83 relations: A, Android Oreo, Apostrophe, Arabic, Arabic script, Atlantic languages, Atlantic–Congo languages, Ɓ, Ɗ, Ɲ, Ƴ, B, C, Cameroon, Central Africa, D, Dialect continuum, E, Eng (letter), Ethnologue, F, First language, Fula alphabets, Fula people, G, Google, Guinea, H, Hausa language, I, Infix, J, John Bendor-Samuel, K, Kirdi, L, Latin script, Lingua franca, List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, M, Maasina Fulfulde, Manding languages, Michael Everson, N, Niger–Congo languages, Nigeria, Nj (digraph), Northern Nigeria Protectorate, Ny (digraph), ..., Nzérékoré Region, O, P, Preposition and postposition, Pulaar language, Pular grammar, Pular language, Q, R, Reflexive verb, S, Sahel, Second language, Senegal River, Senegambia Confederation, Senegambian languages, Serer language, Sudan, T, The Atlantic, Tone (linguistics), Toucouleur people, U, Unicode, Usman dan Fodio, V, Voice (grammar), W, West Africa, Wolof language, X, Y, Z. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Android "Oreo" (codenamed Android O during development) is the eighth major update and the 15th version of the Android operating system.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The Atlantic languages (or West Atlantic languages"West Atlantic" is the traditional term, following Diedrich Hermann Westermann; "Atlantic" is more typical in recent work, particularly since Bendor-Samuel (1989).) of West Africa are an obsolete proposed major group of the Niger–Congo languages.
The Atlantic–Congo languages are a major division constituting the core of the Niger–Congo language family of Africa, characterised by the noun class systems typical of the family.
This letter, Ɓ (minuscule: ɓ), called "B-hook" or "B with a hook" is a letter of the Latin alphabet and the Africa alphabet.
Ɗ (minuscule: ɗ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet.
Variants of uppercase Ɲ and lowercase ɲ Ɲ is a letter indicating a palatal nasal.
Ƴ (minuscule: ƴ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Y with the addition of a hook.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Eng or engma (capital: Ŋ, lowercase: ŋ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, used to represent a velar nasal (as in English sii) in the written form of some languages and in the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The Fula language (Fulfulde, Pulaar, or Pular) is written primarily in the Latin script, but in some areas is still written in an older Arabic script called the Ajami script or with its own script called Adlam.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
John Theodore Bendor-Samuel (9 June 1929 – 6 January 2011) was an evangelical Christian missionary and linguist who furthered Bible translation work into African languages, as well as making significant contributions to the study of African linguistics.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Kirdi are the many cultures and ethnic groups who inhabit northwestern Cameroon and northeastern Nigeria.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Maasina Fulfulde (or Maasinankoore in the language itself) is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by Fula people and associated groups in the Inner Niger Delta area traditionally known as Macina in the center of what is now the West African state of Mali.
The Manding languages (sometimes spelt Manden) are mutually intelligible dialects or languages in West Africa of the Mande family.
Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is an American and Irish linguist, script encoder, typesetter, font designer, and publisher.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nj (nj in lower case) is a letter present in South Slavic languages such as the Latin-alphabet version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian.
Northern Nigeria was a British protectorate which lasted from 1900 until 1914 and covered the northern part of what is now Nigeria.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay.
The Nzérékoré Region is a region in the southern part of Guinea.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Pulaar is a Fula language spoken primarily as a first language by the Fula and Toucouleur peoples in the Senegal River valley area traditionally known as Futa Tooro and further south and east.
Pular grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the Pular language, one of the Fula languages of the Niger-Congo language family spoken in West Africa.
Pular is a Fula language spoken primarily by the Fula people of Fouta Djallon, Guinea.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In grammar, a reflexive verb is, loosely, a verb whose direct object is the same as its subject, for example, "I wash myself".
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
The Senegal River (نهر السنغال, Fleuve Sénégal) is a long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania.
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal.
The Senegambian or Northern (West) Atlantic languages are a branch of Niger–Congo languages centered on Senegal (and Senegambia), with most languages spoken there and in neighboring southern Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, and Guinea.
Serer, often broken into differing regional dialects such as Serer-Sine and Serer saloum, is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Toucouleur people, also called Tukulor or Haalpulaar are a West African ethnic group native to Futa Tooro region of Senegal.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Shaihu Usman dan Fodio, born Usuman ɓii Foduye, (also referred to as عثمان بن فودي, Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, Shehu Usman dan Fodio or Shaikh Uthman Ibn Fodio) (15 December 1754, Senegal – 20 April 1817, Sokoto) was a religious teacher, writer and Islamic promoter, and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Adamawa Fulfulde language, Bagirmi Fulfulde language, Barani Fulfulde language, Benin-Togo Fulfulde language, Borgu Fulfulde language, Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde language, Ful language, Fula languages, Fulah language, Fulani langage, Fulani language, Fulfulde, Fulfulde language, Fulfulde language (Adamawa), Fulfulde language (Nigerian), Fulfulde lanuage, Fulfulde-Pular, Gorgal Fulfulde language, Gourmantche Fulfulde language, ISO 639:ff, ISO 639:fub, ISO 639:fue, ISO 639:fuh, ISO 639:fui, ISO 639:ful, ISO 639:fuq, ISO 639:fuv, Jelgooji Fulfulde language, Jelgoore Fulfulde language, Kano-Katsina-Bororo Fulfulde language, Kano-Katsina-Bororro Fulfulde language, Liptaako Fulfulde language, Nigerian Fulfulde language, Northeastern Burkina Faso Fulfulde language, Peuhle, Peul language, Sokoto Fulfulde language, Western Fula, Western Niger Fulfulde, Western Niger Fulfulde language.