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Index Fullerene

A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes. [1]

201 relations: Ab initio, Acetone, Acetonitrile, Aggregated diamond nanorod, Allotropes of carbon, Allotropy, Amorphous solid, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Angewandte Chemie, Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Apoptosis, Arginine, Armour, Association football, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Atomic orbital, Azafullerene, Bacteria, Ball (association football), Band gap, Benzene, Bingel reaction, Boron, Breakthrough, Bromoform, Buckminster Fuller, Buckminsterfullerene, Buckypaper, C70 fullerene, Cancer, Candle, Carbocatalysis, Carbon, Carbon (journal), Carbon disulfide, Carbon nanotube, Carbon tetrachloride, Chamfered dodecahedron, Charcoal, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical Physics Letters, Chemical structure, Chemically inert, Chlorobenzene, Chloroform, Contrast agent, Corannulene, Cubic crystal system, Cumene, ..., Cyclohexane, Cylinder, David E. H. Jones, Decane, Delocalized electron, Density functional theory, Diamond, Dichloromethane, Dodecahedrane, Dodecahedron, Dodecane, Donald Huffman, Double bond, Ductility, Eiji Osawa, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electronics, Electrophilic addition, Ellipsoid, Endohedral fullerene, Euler characteristic, Excited state, Folate, Fullerene chemistry, Geodesic dome, Goldberg–Coxeter construction, Google, Google logo, Graph theory, Graphene, Graphite, Harry Kroto, Hückel's rule, HeLa, Heptane, Heterofullerene, Hexane, Higher fullerenes, Imperial College London, Inclusion compound, Inert gas, Infrared spectroscopy, Inherent chirality, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Ion, Isopropyl alcohol, James R. Heath, Journal of Chemical Physics, Journal of Organic Chemistry, Journal of Physical Chemistry A, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Karelia, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Lanthanide, Lonsdaleite, Luna Innovations, Machine Design, Mass spectrometry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Materials science, Mathematics, Melanoma, Mesitylene, Metallic bonding, Metallofullerene, Methanol, Molecule, Molybdenum disulfide, Nanomedicine, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, Nature (journal), New Scientist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Noble gas, Octane, Organic reaction, Paper battery, Pearson Education, Pentalene, Pentane, Permian, Phenylalanine, Photodynamic therapy, Photosensitizer, Physical Review Letters, Physics-Uspekhi, Pi bond, Planar graph, Plasma (physics), Polyhedron, Popular culture, Popular Science, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Quantum chemistry, Raman spectroscopy, Reactive oxygen species, Regular graph, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rhondite, Rice University, Richard Smalley, Ring strain, Robert Curl, Science (journal), Shungite, Solvent, Soot, Space elevator, Sphere, Spherical aromaticity, Spitzer Space Telescope, Square number, Sumio Iijima, Superaromaticity, Superconductivity, Tetradecane, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetralin, Thermal conductivity, Time-dependent density functional theory, Titanium disulfide, Toluene, Toyohashi University of Technology, Transition metal fullerene complex, Trimetasphere, Truncated icosahedron, Tungsten disulfide, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Universe Today, University of Sussex, University of Vienna, Valence (chemistry), Van der Waals radius, Virginia Tech, Volleyball (ball), Water, Wave–particle duality, Wolfgang Krätschmer, Xylene, Yttrium, 1,2,3-Tribromopropane, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, 1,2-Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-Dioxane, 1-Chloronaphthalene, 1-Methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane. Expand index (151 more) »

Ab initio

Ab initio is a Latin term meaning "from the beginning" and is derived from the Latin ab ("from") + initio, ablative singular of initium ("beginning").

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Aggregated diamond nanorod

Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are a nanocrystalline form of diamond, also known as nanodiamond or hyperdiamond.

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Allotropes of carbon

Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.

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Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

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Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research articles in the broad field of analytical and bioanalytical chemistry.

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Angewandte Chemie

Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Armour (British English or Canadian English) or armor (American English; see spelling differences) is a protective covering that is used to prevent damage from being inflicted to an object, individual or vehicle by direct contact weapons or projectiles, usually during combat, or from damage caused by a potentially dangerous environment or activity (e.g., cycling, construction sites, etc.). Personal armour is used to protect soldiers and war animals.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atomic Energy Research Establishment

The Atomic Energy Research Establishment, known as AERE or colloquially Harwell Laboratory, near Harwell, Oxfordshire, was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Azafullerenes are a class of heterofullerenes in which the element substituting for carbon is nitrogen.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Ball (association football)

A football, soccer ball, or association football ball is the ball used in the sport of association football.

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Band gap

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bingel reaction

The Bingel reaction in fullerene chemistry is a fullerene cyclopropanation reaction to a methanofullerene first discovered by C. Bingel in 1993 with the bromo derivative of diethyl malonate in the presence of a base such as sodium hydride or DBU.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Breakthrough or Break through may refer to.

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Bromoform (CHBr3) is a brominated organic solvent, colorless liquid at room temperature, with a high refractive index, very high density, and sweet odor is similar to that of chloroform.

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Buckminster Fuller

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist.

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Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.

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Buckypaper is a thin sheet made from an aggregate of carbon nanotubes or carbon nanotube grid paper.

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C70 fullerene

C70 fullerene is the fullerene molecule consisting of 70 carbon atoms.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance.

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Carbocatalysis is a form of catalysis that uses heterogeneous carbon materials for the transformation or synthesis of organic or inorganic substrates.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon (journal)

Carbon is a scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Chamfered dodecahedron

The chamfered dodecahedron is a convex polyhedron with 80 vertices, 120 edges, and 42 faces: 30 hexagons and 12 pentagons.

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Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Chemical & Engineering News

Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

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Chemical Physics Letters

Chemical Physics Letters is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in chemical physics and physical chemistry.

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Chemical structure

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chemically inert

In chemistry, the term chemically inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.

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Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl.

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Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Contrast agent

A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.

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Corannulene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C20H10.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Cumene is the common name for isopropylbenzene, an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution.

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Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).

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A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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David E. H. Jones

David Edward Hugh Jones (20 April 1938 – 19 July 2017) was a British chemist and author, under the pen name Daedalus, the fictional inventor for DREADCO.

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Decane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C10H22.

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Delocalized electron

In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.

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Density functional theory

Density functional theory (DFT) is a computational quantum mechanical modelling method used in physics, chemistry and materials science to investigate the electronic structure (principally the ground state) of many-body systems, in particular atoms, molecules, and the condensed phases.

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Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.

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Dodecahedrane is a chemical compound (C20H20) first synthesised by Leo Paquette of Ohio State University in 1982, primarily for the "aesthetically pleasing symmetry of the dodecahedral framework".

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In geometry, a dodecahedron (Greek δωδεκάεδρον, from δώδεκα dōdeka "twelve" + ἕδρα hédra "base", "seat" or "face") is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces.

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Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series.

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Donald Huffman

Donald R. Huffman (born 1935) is a Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Arizona.

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Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.

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Eiji Osawa

is a former professor of computational chemistry, noted for his prediction of the C60 molecule in 1970.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Electrophilic addition

In organic chemistry, an electrophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where, in a chemical compound, a π bond is broken and two new σ bonds are formed.

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An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.

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Endohedral fullerene

Endohedral fullerenes, also called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres.

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Euler characteristic

In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent.

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Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Fullerene chemistry

Fullerene chemistry is a field of organic chemistry devoted to the chemical properties of fullerenes.

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Geodesic dome

A geodesic dome is a hemispherical thin-shell structure (lattice-shell) based on a geodesic polyhedron.

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Goldberg–Coxeter construction

The Goldberg–Coxeter construction or Goldberg–Coxeter operation (GC construction or GC operation) is a graph operation defined on regular polyhedral graphs with degree 3 or 4.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Google logo

The Google appears in numerous settings to identify the search engine company.

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Graph theory

In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

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Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).

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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Harry Kroto

Sir Harold Walter Kroto (born Harold Walter Krotoschiner; 7 October 1939 – 30 April 2016), known as Harry Kroto, was an English chemist.

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Hückel's rule

In organic chemistry, Hückel's rule estimates whether a planar ring molecule will have aromatic properties.

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HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.

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Heterofullerenes are classes of fullerenes, at least one carbon atom is replaced by another element.

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Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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Higher fullerenes

Higher fullerenes are fullerene molecules consisting of more than 70 carbon atoms.

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Imperial College London

Imperial College London (officially Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine) is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom.

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Inclusion compound

In host-guest chemistry, an inclusion compound is a complex in which one chemical compound (the "host") has a cavity into which "guest" compound can be accommodated.

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Inert gas

An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.

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Infrared spectroscopy

Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.

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Inherent chirality

In chemistry, inherent chirality is a property of asymmetry in molecules arising, not from a stereogenic or chiral center, but from a twisting of the molecule in 3-D space.

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Inorganic Chemistry (journal)

Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Isopropyl alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.

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James R. Heath

James R. Heath (born 1962) is an American chemist and the president and professor of Institute of Systems Biology.

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Journal of Chemical Physics

The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics that carries research papers on chemical physics.

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Journal of Organic Chemistry

The Journal of Organic Chemistry, colloquially known as JOC or J Org, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for original contributions of fundamental research in all branches of theory and practice in organic and bioorganic chemistry.

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Journal of Physical Chemistry A

The Journal of Physical Chemistry A is a scientific journal which reports research on the chemistry of molecules - including their dynamics, spectroscopy, kinetics, structure, bonding, and quantum chemistry.

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Journal of Physical Chemistry B

The Journal of Physical Chemistry B is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research on several fields of material chemistry (macromolecules, soft matter, and surfactants) as well as statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, and biophysical chemistry.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Konstantinos Fostiropoulos

Konstantinos Fostiropoulos is a Greek physicist who has been working in Germany in the areas nano-materials, solid-state physics, molecular physics, astrophysics, and thermodynamics.

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The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Lonsdaleite (named in honour of Kathleen Lonsdale), also called hexagonal diamond in reference to the crystal structure, is an allotrope of carbon with a hexagonal lattice.

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Luna Innovations

Luna Innovations Incorporated is a company that develops and manufactures products for the medical, telecommunications, energy and defense markets.

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Machine Design

Machine Design is an American trade magazine and Web site serving the OEM engineering market.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Mesitylene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene is a derivative of benzene with three methyl substituents positioned symmetrically around the ring.

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Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.

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In chemistry, a metallofullerene is a molecule composed of a metal atom trapped inside a fullerene cage.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Molybdenum disulfide

Molybdenum disulfide is an inorganic compound composed of molybdenum and sulfur.

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Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.

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Organic reaction

Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds.

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Paper battery

A paper battery is an electric battery engineered to use a spacer formed largely of cellulose (the major constituent of paper).

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Pearson Education

Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.

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Pentalene is a polycyclic hydrocarbon composed of two fused cyclopentadiene rings.

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Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.

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Photodynamic therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), sometimes called photochemotherapy, is a form of phototherapy involving light and a photosensitizing chemical substance, used in conjunction with molecular oxygen to elicit cell death (phototoxicity).

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A photosensitizer is a molecule that produces a chemical change in another molecule in a photochemical process.

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Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Pi bond

In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.

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Planar graph

In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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In geometry, a polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices.

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Popular culture

Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American quarterly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences

The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Доклады Академии Наук СССР, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (DAN SSSR), Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology.

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Quantum chemistry

Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.

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Regular graph

In graph theory, a regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbors; i.e. every vertex has the same degree or valency.

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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a private research university and space-grant institution located in Troy, New York, with two additional campuses in Hartford and Groton, Connecticut.

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Rhondite is a nano-scale helical carbon-based structure created by Robert Job that may be used in the production of steels and alloys to increase hardness, strength, ductility, and wear resistance.

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Rice University

William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.

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Richard Smalley

Richard Errett Smalley (June 6, 1943 – October 28, 2005) was the Gene and Norman Hackerman Professor of Chemistry and a Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Rice University, in Houston, Texas.

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Ring strain

In organic chemistry, ring strain is a type of instability that exists when bonds in a molecule form angles that are abnormal.

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Robert Curl

Robert Floyd Curl Jr. (born August 23, 1933) is a University Professor Emeritus, Pitzer–Schlumberger Professor of Natural Sciences Emeritus, and Professor of Chemistry Emeritus at Rice University.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Shungite is a black, lustrous, non-crystalline mineraloid consisting of more than 98 weight percent of carbon.

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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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Space elevator

A space elevator is a proposed type of planet-to-space transportation system.

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A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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Spherical aromaticity

In organic chemistry, spherical aromaticity is formally used to describe an unusually stable nature of some spherical compounds such as fullerenes, polyhedral boranes.

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Spitzer Space Telescope

The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.

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Square number

In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself.

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Sumio Iijima

Sumio Iijima (飯島 澄男 Iijima Sumio, born May 2, 1939) is a Japanese physicist, often cited as the inventor of carbon nanotubes.

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Superaromaticity is the extra stable nature of some aromatic macrocycle compounds.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Tetradecane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)12CH3.

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Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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Tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) is a hydrocarbon having the chemical formula C10H12.

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Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Time-dependent density functional theory

Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a quantum mechanical theory used in physics and chemistry to investigate the properties and dynamics of many-body systems in the presence of time-dependent potentials, such as electric or magnetic fields.

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Titanium disulfide

Titanium disulfide is an inorganic compound with the formula TiS2.

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Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.

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Toyohashi University of Technology

Toyohashi University of Technology (豊橋技術科学大学; Toyohashi Gijutsu Kagaku Daigaku), often abbreviated to Toyohashi Tech, or TUT, is a national engineering university located in Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan.

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Transition metal fullerene complex

A transition metal fullerene complex is a coordination complex wherein fullerene serves as a ligand.

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Trimetasphere carbon nanomaterials (TMS), also known as trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerenes, are a family of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMF).

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Truncated icosahedron

In geometry, the truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid, one of 13 convex isogonal nonprismatic solids whose faces are two or more types of regular polygons.

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Tungsten disulfide

Tungsten disulfide is the chemical compound with the formula WS2.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

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Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.

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Universe Today

Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.

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University of Sussex

The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, Sussex, England.

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University of Vienna

The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.

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Valence (chemistry)

In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.

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Van der Waals radius

The van der Waals radius, r, of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere representing the distance of closest approach for another atom.

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Virginia Tech

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, commonly known as Virginia Tech, and traditionally known as VPI since 1896, is an American public, land-grant, research university with a main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia, educational facilities in six regions statewide, and a study-abroad site in Lugano, Switzerland.

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Volleyball (ball)

A volleyball is a ball used to play indoor volleyball, beach volleyball, or other less common variations of the sport.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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Wolfgang Krätschmer

Wolfgang Krätschmer (born 16 November 1942 in Berlin) is a German physicist.

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Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.

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Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.

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1,2,3-Tribromopropane (TBP) is a toxic organic compound.

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1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, also known as pseudocumene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H3(CH3)3.

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1,2-Dichlorobenzene, or orthodichlorobenzene (ODCB), is an organic compound with the formula C6H4Cl2.

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1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.

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1-Chloronaphthalene is an aromatic compound.

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1-Methylnaphthalene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH).

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2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerene

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