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An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
The family Acrasidae (ICZN, or Acrasiomycota, ICBN) is a family of slime molds which belongs to the protist group Percolozoa.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.
An adjuvant is a pharmacological or immunological agent that modifies the effect of other agents.
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
The fungal order Agaricales, also known as gilled mushrooms (for their distinctive gills) or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms.
The Agaricomycetes are a class of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.
The subdivision Agaricomycotina, also known as the hymenomycetes, is one of three taxa of the fungal division Basidiomycota (fungi bearing spores on basidia).
The Agaricostilbomycetes are a class of fungi in the subdivision Pucciniomycotina of the Basidiomycota.
Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America.
Agaricus subrufescens (syn. Agaricus blazei, Agaricus brasiliensis or Agaricus rufotegulis) is a species of mushroom, commonly known as almond mushroom, mushroom of the sun, God's mushroom, mushroom of life, royal sun agaricus, jisongrong, or himematsutake (Chinese: 杏仁松茸, Japanese: 姫まつたけ, "princess matsutake") and by a number of other names.
Agronomy Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by American Society of Agronomy.
An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi.
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage found in the pulmonary alveolus, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall.
The alveolates (meaning "with cavities") are a group of protists, considered a major clade and superphylum within Eukarya, and are also called Alveolata.
The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide, as well as some well-regarded edible species.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amanita phalloides, commonly known as the death cap, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amanita virosa, commonly known in Europe as the destroying angel, is a deadly poisonous basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amatoxin is the collective name of a subgroup of at least eight related toxic compounds found in several genera of poisonous mushrooms, most notably the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and several other members of the genus Amanita, as well as some Conocybe, Galerina and Lepiota mushroom species.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
Ambrosia beetles are beetles of the weevil subfamilies Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), which live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amoebidiidae is a family of single-celled eukaryotes, previously thought to be zygomycete fungi belonging to the class, but molecular phylogenetic analysesBenny, G. L., and O'Donnell, K. 2000.
Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Ant–fungus mutualism is a symbiosis seen in certain ant and fungal species, in which ants actively cultivate fungus much like humans farm crops as a food source.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Aphelida is a phylum of eukaryotes that appear to be sister to true fungi.
An appressorium is a specialized cell typical of many fungal plant pathogens that is used to infect host plants.
An arbuscular mycorrhiza (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.a. endomycorrhiza) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus (AM fungi, or AMF) penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.
Archaeomarasmius is an extinct genus of gilled fungus in the Agaricales family Tricholomataceae, containing the single species Archaeomarasmius leggetti.
Archaeorhizomycetes is an class of fungi in the subdivision Taphrinomycotina of the Ascomycota.
Armillaria, is a genus of parasitic fungi that includes the A. mellea species known as honey fungi that live on trees and woody shrubs.
Armillaria ostoyae (sometimes called Armillaria solidipes) is a species of plant pathogenic fungus in the Physalacriaceae family.
Arthoniomycetes are a class of ascomycete fungi.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Arthur Henry Reginald Buller (August 19, 1874 – July 3, 1944) was a British-Canadian mycologist.
An ascocarp, or ascoma (plural: ascomata), is the fruiting body (sporocarp) of an ascomycete phylum fungus.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus.
An ascus (plural asci; from Greek ἀσκός 'skin bag') is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Aspergillosis is the name given to a wide variety of diseases caused by infection by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution.
Aspergillus nidulans (also called Emericella nidulans when referring to its sexual form, or teleomorph) is one of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota.
Aspergillus oryzae, known in English as, is a filamentous fungus (a mold) used in Chinese and other East Asian cuisines to ferment soybeans for making soy sauce and fermented bean paste, and also to saccharify rice, other grains, and potatoes in the making of alcoholic beverages such as huangjiu, sake, makgeolli, and shōchū.
Aspergillus terreus, also known as Aspergillus terrestris, is a fungus (mold) found worldwide in soil.
Athlete's foot, known medically as tinea pedis, is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus.
The Atractiellomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
August Carl Joseph Corda (1809–1849) was a Czech physician and mycologist.
Ötzi (also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived between 3400 and 3100 BCE.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Basidiobolomycetes is one of the currently recognized classes within the kingdom Fungi.
In fungi, a basidiocarp, basidiome or basidioma (plural: basidiomata) is the sporocarp of a basidiomycete, the multicellular structure on which the spore-producing hymenium is borne.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
A basidiospore is a reproductive spore produced by Basidiomycete fungi, a grouping that includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.
Schematic showing a basidiomycete mushroom, gill structure, and spore-bearing basidia on the gill margins. A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi which are also called tertiary mycellium, developed from secondary mycellium.
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, also known as Bd or the amphibian chytrid fungus, is a fungus that causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians.
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus that grows naturally in soils throughout the world and acts as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease; it thus belongs to the entomopathogenic fungi.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Benzylpenicillin, also known as penicillin G, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism.
Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.
Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Blastocladiomycota is one of the currently recognized phyla within the kingdom Fungi.
Blastocystis is a genus of single-celled heterokont parasites belonging to a group of organisms known as the Stramenopiles (also called Heterokonts) that includes algae, diatoms, and water molds.
A blastospore is an asexual fungal spore produced by budding.
Blue cheese is a general classification of cheeses that have had cultures of the mold Penicillium added so that the final product is spotted or veined throughout with blue, or blue-grey mold and carries a distinct smell, either from that or various specially cultivated bacteria.
A bolete is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus that is clearly differentiated from the stipe, with a spongy surface of pores (rather than gills) on the underside of the pileus.
Boletus edulis (English: penny bun, cep, porcino or porcini) is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus.
Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and extending over several generations.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canadian Journal of Forest Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by NRC Research Press.
Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal cells.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carnivorous fungi or predaceous fungi are fungi that derive some or most of their nutrients from trapping and eating microscopic or other minute animals.
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of the biology of cells, especially their biochemistry and biophysics.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chanterelle is the common name of fungi in the genus Cantharellus.
Charles Tulasne (5 September 1816 – 28 August 1884) was a French physician, mycologist and illustrator born in Langeais in the département of Indre-et-Loire.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemical tests in mushroom identification are methods that aid in determining the variety of some fungi.
The pathogenic fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (formerly Endothia parasitica) is a member of the Ascomycota (sac fungi) taxon.
Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Choanozoa (Greek: χόανος (choanos) "funnel" and ζῶον (zōon) "animal") is the name of a phylum of eukaryotes that belongs to the line of opisthokonts.
Christiaan Hendrik Persoon (1 February 1761 – 16 November 1836) was a mycologist who made additions to Linnaeus' mushroom taxonomy.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chytridiomycetes is a class of fungi.
Chytridiomycota is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids.
Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
A clamp connection is a hook-like structure formed by growing hyphal cells of certain fungi.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
The Classiculomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants.
A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
Coarse woody debris (CWD) or coarse woody habitat (CWH) refers to fallen dead trees and the remains of large branches on the ground in forests and in rivers or wetlands.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.
The fungal genus Cochliobolus includes 55 species, including the following plant pathogenic species: C. carbonum, C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, C. sativus and C. lunatus.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós).
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gause's law, is a proposition named for Georgy Gause that two species competing for the same limiting resource cannot coexist at constant population values.
A compression fossil is a fossil preserved in sedimentary rock that has undergone physical compression.
A conidium (plural conidia), sometimes termed an asexual chlamydospore or chlamydoconidium (plural chlamydoconidia), is an asexual, non-motile spore of a fungus.
Conocybe is a genus of mushrooms with Conocybe tenera as the type species and at least 243 other species.
Fungi are considered to be in urgent need of conservation by the British Mycological Society on the grounds that it is a traditionally neglected taxon which has legal protection in few countries.
Corallochytrium is a single-celled eukaryote which was found in coral reef lagoons of the Lakshadweep islands of the Arabian sea.
Corn smut is a plant disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis that causes smut on maize and teosinte.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Craterellus is a genus of generally edible fungi similar to the closely related chanterelles, with some new species recently moved from the latter to the former.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals.
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals.
The Cryptomycocolacomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
Curtis Gates Lloyd (July 17, 1859 – November 11, 1926) was an American mycologist known for both his research on the gasteroid and polypore fungi, as well as his controversial views on naming conventions in taxonomy.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The Cystobasidiomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
The Dacrymycetes are a class consisting of only one family of jelly fungi, which has imperforate parenthesomes and basidia that are usually branched.
Decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so, they carry out the natural process of decomposition.
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
Dermatophytes (derived from Greek "δέρματος" (dermatos), from "δέρμα", which means "skin" and -"phyte", from "phutón", meaning "plant") are a common label for a group of three types of fungus that commonly causes skin disease in animals and humans.
Dermatophytosis, also known as ringworm, is a fungal infection of the skin.
Desert fungi are a variety of terricolous fungi inhabiting the biological soil crust of arid regions.
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Dikarya is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons, may be filamentous or unicellular, but are always without flagella.
The dikaryon is a nuclear feature which is unique to some fungi.
Dimorphic fungi are fungi that can exist in the form of both mold and yeast.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Meiotic recombination protein DMC1/LIM15 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DMC1 gene.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Dothideomycetes is the largest and most diverse class of ascomycete fungi.
The Doushantuo Formation is a fossil Lagerstätte in Weng'an County, Guizhou Province, China that is notable for being one of the oldest beds to contain minutely preserved microfossils, phosphatic fossils that are so characteristic they have given their name to "Doushantuo type preservation".
DPVweb is a database for virologists working on plant viruses combining taxonomic, bioinformatic and symptom data.
Dumpling is a broad classification for a dish that consists of pieces of dough (made from a variety of starch sources) wrapped around a filling or of dough with no filling.
Dutch elm disease (DED) is caused by a member of the sac fungi (Ascomycota) affecting elm trees, and is spread by elm bark beetles.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Eccrinales are an order of eukaryotes, previously thought to be zygomycete fungi belonging to the class Trichomycetes, but now considered to be members of the opisthokont group Mesomycetozoea.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).
Louis René Étienne Tulasne, a.k.a. Edmond Tulasne (12 September 1815 – 22 December 1885) was a French botanist and mycologist born in Azay-le-Rideau.
Elias Magnus Fries FRS FRSE FLS RAS (15 August 1794 – 8 February 1878) was a Swedish mycologist and botanist.
Ellobiopsis is a genus of unicellular, ectoparasitic eukaryotes causing disease in.
An endophyte is an endosymbiont, often a bacterium or fungus, that lives within a plant for at least part of its life cycle without causing apparent disease.
Enokitake (榎茸, エノキタケ), also enokidake (榎茸, エノキダケ) futu (in India found in wild at Bastar region of Chhattisgarh) or enoki (榎, エノキ), is a long, thin white mushroom used in East Asian cuisine (such as that of China, Japan, Vietnam and Korea).
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
An entomopathogenic fungus is a fungus that can act as a parasite of insects and kills or seriously disables them.
The Entomophthorales are an order of fungi that were previously classified in the class Zygomycetes.
Entomophthoromycota is a fungus division.
Entorrhizomycota are a phylum of Fungi in the subkingdom Dikarya along with Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epichloë coenophiala is a systemic and seed-transmissible endophyte of tall fescue, a grass endemic to Eurasia and North Africa, but widely naturalized in North America, Australia and New Zealand.
The word'epidermis' is a single layer of cells that covers the leaves, flowers, roots and stems of plants.
Ergot (pron.) or ergot fungi refers to a group of fungi of the genus Claviceps.
Ergotamine is an ergopeptine and part of the ergot family of alkaloids; it is structurally and biochemically closely related to ergoline.
Ergotism (pron.) is the effect of long-term ergot poisoning, traditionally due to the ingestion of the alkaloids produced by the Claviceps purpurea fungus that infects rye and other cereals, and more recently by the action of a number of ergoline-based drugs.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology.
Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, which are excavate eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their cell structure is typical of that group.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Ribosomes are a large and complex molecular machine that catalyzes the synthesis of proteins, referred to as translation.
Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous fungal disease of humans, affecting mainly the limbs, and sometimes the abdominal and chest walls or the head.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The Eurotiomycetes are a class of ascomycetes within the subphylum Pezizomycotina.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
Excavata is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota.
The Exobasidiomycetes are a class of fungi sometimes associated with the abnormal outgrowths of plant tissues known as galls.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
Flammulina is a genus of fungi in the Physalacriaceae family.
Fomes fomentarius (commonly known as the tinder fungus, false tinder fungus, hoof fungus, tinder conk, tinder polypore or ice man fungus) is a species of fungal plant pathogen found in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. The species produces very large polypore fruit bodies which are shaped like a horse's hoof and vary in colour from a silvery grey to almost black, though they are normally brown. It grows on the side of various species of tree, which it infects through broken bark, causing rot. The species typically continues to live on trees long after they have died, changing from a parasite to a decomposer. Though inedible, F. fomentarius has traditionally seen use as the main ingredient of amadou, a material used primarily as tinder, but also used to make clothing and other items. The 5,000-year-old Ötzi the Iceman carried four pieces of F. fomentarius, concluded to be for use as tinder. It also has medicinal and other uses. The species is both a pest and useful in timber production.
Fomitopsis betulina (previously Piptoporus betulinus), commonly known as the birch polypore, birch bracket, or razor strop, is a common bracket fungus and, as the name suggests, grows almost exclusively on birch trees.
Fonticula is a genus of cellular slime mold which forms a fruiting body in a volcano shape.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Spoilage is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fragmentation or clonal fragmentation in multi cellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.
The fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins derived from Fusarium, Liseola section.
The fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed.
Fungiculture is the process of producing food, medicine, and other products by the cultivation of mushrooms and other fungi.
Fungivory or mycophagy is the process of organisms consuming fungi.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Fusarium venenatum is a microfungus of the genus Fusarium that has a high protein content.
Fusidic acid is an antibiotic that is often used topically in creams and eyedrops but may also be given systemically as tablets or injections.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
Galerina is a genus of small brown-spored saprobic mushrooms, with over 300 species found throughout the world, from the far north to remote Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean.
A gametangium (plural: gametangia) is an organ or cell in which gametes are produced that is found in many multicellular protists, algae, fungi, and the gametophytes of plants.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geoglossaceae is a family of fungi in the order Geoglossales, class Geoglossomycetes.
Giambattista della Porta (1535? – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation.
Glomerales is an order of symbiotic fungi within the phylum Glomeromycota.
Glomeromycota (informally glomeromycetes) is one of eight currently recognized divisions within the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 230 described species.
A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers, linked by glycosidic bonds.
Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
Griseofulvin is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of types of dermatophytoses (ringworm).
A grocery store or grocer's shop is a retail shop that primarily sells food.
Gyromitra esculenta, is an ascomycete fungus from the genus Gyromitra, widely distributed across Europe and North America.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
In botany and mycology, a haustorium (plural haustoria) is a structure that grows into or around another structure to absorb water or nutrients.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Heinrich Anton de Bary (26 January 183119 January 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology).
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
A heterokaryon is a multinucleate cell that contains genetically different nuclei.
The heterokonts or stramenopiles (formally, Heterokonta or Stramenopiles) are a major line of eukaryotes currently containing more than 25,000 known species.
Heterothallic species have sexes that reside in different individuals.
A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.
Hirsutella is a genus of asexually reproducing fungi in the Ophiocordycipitaceae family.
Histoplasma is a genus of dimorphic fungi commonly found in bird and bat fecal material.
Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.
HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent,; NADPH-dependent) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homothallic refers to the possession, within a single organism, of the resources to reproduce sexually; i.e., having male and female reproductive structures on the same thallus.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.
Hydrophobins are a group of small (~100 amino acids) cysteine-rich proteins that are expressed only by filamentous fungi.
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
The hymenium is the tissue layer on the hymenophore of a fungal fruiting body where the cells develop into basidia or asci, which produce spores.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
Hyphochytrids are eukaryotic organisms in the group of Stramenopiles (Heterokonta), formerly classified as fungi or as protists.
The bolete eater, Hypomyces chrysospermus, is a parasitic ascomycete fungus that grows on bolete mushrooms, turning the afflicted host a whitish, golden yellow, or tan color.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Index Fungorum is an international project to index all formal names (scientific names) in the Fungus Kingdom.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
β-lactam antibiotics (beta-lactam antibiotics) are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Karyogamy is the final step in the process of fusing together two haploid eukaryotic cells, and refers specifically to the fusion of the two nuclei.
The Keroplatidae are a family of small flies known as fungus gnats.
Kickxellomycotina is a fungus grouping.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Kluyveromyces is a genus of ascomycetous yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae.
Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea.
The Laboulbeniomycetes are a unique group of fungi that are apparent external parasites of insects and other arthropods, both terrestrial and aquatic.
The Labyrinthulomycetes (ICBN) or Labyrinthulea (ICZN) are a class of protists that produce a network of filaments or tubes, which serve as tracks for the cells to glide along and absorb nutrients for them.
Lactarius deliciosus, commonly known as the saffron milk cap and red pine mushroom, is one of the best known members of the large milk-cap genus Lactarius in the order Russulales.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
The Lahmiales are an order of fungi in the Ascomycota, or sac fungi.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) that is added for cleaning laundry.
Lecanicillium lecanii is now an approved name of an entomopathogenic fungus species, that was previously widely known as Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas), but is now understood to be an anamorphic form in the Cordyceps group of genera in the Clavicipitaceae. Isolates formerly classified as V. lecanii could be L. attenuatum, L. lecanii, L. longisporum, L. muscarium or L. nodulosum. For example, several recent papers, such as Kouvelis et al. who carried out mitochondrial DNA studies, refer to the name L. muscarium. L. lecanii itself appears primarily to be a pathogen of soft scale insects (Coccidae). The Index Fungorum, referring to L. lecanii, lists the following synonymy.
Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized fungi.
Lentinan is a polysaccharide isolated from the fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes mycelium.
Leotiomyceta represents all the filamentous ascomycete fungi (Pezizomycotina), excluding the classes Pezizomycetes and Orbiliomycetes.
The Leotiomycetes are a class of ascomycete fungi.
Lepiota is a genus of gilled mushrooms in the family Agaricaceae.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
Lichinomycetes are a class of ascomycete fungi.
The lingzhi mushroom is a species complex that encompasses several fungal species of the genus Ganoderma, most commonly the closely related species Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma tsugae, and Ganoderma lingzhi.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Found largely in temperate and tropical climates, currently there are known more than 75 species of bioluminescent fungi, all of which are members of the order Agaricales (Basidiomycota) with one exceptional ascomycete belonging to the order Xylariales.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Magnaporthe grisea, also known as rice blast fungus, rice rotten neck, rice seedling blight, blast of rice, oval leaf spot of graminea, pitting disease, ryegrass blast, and Johnson spot, is a plant-pathogenic fungus that causes a serious disease affecting rice.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) is a genus of fungi.
Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.
Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.
Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments.
Mastigomycotina is a former polyphyletic taxonomic grouping, a subdivision, of fungi, similar to Phycomycetes, and that included the zoosporic classes Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytriomycetes, Plasmodiophoromycetes and Oomycetes.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types.
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.
Mating types are molecular mechanisms that regulate compatibility in sexually reproducing eukaryotes.
A meat analogue, also called a meat alternative, meat substitute, mock meat, faux meat, imitation meat, (where applicable) vegetarian meat, or vegan meat, approximates certain aesthetic qualities (primarily texture, flavor and appearance) and/or chemical characteristics of specific types of meat.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The Mesomycetozoea (or DRIP clade, or Ichthyosporea) are a small group of Opisthokonta in Eukarya (formerly protists), mostly parasites of fish and other animals.
Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a certain substance.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metarhizium is a genus of entomopathogenic fungi in the Clavicipitaceae family.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.
Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.
Mevastatin (compactin, ML-236B) is a hypolipidemic agent that belongs to the statins class.
The Microbotryomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.
Miles Joseph Berkeley (1 April 1803 – 30 July 1889) was an English cryptogamist and clergyman, and one of the founders of the science of plant pathology.
is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and koji (the fungus Aspergillus oryzae) and sometimes rice, barley, or other ingredients.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
The Mixiomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Monascus is a genus of mold.
Members of the Monoblepharidomycetes have a filamentous thallus that is either extensive or simple and unbranched.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Morchella, the true morels, is a genus of edible sac fungi closely related to anatomically simpler cup fungi in the order Pezizales (division Ascomycota).
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mortierellales is a fungal order.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Mucor is a microbial genus of approximately 40 species of moulds commonly found in soil, digestive systems, plant surfaces, some cheeses like tomme de savoie, rotten vegetable matter and iron oxide residue in the biosorption process.
Mucoromycotina is a subdivision of Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic placement.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
Mushroom hunting, Houby hunting, mushrooming, mushroom picking, mushroom foraging, and similar terms describe the activity of gathering mushrooms in the wild, typically for food.
Mushroom Observer is a collaborative amateur mycology website started by Nathan Wilson in 2006.
Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism or mycetismus) refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Mycelial cords are linear aggregations of parallel-oriented hyphae.
Fungal mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.
The Mycetophilidae are a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats.
Mycetozoa is a grouping of slime molds.
Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis.
MycoBank is an online database, documenting new mycological names and combinations, eventually combined with descriptions and illustrations.
Mycobiota (plural noun, no singular) are a group of all the fungi present in a particular geographic region (e.g. "the mycobiota of Ireland") or habitat type (e.g. "the mycobiota of cocoa").
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as toxicity or infection.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi.
A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Nematophagous fungi are carnivorous fungi specialized in trapping and digesting nematodes.
Neocallimastigomycota is a phylum containing anaerobic fungi, which are symbionts found in the digestive tracts of larger herbivores.
Neolecta is a genus of ascomycetous fungi that have fruiting bodies in the shape of unbranched to lobed bright yellowish, orangish to pale yellow-green colored, club-shaped, smooth, fleshy columns up to about 7 cm tall.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from.
Neotyphodium is a genus of endophytic fungi symbiotic with grasses.
The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.
Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota.
The Nidulariaceae ('nidulus' - small nest) are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
Nucleariida is a group of amoebae with filose pseudopods, known mostly from soils and freshwater.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species (mainly A. ochraceus, but also by 33% of A. niger industrial strains) and some Penicillium species, especially P. verrucosum and P. carbonarius.
Olpidiaceae is a fungal plant pathogen families that was placed in the order Chytridiales.
The one gene–one enzyme hypothesis is the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes, with each gene responsible for producing a single enzyme that in turn affects a single step in a metabolic pathway.
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.
Ophiocordyceps sinensis (formerly known as Cordyceps sinensis) is an entomopathogenic fungus (a fungus that grows on insects) found in mountainous regions of Nepal and Tibet.
Ophiostoma ulmi is a species of fungus in the family Ophiostomataceae.
The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios).
Opisthosporidia (incl. True Fungi) or Zoosporia or Fungi are a sister clade of the Cristidiscoidea together forming the Holomycota.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
Orbiliomycetes are a class of fungi in the Ascomycota.
The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Osmolytes are compounds affecting osmosis.
Osmotrophy is the uptake of dissolved organic compounds by osmosis for nutrition.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to fungi: Fungi – "Fungi" is plural for "fungus".
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Paecilomyces is a genus of fungi.
Paleoproterozoic Era, spanning the time period from (2.5–1.6 Ga), is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic Eon.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) (also known as "Brazilian blastomycosis", "South American blastomycosis", "Lutz-Splendore-de Almeida disease" and "paracoccidioidal granuloma") is a fungal infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
The parasexual cycle, a process peculiar to fungi and single-celled organisms, is a nonsexual mechanism of parasexuality for transferring genetic material without meiosis or the development of sexual structures.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms.
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, in particular, Aspergillus and Penicillium and Byssochlamys.
Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Penicillium chrysogenum or P. notatum (formerly) is a species of fungus in the family Trichocomaceae.
Penicillium griseofulvum is a species of the genus of Penicillium which produces patulin, penifulvin A, cyclopiazonic acid, roquefortine C, shikimic acid and griseofulvin.
Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus from the family Trichocomaceae.
The Pennsylvanian (also known as Upper Carboniferous or Late Carboniferous) is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the younger of two subperiods (or upper of two subsystems) of the Carboniferous Period.
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound used as a pesticide and a disinfectant.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Permineralization is a process of fossilization in which mineral deposits form internal casts of organisms.
A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
Pezizomycetes are a class of fungi within the division Ascomycota.
Pezizomycotina make up majority of the Ascomycota fungi and includes most lichenized fungi too.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
Phallaceae is a family of fungi, commonly known as stinkhorn mushrooms, within the order Phallales.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phycomycetes is an obsolete polyphyletic taxon for certain fungi with nonseptate hyphae.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
The Phytomyxea are a class of parasites of plants.
Pichia (Hansenula and Hyphopichia are obsolete synonyms) is a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae with spherical, elliptical, or oblong acuminate cells.
Pichia pastoris is a species of methylotrophic yeast.
Pier Andrea Saccardo (23 April 1845 in Treviso, Treviso – 12 February 1920 in Padua) was an Italian botanist and mycologist.
Pier Antonio Micheli (December 11, 1679 – January 1, 1737) was a noted Italian botanist, professor of botany in Pisa, curator of the Orto Botanico di Firenze, author of Nova plantarum genera iuxta Tournefortii methodum disposita.
Pilobolus is a genus of fungi that commonly grows on herbivore dung.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Pizza is a traditional Italian dish consisting of a yeasted flatbread typically topped with tomato sauce and cheese and baked in an oven.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
Plasmogamy is a stage in the sexual reproduction of fungi, in which the cytoplasm of two parent cells (usually from the mycelia) fuses together without the fusion of nuclei, effectively bringing two haploid nuclei close together in the same cell.
Pleurotus ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a common edible mushroom.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
The Pneumocystidomycetes are a class of ascomycete fungi.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Polypores are a group of fungi that form fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside (see Delimitation for exceptions).
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polysaccharide-K (Krestin, PSK) is a protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from the fruitbody of Trametes versicolor.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
In phylogenetics, a primitive (or ancestral) character, trait, or feature of a lineage or taxon is one that is inherited from the common ancestor of a clade (or clade group) and has undergone little change since.
Production of antibiotics is a naturally occurring event, that thanks to advances in science can now be replicated and improved upon in laboratory settings.
In biology, a propagule is any material that functions in propagating an organism to the next stage in its life cycle, such as by dispersal.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.
Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Prototaxites is a genus of terrestrial fossil fungi dating from the Late Silurian until the Late Devonian periods, approximately.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A psilocybin mushroom is one of a polyphyletic group of fungi that contain any of various psychedelic compounds, including psilocybin, psilocin, and baeocystin.
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, and altered state of consciousness.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
The Pucciniomycetes (formerly known as the Urediniomycetes) are a class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
Pucciniomycotina is a subdivision of fungus within the division Basidiomycota.
A puffball is a member of any of several groups of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.
Purpureocillium is a fungal genus in the Ophiocordycipitaceae family.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Pythium is a genus of parasitic oomycotes.
Quorn is a meat substitute product originating in the UK and sold primarily in Europe, but also available in 19 countries.
In biology, quorum sensing is the ability to detect and to respond to cell population density by gene regulation.
RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene.
Radiotrophic fungi are fungi which appear to perform radiosynthesis, that is, to use the pigment melanin to convert gamma radiation into chemical energy for growth.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
RecA is a 38 kilodalton protein essential for the repair and maintenance of DNA.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Respiratory burst (sometimes called oxidative burst) is the rapid release of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) from different types of cells.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
The Rhizaria are a species-rich supergroup of mostly unicellular eukaryotes.
Rhizomucor is a genus of fungi in the Mucoraceae family.
Rhizopus is a genus of common saprophytic fungi on plants and specialized parasites on animals.
Rhizopus stolonifer is commonly known as black bread mold.
The rhizosphere is the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms.
The Rhynie chert is an Early Devonian sedimentary deposit exhibiting extraordinary fossil detail or completeness (a Lagerstätte).
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
In geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle of exactly 90° (degrees), corresponding to a quarter turn.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Roquefort (or;; from Occitan ròcafòrt) is a sheep milk cheese from the south of France, and together with Bleu d'Auvergne, Stilton, and Gorgonzola is one of the world's best known blue cheeses.
Roquefortine C is a mycotoxin that belongs to a class of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines produced by various fungi, particularly species from the genus Penicillium.
Royall Tyler Moore (October 11, 1930 – August 17, 2014) was an American-born mycologist and mycology professor.
Rozella is a genus of fungi.
Cryptomycota ('hidden fungi'), Rozellida, or Rozellomycota are a clade of micro-organisms that are either fungi or a sister group to fungi.
Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales).
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Saccharomyces is a genus of fungi that includes many species of yeasts.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Saccharomycetes belongs to the kingdom of Fungi and the division Ascomycota.
Saccharomycotina is a subdivision (subphylum) of the division (phylum) Ascomycota in the Kingdom Fungi.
, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
Saprotrophic nutrition or lysotrophic nutrition is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.
Sarcoscypha coccinea, commonly known as the scarlet elf cup, scarlet elf cap, or the scarlet cup, is a species of fungus in the family Sarcoscyphaceae of the order Pezizales.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Sawflies are the insects of the suborder Symphyta within the order Hymenoptera alongside ants, bees and wasps.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology.
Schizosaccharomycetes is a class in the kingdom of fungi.
Sciaroidea is a superfamily in the infraorder Bibionomorpha.
A sclerotium, plural sclerotia, is a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
The shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Sirex is a genus of wasps in the family Siricidae, the horntails or wood wasps.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
The smuts are multicellular fungi characterized by their large numbers of teliospores.
The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).
Sordariomycetes is a class of fungi in the subdivision Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota), consisting of 28 orders, 90 families, 1344 genera.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper.
Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.
The Spitzenkörper (German for pointed body) is a structure found in fungal hyphae that is the organizing center for hyphal growth and morphogenesis.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body, fruit body or fruitbody) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
Stilton is an English cheese, produced in two varieties: Blue, known for its characteristic strong smell and taste, and the lesser-known White.
Stingless bees, sometimes called stingless honey bees or simply meliponines, are a large group of bees (about 500 species), comprising the tribe Meliponini (or subtribe Meliponina according to other authors).
In mycology, a stipe is the stem or stalk-like feature supporting the cap of a mushroom.
Stone washing is a textile manufacturing process used to give a newly manufactured cloth garment a worn-in (or worn-out) appearance.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols.
The surface-area-to-volume ratio, also called the surface-to-volume ratio and variously denoted sa/vol or SA:V, is the amount of surface area per unit volume of an object or collection of objects.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as 'Tee-Two') is a trichothecene mycotoxin.
The Taphrinomycetes are a class of ascomycete fungi belonging to the subdivision Taphrinomycotina.
The Taphrinomycotina are one of three subdivisions constituting the Ascomycota (fungi that form their spores in a sac-like ascus) and is more or less synonymous with the slightly older invalid name Archiascomycetes (sometimes spelled Archaeascomycetes; archea.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
In mycology, the terms teleomorph, anamorph, and holomorph apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
Tempeh (témpé) is a traditional soy product originating from Indonesia.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.
Tinder is easily combustible material used to start a fire.
Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trametes versicolor – also known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor – is a common polypore mushroom found throughout the world.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Trehalose is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose.
The Tremellomycetes are a class of dimorphic fungi.
Tricholoma equestre or Tricholoma flavovirens, also known as man on horseback or yellow knight is a formerly widely eaten but hazardous fungus of the genus Tricholoma that forms ectomycorrhiza with pine trees.
Trichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Cephalosporium, Verticimonosporium, and Stachybotrys.
The Tritirachiomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina.
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.
Tuber is a genus in the Tuberaceae family of fungi.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
Ultrastructure (or ultra-structure) is the architecture of cells that is visible at higher magnifications than found on a standard optical light microscope.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Ustilaginomycetes is the class of true smut fungi.
The Ustilaginomycotina is a subdivision within the division Basidiomycota of the kingdom Fungi.
Ustilago is a genus of approximately 200 smut fungi parasitic on grasses.
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Volvariella volvacea (also known as paddy straw mushroom or straw mushroom) is a species of edible mushroom cultivated throughout East and Southeast Asia and used extensively in Asian cuisines.
The Wallemiomycetes are a class of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The term woodboring beetle encompasses many species and families of beetles whose larval or adult forms eat and destroy wood (i.e., are xylophagous).
Xylanase (endo-(1->4)-beta-xylan 4-xylanohydrolase, endo-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase, 1,4-beta-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-D-xylanase) is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Xylophagy is a term used in ecology to describe the habits of an herbivorous animal whose diet consists primarily (often solely) of wood.
YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1), also known as YAP or YAP65, is a protein that acts as a transcriptional regulator by activating the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation and suppressing apoptotic genes.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zea is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family.
The Zoopagomycotina are a subdivision (incertae sedis) of the fungal division Zygomycota sensu lato.
A zoospore is a motile asexual spore that uses a flagellum for locomotion.
Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.
A zygospore is a diploid reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi and protists.
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