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# Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function was originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. 

## Abuse of notation

In mathematics, abuse of notation occurs when an author uses a mathematical notation in a way that is not formally correct but that seems likely to simplify the exposition or suggest the correct intuition (while being unlikely to introduce errors or cause confusion).

## Addison-Wesley

Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

## Analytic continuation

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, analytic continuation is a technique to extend the domain of a given analytic function.

## Analytic function

In mathematics, an analytic function is a function that is locally given by a convergent power series.

## Antiderivative

In calculus, an antiderivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function.

## Associative array

In computer science, an associative array, map, symbol table, or dictionary is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key, value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection.

## Associative property

In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations.

## Axiom of choice

In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.

## Bijection

In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.

## Binary operation

In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation that combines two elements of the set (called operands) to produce another element of the set.

## Binary relation

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a set of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.

## Branch point

In the mathematical field of complex analysis, a branch point of a multi-valued function (usually referred to as a "multifunction" in the context of complex analysis) is a point such that the function is discontinuous when going around an arbitrarily small circuit around this point.

## Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

## Class (set theory)

In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share.

## Commutative property

In mathematics, a binary operation is commutative if changing the order of the operands does not change the result.

## Compact space

In mathematics, and more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).

## Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

## Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

## Computability theory

Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, of computer science, and of the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees.

## Computable function

Computable functions are the basic objects of study in computability theory.

## Constant function

In mathematics, a constant function is a function whose (output) value is the same for every input value.

## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which sufficiently small changes in the input result in arbitrarily small changes in the output.

## Correspondence (mathematics)

In mathematics and mathematical economics, correspondence is a term with several related but distinct meanings.

## Curve fitting

Curve fitting is the process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit to a series of data points, possibly subject to constraints.

## D. C. Heath and Company

D.C. Heath and Company was an American publishing company located at 125 Spring Street in Lexington, Massachusetts, specializing in textbooks.

## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

## Differentiable function

In calculus (a branch of mathematics), a differentiable function of one real variable is a function whose derivative exists at each point in its domain.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Direct product

In mathematics, one can often define a direct product of objects already known, giving a new one.

## Distribution (mathematics)

Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.

## Division by zero

In mathematics, division by zero is division where the divisor (denominator) is zero.

## Empty product

In mathematics, an empty product, or nullary product, is the result of multiplying no factors.

## Empty set

In mathematics, and more specifically set theory, the empty set or null set is the unique set having no elements; its size or cardinality (count of elements in a set) is zero.

## Empty sum

In mathematics, an empty sum, or nullary sum, is a summation where the number of terms is zero.

## Euclidean division

In arithmetic, Euclidean division is the process of division of two integers, which produces a quotient and a remainder smaller than the divisor.

## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.

## Factorization

In mathematics, factorization (also factorisation in some forms of British English) or factoring consists of writing a number or another mathematical object as a product of several factors, usually smaller or simpler objects of the same kind.

## Fiber (mathematics)

In mathematics, the term fiber (or fibre in British English) can have two meanings, depending on the context.

## Fibonacci number

In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.

## Foundations of mathematics

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.

## Function of a real variable

In mathematical analysis, and applications in geometry, applied mathematics, engineering, and natural sciences, a function of a real variable is a function whose domain is the real numbers, or a subset of that contains an interval of positive length.

## Function of several real variables

In mathematical analysis, and applications in geometry, applied mathematics, engineering, natural sciences, and economics, a function of several real variables or real multivariate function is a function with more than one argument, with all arguments being real variables.

## Functional (mathematics)

In mathematics, the term functional (as a noun) has at least two meanings.

## Functional analysis

Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

## Functional decomposition

In mathematics, functional decomposition is the process of resolving a functional relationship into its constituent parts in such a way that the original function can be reconstructed (i.e., recomposed) from those parts by function composition.

## Functional equation

In mathematics, a functional equation is any equation in which the unknown represents a function.

## Functional predicate

In formal logic and related branches of mathematics, a functional predicate, or function symbol, is a logical symbol that may be applied to an object term to produce another object term.

## Functional programming

In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data.

## Functor

In mathematics, a functor is a map between categories.

## Gamma function

In mathematics, the gamma function (represented by, the capital Greek alphabet letter gamma) is an extension of the factorial function, with its argument shifted down by 1, to real and complex numbers.

## Graph of a function

In mathematics, the graph of a function f is, formally, the set of all ordered pairs, and, in practice, the graphical representation of this set.

## Histogram

A histogram is an accurate representation of the distribution of numerical data.

## History of the function concept

The mathematical concept of a function emerged in the 17th century in connection with the development of the calculus; for example, the slope \operatorname\!y/\operatorname\!x of a graph at a point was regarded as a function of the x-coordinate of the point.

## Homography

In projective geometry, a homography is an isomorphism of projective spaces, induced by an isomorphism of the vector spaces from which the projective spaces derive.

## Homomorphism

In algebra, a homomorphism is a structure-preserving map between two algebraic structures of the same type (such as two groups, two rings, or two vector spaces).

## Hyperbola

In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.

## Identity element

In mathematics, an identity element or neutral element is a special type of element of a set with respect to a binary operation on that set, which leaves other elements unchanged when combined with them.

## Identity function

Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation or identity map or identity transformation, is a function that always returns the same value that was used as its argument.

## Image (mathematics)

In mathematics, an image is the subset of a function's codomain which is the output of the function from a subset of its domain.

## Implicit function

In mathematics, an implicit equation is a relation of the form R(x_1,\ldots, x_n).

## Implicit function theorem

In mathematics, more specifically in multivariable calculus, the implicit function theorem is a tool that allows relations to be converted to functions of several real variables.

## Inclusion map

In mathematics, if A is a subset of B, then the inclusion map (also inclusion function, insertion, or canonical injection) is the function \iota that sends each element, x, of A to x, treated as an element of B: A "hooked arrow" is sometimes used in place of the function arrow above to denote an inclusion map; thus: \iota: A\hookrightarrow B. (On the other hand, this notation is sometimes reserved for embeddings.) This and other analogous injective functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections.

## Injective function

In mathematics, an injective function or injection or one-to-one function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain.

## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer&#x2009;'s first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

## Integral equation

In mathematics, an integral equation is an equation in which an unknown function appears under an integral sign.

## Interpunct

An interpunct (&middot), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.

## Intersection (set theory)

In mathematics, the intersection A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements.

## Interval (mathematics)

In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set.

## Inverse function

In mathematics, an inverse function (or anti-function) is a function that "reverses" another function: if the function applied to an input gives a result of, then applying its inverse function to gives the result, and vice versa.

## Inverse trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains).

## Italic type

In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Linear differential equation

In mathematics, a linear differential equation is a differential equation that is defined by a linear polynomial in the unknown function and its derivatives, that is an equation of the form where,..., and are arbitrary differentiable functions that do not need to be linear, and are the successive derivatives of an unknown function of the variable.

## Linear function

In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.

## List of mathematical functions

In mathematics, some functions or groups of functions are important enough to deserve their own names.

## List of types of functions

Functions can be identified according to the properties they have.

## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

## Map (mathematics)

In mathematics, the term mapping, sometimes shortened to map, refers to either a function, often with some sort of special structure, or a morphism in category theory, which generalizes the idea of a function.

## Mathematical analysis

Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.

## Mathematical induction

Mathematical induction is a mathematical proof technique.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Meromorphic function

In the mathematical field of complex analysis, a meromorphic function on an open subset D of the complex plane is a function that is holomorphic on all of D except for a discrete set of isolated points, which are poles of the function.

## Monodromy

In mathematics, monodromy is the study of how objects from mathematical analysis, algebraic topology, algebraic geometry and differential geometry behave as they "run round" a singularity.

## Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

## Morphism

In mathematics, a morphism is a structure-preserving map from one mathematical structure to another one of the same type.

## Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.

## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

## Neighbourhood (mathematics)

In topology and related areas of mathematics, a neighbourhood (or neighborhood) is one of the basic concepts in a topological space.

## Nicolas Bourbaki

Nicolas Bourbaki is the collective pseudonym under which a group of (mainly French) 20th-century mathematicians, with the aim of reformulating mathematics on an extremely abstract and formal but self-contained basis, wrote a series of books beginning in 1935.

## Number

A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and also label.

## Operation (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operation is a calculation from zero or more input values (called operands) to an output value.

## Operator (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operator is generally a mapping that acts on the elements of a space to produce other elements of the same space.

## Ordered pair

In mathematics, an ordered pair (a, b) is a pair of objects.

## Ordinary differential equation

In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.

## Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

## Parameter

A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.

## Parametric equation

In mathematics, a parametric equation defines a group of quantities as functions of one or more independent variables called parameters.

## Partial application

In computer science, partial application (or partial function application) refers to the process of fixing a number of arguments to a function, producing another function of smaller arity.

## Partial differential equation

In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.

## Piecewise

In mathematics, a piecewise-defined function (also called a piecewise function or a hybrid function) is a function defined by multiple sub-functions, each sub-function applying to a certain interval of the main function's domain, a sub-domain.

## Placeholder name

Placeholder names are words that can refer to objects or people whose names are temporarily forgotten, irrelevant, or unknown in the context in which they are being discussed.

## Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

## Pointwise

In mathematics, the qualifier pointwise is used to indicate that a certain property is defined by considering each value f(x) of some function f. An important class of pointwise concepts are the pointwise operations &mdash; operations defined on functions by applying the operations to function values separately for each point in the domain of definition.

## Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (also called indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents of variables.

## Polynomial ring

In mathematics, especially in the field of abstract algebra, a polynomial ring or polynomial algebra is a ring (which is also a commutative algebra) formed from the set of polynomials in one or more indeterminates (traditionally also called variables) with coefficients in another ring, often a field.

## Power set

In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of any set is the set of all subsets of, including the empty set and itself, variously denoted as, 𝒫(), ℘() (using the "Weierstrass p"),,, or, identifying the powerset of with the set of all functions from to a given set of two elements,.

## Principal value

In complex analysis, the principal values of a multivalued function are the values along one chosen branch of that function, so that it is single-valued.

## Projectively extended real line

In real analysis, the projectively extended real line (also called the one-point compactification of the real line), is the extension of the number line by a point denoted.

## Quadratic form

In mathematics, a quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of degree two in a number of variables.

## Quadratic function

In algebra, a quadratic function, a quadratic polynomial, a polynomial of degree 2, or simply a quadratic, is a polynomial function in one or more variables in which the highest-degree term is of the second degree.

## Range (mathematics)

In mathematics, and more specifically in naive set theory, the range of a function refers to either the codomain or the image of the function, depending upon usage.

## Rational function

In mathematics, a rational function is any function which can be defined by a rational fraction, i.e. an algebraic fraction such that both the numerator and the denominator are polynomials.

## Real analysis

In mathematics, real analysis is the branch of mathematical analysis that studies the behavior of real numbers, sequences and series of real numbers, and real-valued functions.

## Real line

In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

## Real-valued function

In mathematics, a real-valued function is a function whose values are real numbers.

## Rectangle

In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.

## Recursion

Recursion occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type.

## Restriction

Restriction, restrict or restrictor may refer to.

## Ring homomorphism

In ring theory or abstract algebra, a ring homomorphism is a function between two rings which respects the structure.

## Roman type

In Latin script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic.

## Scalar field

In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space.

## Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

## Set (mathematics)

In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

## Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

## Set-builder notation

In set theory and its applications to logic, mathematics, and computer science, set-builder notation is a mathematical notation for describing a set by enumerating its elements or stating the properties that its members must satisfy.

## Several complex variables

The theory of functions of several complex variables is the branch of mathematics dealing with complex valued functions on the n-tuples of complex numbers.

## Sine

In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

## Singleton (mathematics)

In mathematics, a singleton, also known as a unit set, is a set with exactly one element.

## Smoothness

In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of derivatives it has that are continuous.

## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

## Square (algebra)

In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplying a number by itself.

## Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that; in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

## Statistic

A statistic (singular) or sample statistic is a single measure of some attribute of a sample (e.g. its arithmetic mean value).

## Subgroup

In group theory, a branch of mathematics, given a group G under a binary operation ∗, a subset H of G is called a subgroup of G if H also forms a group under the operation ∗.

## Subset

In mathematics, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

## Support (mathematics)

In mathematics, the support of a real-valued function f is the subset of the domain containing those elements which are not mapped to zero.

## Surjective function

In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x).

## Topological vector space

In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis.

## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

## Transformation (function)

In mathematics, particularly in semigroup theory, a transformation is a function f that maps a set X to itself, i.e..

## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

## Tuple

In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.

## Union (set theory)

In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection.

## University of Tennessee

The University of Tennessee (also referred to as The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, UT Knoxville, UTK, or UT) is a public sun- and land-grant university in Knoxville, Tennessee, United States.

## Variable (mathematics)

In elementary mathematics, a variable is a symbol, commonly an alphabetic character, that represents a number, called the value of the variable, which is either arbitrary, not fully specified, or unknown.

## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

## Vector-valued function

A vector-valued function, also referred to as a vector function, is a mathematical function of one or more variables whose range is a set of multidimensional vectors or infinite-dimensional vectors.

## Vertical line test

In mathematics, the vertical line test is a visual way to determine if a curve is a graph of a function or not.

## Virginia Commonwealth University

Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) is a public research university located in Richmond, Virginia.

## Von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory

In the foundations of mathematics, von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory (NBG) is an axiomatic set theory that is a conservative extension of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZFC).

## Well-order

In mathematics, a well-order (or well-ordering or well-order relation) on a set S is a total order on S with the property that every non-empty subset of S has a least element in this ordering.

## Zero of a function

In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation f(x).

## References

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