal products.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
A gift basket, or fruit basket is typically a gift delivered to the recipient at their home or workplace.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
The gooseberry (or (American and northern British) or (southern British)), with scientific names Ribes uva-crispa (and syn. Ribes grossularia), is a species of Ribes (which also includes the currants).
A gourd is a plant of the family Cucurbitaceae, particularly Cucurbita and Lagenaria or the fruit of the two genera of Bignoniaceae "calabash tree", Crescentia and Amphitecna.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid.
The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.
Green beans are the unripe, young fruit and protective pods of various cultivars of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of All Hallows' Evening), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
A hesperidium (plural hesperidia) is a modified berry with a tough, leathery rind.
Hoarding is a behavior where people or animals accumulate food or other items.
Ilex, or holly, is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hura crepitans, the sandbox tree, also known as possumwood and jabillo, is an evergreen tree of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), native to tropical regions of North and South America, including the Amazon Rainforest.
Ice cream (derived from earlier iced cream or cream ice) is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert.
Impatiens is a genus of about 850 to 1,000 species of flowering plants, widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
A jack-o'-lantern (or jack o'lantern) is a carved pumpkin or turnip lantern, associated with the holiday of Halloween and named after the phenomenon of a strange light flickering over peat bogs, called will-o'-the-wisp or jack-o'-lantern.
Kiwifruit (often abbreviated as kiwi), or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
Liquidambar, commonly called sweetgum (sweet gum in the UK), gum, redgum, satin-walnut, or American storax, is the only genus in the flowering plant family Altingiaceae and has 15 species.
Liriodendron is a genus of two species of characteristically large deciduous trees in the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae).
This list of culinary fruits contains the names of some fruits that are considered edible in some cuisines.
This is a list of fruit dishes.
This is a categorically-organized list of foods.
A loment (or lomentum) is a type of indehiscent legume fruit that breaks apart at constrictions occurring between segments, so that each segment contains one seed.
Lunaria annua, called honesty or annual honesty in English, is a species of flowering plant native to the Balkans and south west Asia, and naturalized throughout the temperate world.
Maclura pomifera, commonly known as the Osage orange, is a small deciduous tree or large shrub, typically growing to tall.
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210The number of species in the genus Magnolia depends on the taxonomic view that one takes up.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata;; 桔, jyutping: gat1), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
Morinda citrifolia is a tree in the coffee family, Rubiaceae.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
A muffin is an individual-sized, baked product.
Myrica is a genus of about 35–50 species of small trees and shrubs in the family Myricaceae, order Fagales.
Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals.
Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers.
Nix v. Hedden,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that, under U.S. customs regulations, the tomato should be classified as a vegetable rather than a fruit.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Nypa fruticans, commonly known as the nipa palm (or simply nipa) or mangrove palm, is a species of palm native to the coastlines and estuarine habitats of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Orange juice is the liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges.
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
The pappus is the modified calyx, the part of an individual floret, that surrounds the base of the corolla tube in flower heads of the plant family Asteraceae.
Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.
The peony or paeony is a flowering plant in the genus Paeonia, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Pine nuts (also called piñon or pignoli /pinˈyōlē/) are the edible seeds of pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus).
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
In botany, a pome (derived from Latin pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
Pouteria lucuma is a species of tree in the family Sapotaceae, cultivated for its fruit, the lúcuma.
Proboscidea is a genus of flowering plant in the family Martyniaceae, some of whose species are known as devil's claw, devil's horn, ram's horn, or unicorn plant.
Prunus is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes the plums, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, and almonds.
A pseudanthium (Greek for "false flower"), also called a flower head or composite flower, is a special type of inflorescence, in which anything from a small cluster to hundreds or sometimes thousands of flowers are grouped together to form a single flower-like structure.
A pumpkin is a cultivar of a squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.
Pyracantha is a genus of large, thorny evergreen shrubs in the family Rosaceae, with common names firethorn or pyracantha.
The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Ranunculus is a genus of about 500 species of flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
The redcurrant, or red currant (Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the gooseberry family.
Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a species of plant in the family Polygonaceae.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Ripening is a process in fruits that causes them to become more palatable.
Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.
A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears.
The rose hip, also called rose haw and rose hep, is the accessory fruit of the rose plant.
Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species.
A samara is a winged achene, a type of fruit in which a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue develops from the ovary wall.
A schizocarp is a dry fruit that, when mature, splits up into mericarps.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant.
A seedless fruit is a fruit developed to possess no mature seeds.
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).
A silique or siliqua (plural siliques or siliquae) is a type of fruit (seed capsule) having two fused carpels with the length being more than three times the width.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Skimmia is a genus of four species of evergreen shrubs and small trees in the Rue family, Rutaceae, all native to warm temperate regions of Asia.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
Stenospermocarpy is the biological mechanism that produces parthenocarpy (seedlessness) in some fruits, notably many table grapes.
A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greco-Roman art, still-life painting emerged as a distinct genre and professional specialization in Western painting by the late 16th century, and has remained significant since then.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
Sumac (also spelled sumach, sumaq) (translation, translit), (Mishnaic Hebrew אוֹג.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Sycamore is a name which has been applied at various times and places to several different types of trees, but with somewhat similar leaf forms.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Table grapes are grapes intended for consumption while fresh, as opposed to grapes grown for wine production, juice production, or for drying into raisins.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
Tragopogon, also known as goatsbeard or salsify, is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family.
Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Velcro Companies is a privately held company that produces fasteners and other products.
Viburnum is a genus of about 150–175 species of shrubs or (in a few species) small trees in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
Xanthium (cocklebur) is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family, native to the Americas and eastern Asia.
Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
The zucchini (American English) or courgette (British English) is a summer squash which can reach nearly in length, but is usually harvested when still immature at about.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.