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# Fugacity

In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity of a real gas is an effective partial pressure which replaces the mechanical partial pressure in an accurate computation of the chemical equilibrium constant. 

## Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

## Bar (unit)

The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).

## Chemical equilibrium

In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.

## Chemical potential

In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.

## Chemical thermodynamics

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of heat and work with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.

## Compressibility factor

The compressibility factor (Z), also known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factor, is a correction factor which describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behavior.

## Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

## Dalton's law

In chemistry and physics, Dalton's law (also called Dalton's law of partial pressures) states that in a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.

## Electrochemical potential

In electrochemistry, the electrochemical potential,, sometimes abbreviated to ECP, is a thermodynamic measure of chemical potential that does not omit the energy contribution of electrostatics.

## Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

## Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

## Equation of state

In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.

## Excess chemical potential

The excess chemical potential is defined as the difference between the chemical potential of a given species and that of an ideal gas under the same conditions (in particular, at the same pressure, temperature, and composition).

## Fugacity capacity

The fugacity capacity constant (Z) is used to help describe the concentration of a chemical in a system (usually in mol/m3Pa).

## Gas constant

The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.

## Geochemistry

Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.

## Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

## Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

## Henry's law

In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase.

## Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

## Ideal solution

In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases.

## Law of mass action

In chemistry, the law of mass action is the proposition that the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the activities or concentrations of the reactants.

## Merle Randall

Merle Randall (January 29, 1888 – March 17, 1950) was an American physical chemist famous for his work with Gilbert N. Lewis, over a period of 25 years, in measuring reaction heat of chemical compounds and determining their corresponding free energy.

## Metamorphism

Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).

## Molality

Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.

## Molar concentration

Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.

## Molar volume

The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure.

## Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

## Multimedia fugacity model

Multimedia fugacity model is a model in environmental chemistry that summarizes the processes controlling chemical behavior in environmental media by developing and applying of mathematical statements or "models" of chemical fate.

## Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

## Partial molar property

A partial molar property is a thermodynamic quantity which indicates how an extensive property of a solution or mixture varies with changes in the molar composition of the mixture at constant temperature and pressure.

## Partial pressure

In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.

## Poynting effect

The Poynting effect may refer to two unrelated physical phenomena.

## Raoult's law

Raoult's law (law) is a law of thermodynamics established by French chemist François-Marie Raoult in 1887.

## Reaction quotient

In chemistry, a reaction quotient (Qr or just Q) is a function of the activities or concentrations of the chemical species involved in a chemical reaction.

## Real gas

Real gases are non-hypothetical gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they adhere to gas laws.

## Reduced properties

In thermodynamics, the reduced properties of a fluid are a set of state variables normalized by the fluid's state properties at its critical point.

## Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

## Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

## Standard state

In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.

## Theorem of corresponding states

According to van der Waals, the theorem of corresponding states (or principle of corresponding states) indicates that all fluids, when compared at the same reduced temperature and reduced pressure, have approximately the same compressibility factor and all deviate from ideal gas behavior to about the same degree.

## Thermodynamic activity

In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.

## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

## Van der Waals equation

The van der Waals equation (or van der Waals equation of state; named after Johannes Diderik van der Waals) is based on plausible reasons that real gases do not follow the ideal gas law.

## Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

## References

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