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Fuel cell

Index Fuel cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. [1]

203 relations: Absorption refrigerator, Acronym, Alkali, Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell, Alkaline fuel cell, Allis-Chalmers, Alternating current, Anode, Aqueous solution, Austria, Auxiliary power unit, Ballard Power Systems, Base load, Base station, Boeing, Brazil, Breathalyzer, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Buffer, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide detector, Carbon nanotube, Carbon paper, Carbonate, Catalysis, Cathode, Caxias do Sul, Cell site, Cermet, Chemical energy, Christian Friedrich Schönbein, Cogeneration, Columbia, South Carolina, Composite material, Compressed hydrogen, Cryptophane, Daimler AG, Daniel Akerson, Data center, Diesel fuel, Direct borohydride fuel cell, Direct carbon fuel cell, Direct current, Direct methanol fuel cell, Direct-ethanol fuel cell, Distributed generation, Electric battery, Electric current, ..., Electric power, Electrical efficiency, Electrical energy, Electrochemical cell, Electrochemical engineering, Electrochemical Society, Electrochemistry, Electrode, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electroosmotic pump, Emergency power system, Emeryville, California, Energy development, ENV, Enzymatic biofuel cell, Flow battery, Food preservation, Forklift, Formic acid fuel cell, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Francis Thomas Bacon, Fuel cell bus, Fuel Cell Bus Club, Fuel Cell Development Information Center, Fuel cell forklift, Fuel cell vehicle, General Electric, General Motors, Georgia Institute of Technology, Glossary of fuel cell terms, Graphite, Greentech Media, Grid energy storage, Home fuel cell, Honda, Honda Clarity, Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies, Humic acid, Hybrid vehicle, Hydra (ship), Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen fuel, Hydrogen infrastructure, Hydrogen station, Hydrogen storage, Hydrogen technologies, Hydrogen vehicle, Hydrogenics, Hyundai ix35 FCEV, Imperial College London, Intelligent Energy, Ion, Ionic conductivity (solid state), Ionomer, John Innes Centre, Joseph J. Romm, Laptop, Liquefied natural gas, Liquefied petroleum gas, Liquid hydrogen, Lithium-ion battery, Magnesium battery, Mass production, Material handling, Melbourne, Membrane, Membrane electrode assembly, Mercedes-Benz F-Cell, Metal hydride fuel cell, Methane, Methane emissions, Methanol, Micro combined heat and power, Microbial fuel cell, Microgeneration, Molecule, Molten carbonate fuel cell, Monash University, Motor vehicle type approval, Nafion, Nanoelectronics, NASA, National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day, New European Driving Cycle, Nitrogen dioxide, Noble metal, Norway, Operating temperature, Overpotential, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Palladium, Personal digital assistant, Phosphoric acid, Phosphoric acid fuel cell, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), Polybenzimidazole fiber, Polymer, Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis, Project Gemini, Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell, Protonic ceramic fuel cell, Public–private partnership, Redox, Reformed methanol fuel cell, Refrigeration, Regenerative fuel cell, Research and development, Reykjavík, Roger E. Billings, Royal Society of Chemistry, SAE International, Samsung, Satellite, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Series and parallel circuits, Service life, Smartphone, Sodium bicarbonate, Solar energy, Solid acid, Solid oxide fuel cell, Solution, Space capsule, Stationary fuel-cell applications, Steam reforming, Stuart Island (Washington), Suzuki, Synthetic membrane, Tanaka Kikinzoku, The Hype about Hydrogen, The New York Times, Thermal shock, Toyota Mirai, Triazole, Type 212 submarine, Uninterruptible power supply, United States Department of Energy, United Technologies, University of Dayton, University of Milano-Bicocca, UTC Power, Voltage, Voltage drop, Waste heat, Water splitting, William Robert Grove, Wind power, Yttria-stabilized zirconia, Zinc–air battery, Zirconium dioxide. Expand index (153 more) »

Absorption refrigerator

An absorption refrigerator is a refrigerator that uses a heat source (e.g., solar energy, a fossil-fueled flame, waste heat from factories, or district heating systems) to provide the energy needed to drive the cooling process.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell

An alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AAEMFC) is a type of alkaline fuel cell that uses an anion exchange membrane to separate the anode and cathode compartments.

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Alkaline fuel cell

The alkaline fuel cell (AFC), also known as the Bacon fuel cell after its British inventor, Francis Thomas Bacon, is one of the most developed fuel cell technologies.

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Allis-Chalmers was a U.S. manufacturer of machinery for various industries.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Auxiliary power unit

An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion.

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Ballard Power Systems

Ballard Power Systems Inc. is a developer and manufacturer of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell products for markets such as heavy-duty motive (consisting of bus and tram applications), portable power, material handling as well as technology solutions including engineering services.

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Base load

The base load on a grid is the minimum level of demand on an electrical grid over a span of time, for example, one week.

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Base station

Base station (or base radio station) is – according to the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – a "land station in the land mobile service." The term is used in the context of mobile telephony, wireless computer networking and other wireless communications and in land surveying.

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The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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A breathalyzer or breathalyser (a portmanteau of breath and analyzer/analyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample.

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Brookhaven National Laboratory

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.

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Buffer may refer to.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon monoxide detector

A carbon monoxide detector or CO detector is a device that detects the presence of the carbon monoxide (CO) gas in order to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Carbon paper

Carbon paper (originally carbonic paper) was originally paper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmented coating, bound with wax, used for making one or more copies simultaneously with the creation of an original document when using a typewriter or a ballpoint pen.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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Caxias do Sul

Caxias do Sul is a city in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, situated in the state's mountainous Serra Gaúcha region.

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Cell site

A cell site or cell tower is a cellular-enabled mobile device site where antennae and electronic communications equipment are placed — typically on a radio mast, tower, or other raised structure — to create a cell (or adjacent cells) in a cellular network.

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A cermet is a composite material composed of ceramic (cer) and metal (met) materials.

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Chemical energy

In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.

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Christian Friedrich Schönbein

Prof Christian Friedrich Schönbein HFRSE(18 October 1799 – 29 August 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) at the same time as William Robert Grove and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.

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Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.

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Columbia, South Carolina

Columbia is the capital and second largest city of the U.S. state of South Carolina, with a population estimate of 134,309 as of 2016.

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Composite material

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.

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Compressed hydrogen

Compressed hydrogen (CH2, CGH2 or CGH2) is the gaseous state of the element hydrogen kept under pressure.

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Cryptophanes are a class of organic supramolecular compounds studied and synthesized primarily for molecular encapsulation and recognition.

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Daimler AG

Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.

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Daniel Akerson

Daniel Francis "Dan" Akerson (born October 21, 1948) is the former Chairman and CEO of General Motors, serving from 2010 to 2014.

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Data center

A data center (American English) or data centre (Commonwealth English) is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Direct borohydride fuel cell

Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) are a subcategory of alkaline fuel cells which are directly fed by sodium borohydride or potassium borohydride as a fuel and either air/oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant.

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Direct carbon fuel cell

A Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) is a fuel cell that uses a carbon rich material as a fuel such as bio-mass or coal.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Direct methanol fuel cell

Direct-methanol fuel cells or DMFCs are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells in which methanol is used as the fuel.

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Direct-ethanol fuel cell

Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a category of fuel cell in which ethanol is fed directly into the cell.

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Distributed generation

Distributed generation, also distributed energy, on-site generation (OSG) or district/decentralized energy is electrical generation and storage performed by a variety of small, grid-connected devices referred to as distributed energy resources (DER).

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Electric battery

An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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Electrical efficiency

The efficiency of an entity (a device, component, or system) in electronics and electrical engineering is defined as useful power output divided by the total electrical power consumed (a fractional expression), typically denoted by the Greek small letter eta (η – ήτα).

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Electrical energy

Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.

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Electrochemical cell

An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.

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Electrochemical engineering

Electrochemical engineering is the branch of chemical engineering dealing with the technological applications of electrochemical phenomena, such as electrosynthesis of chemicals, electrowinning and refining of metals, flow batteries and fuel cells, surface modification by electrodeposition, electrochemical separations and corrosion.

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Electrochemical Society

The Electrochemical Society is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of electrochemistry and solid-state science and technology.

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Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

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An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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Electroosmotic pump

An electroosmotic pump (EOP), or EO pump, is used for generating flow or pressure by use of an electric field.

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Emergency power system

An emergency power system is an independent source of electrical power that supports important electrical systems on loss of normal power supply.

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Emeryville, California

Emeryville is a small city located in northwest Alameda County, California, in the United States.

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Energy development

Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.

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The ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle) is an electric motorcycle prototype powered by an hydrogen fuel cell.

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Enzymatic biofuel cell

An enzymatic biofuel cell is a specific type of fuel cell that uses enzymes as a catalyst to oxidize its fuel, rather than precious metals.

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Flow battery

A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane.

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Food preservation

Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.

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A forklift (also called lift truck, fork truck, fork hoist, and forklift truck) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and move materials over short distances.

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Formic acid fuel cell

Formic acid fuel cells (direct formic acid fuel cells or DFAFCs) are a subcategory of proton exchange membrane fuel cells where the fuel, formic acid, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell.

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Francis Thomas Bacon

Francis Thomas Bacon OBE FREng FRS (21 December 1904 at Ramsden Hall, Billericay, Essex, England – 24 May 1992) was an English engineer who developed the first practical hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell.

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Fuel cell bus

A fuel cell bus is a bus that uses a hydrogen fuel cell as its power source for electrically driven wheels, sometimes augmented in a hybrid fashion with batteries or a supercapacitor.

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Fuel Cell Bus Club

The Fuel Cell Bus Club comprised the participants of the projects CUTE (2001-2006), ECTOS (2001-2005) and STEP (2001-2005) which were pioneering demonstration projects for fuel cell bus fleets in Europe and Australia.

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Fuel Cell Development Information Center

The Fuel Cell Development Information Center (FCDIC) is a Japanese center established in July 1986 to exchange information among its members on fuel cell research, development and deployment to speed up the introduction and penetration of fuel cells into the market.

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Fuel cell forklift

A fuel cell forklift (also called a fuel cell lift truck or a fuel cell forklift) is a fuel cell powered industrial forklift truck used to lift and transport materials.

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Fuel cell vehicle

A fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a type of electric vehicle which uses a fuel cell, instead of a battery, or in combination with a battery or supercapacitor, to power its on-board electric motor.

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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General Motors

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.

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Georgia Institute of Technology

The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Glossary of fuel cell terms

The Glossary of fuel cell terms lists the definitions of many terms used within the fuel cell industry.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Greentech Media

Greentech Media, a subsidiary of Wood Mackenzie, is a media company based in Massachusetts, United States, that generates daily report, market research study and news on electricity systems and green technology and green jobs.

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Grid energy storage

Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage) is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy on a large scale within an electrical power grid.

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Home fuel cell

A home fuel cell is a residential-scaled energy system based on fuel cell technology.

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is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.

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Honda Clarity

The Honda Clarity is a nameplate used by Honda on alternative fuel vehicles.

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Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies

Horizon Fuel Cell Technologies is a company founded in 2003 in Singapore, serving a diverse range of industries with various fuel cell electric energy solutions and products.

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Humic acid

Humic acids are the result of a severe chemical extraction from the soil organic matter, and recently their natural existence was jeopardized, since it is a product of the chemical procedure.

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Hybrid vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.

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Hydra (ship)

The Hydra is a 22-person hydrogen ship, power-assisted by an electric motor that gets its electricity from a fuel cell.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen fuel

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen.

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Hydrogen infrastructure

A hydrogen infrastructure is the infrastructure of hydrogen pipeline transport, points of hydrogen production and hydrogen stations (sometimes clustered as a hydrogen highway) for distribution as well as the sale of hydrogen fuel, and thus a crucial pre-requisite before a successful commercialization of automotive fuel cell technology.

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Hydrogen station

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept.

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Hydrogen storage

Methods of hydrogen storage for subsequent use span many approaches including high pressures, cryogenics, and chemical compounds that reversibly release H2 upon heating.

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Hydrogen technologies

Hydrogen technologies are technologies that relate to the production and use of hydrogen.

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Hydrogen vehicle

A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power.

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Hydrogenics is a developer and manufacturer of hydrogen generation and fuel cell products based on water electrolysis and proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology.

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Hyundai ix35 FCEV

The Hyundai ix35 FCEV or Tucson FCEV is a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle developed by Hyundai.

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

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Intelligent Energy

Intelligent Energy is a fuel cell engineering company focused on the development and commercialisation of its PEM fuel cell technologies for a range of markets including automotive, stationary power and UAVs.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic conductivity (solid state)

Ionic conduction (denoted by -lambda) is the movement of an ion from one site to another through defects in the crystal lattice of a solid or aqueous solution.

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An ionomer (iono- + -mer) is a polymer that comprises repeat units of both electrically neutral repeating units and a fraction of ionized units (usually no more than 15 mole percent) covalently bonded to the polymer backbone as pendant group moieties.

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John Innes Centre

The John Innes Centre (JIC), located in Norwich, Norfolk, England, is an independent centre for research and training in plant and microbial science.

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Joseph J. Romm

Joseph J. Romm (born June 27, 1960) is an American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert who advocates reducing greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and increasing energy security through energy efficiency, green energy technologies and green transportation technologies.

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A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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Liquefied natural gas

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

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Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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Liquid hydrogen

Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.

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Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

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Magnesium battery

Magnesium batteries are batteries with magnesium as the active element at the anode of an electrochemical cell.

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Mass production

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.

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Material handling

Material handling involves short-distance movement within the confines of a building or between a building and a transportation vehicle.

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Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others.

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Membrane electrode assembly

A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is an assembled stack of proton exchange membranes (PEM) or alkali anion exchange membrane (AAEM), catalyst and flat plate electrode used in fuel cells and electrolyzers.

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Mercedes-Benz F-Cell

The F-Cell is a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle developed by Daimler AG.

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Metal hydride fuel cell

Metal hydride fuel cells are a subclass of alkaline fuel cells that are in the research and development phase.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methane emissions

Global methane emissions are major part of the global greenhouse gas emissions.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Micro combined heat and power

Micro combined heat and power or micro-CHP or mCHP is an extension of the idea of cogeneration to the single/multi family home or small office building in the range of up to 50 kW.

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Microbial fuel cell

A microbial fuel cell (MFC), or biological fuel cell, is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature.

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Microgeneration is the small-scale generation of heat and electric power by individuals, small businesses and communities to meet their own needs, as alternatives or supplements to traditional centralized grid-connected power.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Molten carbonate fuel cell

Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) are high-temperature fuel cells that operate at temperatures of 600 °C and above.

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Monash University

Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia.

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Motor vehicle type approval

Motor vehicle type approval is the method by which motor vehicles, vehicle trailers and systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles achieve Type approval in Europe.

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Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont.

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Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day

National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day, celebrated annually on October 8, promotes and celebrates clean energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technologies.

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New European Driving Cycle

The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) is a driving cycle, last updated in 1997, designed to assess the emission levels of car engines and fuel economy in passenger cars (which excludes light trucks and commercial vehicles).

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Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Noble metal

In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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In electrochemistry, overpotential is the potential difference (voltage) between a half-reaction's thermodynamically determined reduction potential and the potential at which the redox event is experimentally observed.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Personal digital assistant

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.

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Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.

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Phosphoric acid fuel cell

Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are a type of fuel cell that uses liquid phosphoric acid as an electrolyte.

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Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT (or sometimes PEDT; IUPAC name poly(2,3-dihydrothienodioxane-5,7-diyl)) is a conducting polymer based on 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene or EDOT.

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Polybenzimidazole fiber

Polybenzimidazole (PBI, short for poly) fiber is a synthetic fiber with a very high melting point.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is the electrolysis of water in a cell equipped with a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) that is responsible for the conduction of protons, separation of product gases, and electrical insulation of the electrodes.

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Project Gemini

Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.

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Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell

Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed mainly for transport applications, as well as for stationary fuel-cell applications and portable fuel-cell applications.

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Protonic ceramic fuel cell

A protonic ceramic fuel cell or PCFC is a fuel cell based on a ceramic electrolyte material that exhibits high protonic conductivity at elevated temperatures.

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Public–private partnership

A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reformed methanol fuel cell

Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) or Indirect Methanol Fuel Cell (IMFC) systems are a subcategory of proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, methanol (CH3OH), is reformed, before being fed into the fuel cell.

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Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.

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Regenerative fuel cell

A regenerative fuel cell or reverse fuel cell (RFC) is a fuel cell run in reverse mode, which consumes electricity and chemical B to produce chemical A. By definition, the process of any fuel cell could be reversed.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.

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Roger E. Billings

Roger Billings is a scientist and technology luminary known for his high-tech innovations in the fields of energy, computer networking, cybersecurity, and education.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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SAE International

SAE International, initially established as the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a U.S.-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries.

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Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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São Bernardo do Campo

São Bernardo do Campo is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo.

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São Paulo

São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

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Series and parallel circuits

Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways.

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Service life

A product's service life is its period of use in service.

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A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.

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Sodium bicarbonate

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Solid acid

Solid acids are acids that do not dissolve in the reaction medium.

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Solid oxide fuel cell

A solid oxide fuel cell (or SOFC) is an electrochemical conversion device that produces electricity directly from oxidizing a fuel.

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In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

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Space capsule

A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.

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Stationary fuel-cell applications

Stationary fuel-cell applications (or stationary fuel-cell power systems) are applications for fuel cells that are either connected to the electric grid (distributed generation) to provide supplemental power and as emergency power system for critical areas, or installed as a grid-independent generator for on-site service.

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Steam reforming

Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.

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Stuart Island (Washington)

Stuart Island is one of the San Juan Islands, north of San Juan Island and west of Waldron Island in the U.S. state of Washington.

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is a Japanese multinational corporation headquartered in Minami-ku, Hamamatsu, that manufactures automobiles, four-wheel drive vehicles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), outboard marine engines, wheelchairs and a variety of other small internal combustion engines.

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Synthetic membrane

An artificial membrane, or synthetic membrane, is a synthetically created membrane which is usually intended for separation purposes in laboratory or in industry.

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Tanaka Kikinzoku

The Tanaka Kikinzoku Group, founded in 1885, is a Japanese manufacturer of precious metals materials focusing mainly on products for the electronics, semiconductor and automotive industries.

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The Hype about Hydrogen

The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate is a book by Joseph J. Romm, published in 2004 by Island Press and updated in 2005.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thermal shock

Thermal shock occurs when a thermal gradient causes different parts of an object to expand by different amounts.

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Toyota Mirai

The Toyota Mirai (from, Japanese for "future") is a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle manufactured by Toyota, one of the first such vehicles to be sold commercially.

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A triazole refers to any of the heterocyclic compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms.

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Type 212 submarine

The German Type 212 class, also Italian Todaro class, is a highly advanced design of non-nuclear submarine developed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) for the German and Italian navies.

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Uninterruptible power supply

An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United Technologies

United Technologies Corporation (UTC) is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut.

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University of Dayton

The University of Dayton (UD) is an American private Roman Catholic national research university in Ohio's sixth-largest city, Dayton.

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University of Milano-Bicocca

The University of Milano-Bicocca (Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, UNIMIB) is a public university located in Milan, Italy, providing undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate education.

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UTC Power

UTC Power was a fuel cell company based in South Windsor, Connecticut.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Voltage drop

Voltage drop describes how the energy supplied by a voltage source is reduced as electric current moves through the passive elements (elements that do not supply voltage) of an electrical circuit.

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Waste heat

Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.

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Water splitting

Water splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen.

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William Robert Grove

Sir William Robert Grove, PC, FRS FRSE (11 July 1811 – 1 August 1896) was a Welsh judge and physical scientist.

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Wind power

Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.

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Yttria-stabilized zirconia

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a ceramic in which the crystal structure of zirconium dioxide is made stable at room temperature by an addition of yttrium oxide.

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Zinc–air battery

Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable; IEC codes: A, P), and zinc–air fuel cells (mechanically rechargeable) are metal-air batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air.

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Zirconium dioxide

Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell

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