184 relations: Abraham Wood, Adriaen Block, Alaska, Alaska Natives, Aleut, Aleutian Islands, Altai Mountains, American Fur Company, Animal rights, Arctic fox, Auguste Chouteau, Étienne Brûlé, Baltic Sea, Bay of Fundy, Beaver, Beaver Wars, Black Sea, Boreal ecosystem, British Columbia Coast, Bureau of Indian Affairs, California Fur Rush, Canada, Canton System, Capitalism, Charleston, South Carolina, Chinook Jargon, Chinookan peoples, Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade, Colonialism, Columbia River, Cook Inlet, Cossacks, Coureur des bois, Creole language, David Kirke, Deep South, Deerskin trade, Dutch people, Early Middle Ages, Early modern period, Epidemic, Europe, European colonization of the Americas, Felt, Feodor I of Russia, First Nations, Fort Orange (New Netherland), Fox, Fraser River, French and Indian War, ..., Fur, Fur brigade, Fur Institute of Canada, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Gray wolf, Guangzhou, Haida people, Hanseatic League, Hare, Harold Innis, Harold Innis and the fur trade, Hawaiian Islands, Henry IV of France, History of Siberia, Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hudson's Bay Company, Huguenots, Hypodescent, Indian Territory, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, International trade, Irkutsk Oblast, Ivan the Terrible, John Jacob Astor, Kama River, Kamchatka Peninsula, Karl Polanyi, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Sibir, Kinship, Komi peoples, Kondia, Kyakhta, Lake Beloye (disambiguation), Lake Superior, Leipzig, LeRoy R. Hafen, List of fur trading post and forts in North America, Local extinction, Lynx, Mahican, Manuel Lisa, Marten, Médard des Groseilliers, Métis, Mexico, Mississippi River, Mohawk people, Mongolia, Monopoly, Mountain man, Musket, Native Americans in the United States, Native Hawaiians, New Amsterdam, New England, New France, New River (Kanawha River tributary), Newfoundland (island), Nonintercourse Act, Nonsuch (1650 ship), North America, North West Company, Northern fur seal, Novgorod Republic, Novosibirsk Oblast, Nuu-chah-nulth, Oblast, Ottoman Empire, Pacific Northwest, Patrilineality, Pechora River, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, Pierre-Charles Le Sueur, Pierre-Esprit Radisson, Plantation economy, Plymouth Colony, Potlatch, Promyshlenniki, Red River of the North, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Rocky Mountain Fur Company, Royal Proclamation of 1763, Russian colonization of the Americas, Russian Empire, Russian Far East, Russian-American Company, Sable, Saguenay River, Saint Lawrence River, Salekhard, Sally Ainse, Samuel de Champlain, Science and technology in Canada, Sea otter, Seven Years' War, Siberia, Simon Fraser (explorer), Slavery in the United States, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Shetland Islands, Squirrel, Stoat, Stroganov family, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Synthetic fiber, Tadoussac, Tatars, Textile manufacturing, Tlingit, Totem, Trading post, Trapping, Treaty of Breda (1667), Treaty of Kyakhta (1727), Triangular trade, Tribute, Tsar, Tyumen Oblast, United States, University of Massachusetts Press, Ural Mountains, Voivode, Volga River, Voyageurs, Vychegda River, Western world, William J. Eccles, Yasak, Yenisei River, Yermak Timofeyevich, Yugra. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Wood (1610–1682), sometimes referred to as "General" or "Colonel" Wood, was an English fur trader (specifically the beaver and deerskin trades) and explorer of 17th century colonial Virginia.
Adriaen (Aerjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch private trader, privateer, and ship’s captain who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614, following the 1609 expedition by Henry Hudson.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alaska Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.
The Aleuts (Алеу́ты Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect), Alaska Native Language Center.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
The American Fur Company (AFC) was founded in 1808, by John Jacob Astor, a German immigrant to the United States.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
René Auguste Chouteau, Jr. (September 7, 1749 or September 26, 1750 in New Orleans, French Louisiana – February 24, 1829 in St. Louis, MissouriBeckwith, 8.), also known as Auguste Chouteau, was the founder of St. Louis, Missouri, a successful fur trader and a politician.
Étienne Brûlé (c. 1592 – c. June 1633) was the first European explorer to journey beyond the St. Lawrence River in what is today Canada.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars, encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th and 18th centuries in eastern North America.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A boreal ecosystem is an ecosystem with a subarctic climate in the Northern Hemisphere, roughly between latitude 50° to 70°N.
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Before the 1849 California Gold Rush, American, English and Russian fur hunters were drawn to Spanish (and then Mexican) California in a California Fur Rush, to exploit its enormous fur resources.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canton System (1757–1842) served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country by focusing all trade on the southern port of Canton (now Guangzhou).
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Chinook Jargon (also known as chinuk wawa, or chinook wawa) is a revived American indigenous language originating as a pidgin trade language in the Pacific Northwest, and spreading during the 19th century from the lower Columbia River, first to other areas in modern Oregon and Washington, then British Columbia and as far as Alaska and Yukon Territory, sometimes taking on characteristics of a creole language.
Chinookan peoples include several groups of indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest in the United States who speak the Chinookan languages.
The Coalition to Abolish the Fur Trade (CAFT) is an informal international coalition of grassroots groups that campaign against the production and use of animal fur for clothing and other items.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America.
Cook Inlet (Dena'ina: Tikahtnu) stretches from the Gulf of Alaska to Anchorage in south-central Alaska.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
A coureur des bois or coureur de bois ("runner of the woods"; plural: coureurs de bois) was an independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian trader who traveled in New France and the interior of North America.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Sir David Kirke (c. 1597–1654) (a.k.a. David Ker) was an adventurer, colonizer and governor for the king of England.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
The deerskin trade between Colonial America and the Native Americans was one of the most important trading relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, especially in the southeast.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together.
Fyodor (Theodore) I Ivanovich (Фёдор I Иванович) or Feodor I Ioannovich (Феодор I Иоаннович); 31 May 1557 – 16 or 17 January (NS) 1598), also known as Feodor the Bellringer, was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584–1598). Feodor's mother died when he was three, and he grew up in the shadow of his father, Ivan the Terrible. A pious man of retiring disposition, Feodor took little interest in politics, and the country was effectively administered in his name by Boris Godunov, the brother of his beloved wife Irina. His childless death left the Rurikid dynasty extinct, and spurred Russia's descent into the catastrophic Time of Troubles. In Russian documents, Feodor is sometimes called blessed (Блаженный). He is also listed in the "Great Synaxaristes" of the Orthodox Church, with his feast day on January 7 (OS).
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Fort Orange (Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York developed at this site.
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.
The Fraser River is the longest river within British Columbia, Canada, rising at Fraser Pass near Blackrock Mountain in the Rocky Mountains and flowing for, into the Strait of Georgia at the city of Vancouver.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Fur brigades were convoys of canoes and boats used to transport supplies, trading goods and furs in the North American fur trade industry.
The Fur Institute of Canada (FIC) works to promote the fur trade and to advocate for the fur industry.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
Harold Adams Innis (November 5, 1894 – November 8, 1952) was a Canadian professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on media, communication theory, and Canadian economic history.
Harold Adams Innis (November 5, 1894 – November 8, 1952) was a professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on Canadian economic history and on media and communication theory.
The Hawaiian Islands (Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some from the island of Hawaiokinai in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
The early history of Siberia is greatly influenced by the sophisticated nomadic civilizations of the Scythians (Pazyryk) on the west of the Ural Mountains and Xiongnu (Noin-Ula) on the east of the Urals, both flourishing before the Christian era.
Hudson Bay (Inuktitut: Kangiqsualuk ilua, baie d'Hudson) (sometimes called Hudson's Bay, usually historically) is a large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada with a surface area of.
The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States.
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
In societies that regard some races of people as dominant or superior and others as subordinate or inferior, hypodescent refers to the automatic assignment by the dominant culture of children of a mixed union or sexual relations between members of different socioeconomic groups or ethnic groups to the subordinate group.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Irkutsk Oblast (Ирку́тская о́бласть, Irkutskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in southeastern Siberia in the basins of the Angara, Lena, and Nizhnyaya Tunguska Rivers.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
John Jacob Astor (July 17, 1763 – March 29, 1848) (born Johann Jakob Astor) was a German–American businessman, merchant, real estate mogul and investor who mainly made his fortune in fur trade and by investing in real estate in or around New York City.
The Kama (река́ Ка́ма,; Чулман; Кам) is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; it is larger than the Volga before their junction.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Karl Paul Polanyi (Polányi Károly; October 25, 1886 – April 23, 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian economic historian, economic anthropologist, economic sociologist, political economist, historical sociologist and social philosopher.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers.
Kondia or Konda was the name of a Mansi principality which existed independently until the mid-18th century.
Kyakhta (Кя́хта,; Xyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border.
Lake Beloye (Белое озеро, literally meaning White Lake) is a lake in the northwestern part of Vologda Oblast in Russia.
Lake Superior (Lac Supérieur; ᑭᑦᒉᐁ-ᑲᒣᐁ, Gitchi-Gami) is the largest of the Great Lakes of North America.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
LeRoy Reuben Hafen (December 8, 1893 – March 8, 1985) was a historian of the American West and a Latter-day Saint.
By the early 19th century, several companies established strings of fur trading posts and forts across North America.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
A lynx (plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, Bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx.
The Mahicans (or Mohicans) are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe related to the abutting Delaware people, originally settled in the upper Hudson River Valley (around Albany, New York) and western New England centered on Pittsfield, Massachusetts and lower present-day Vermont.
Manuel Lisa, also known as Manuel de Lisa (September 8, 1772 in New Orleans, Louisiana – August 12, 1820 in St. Louis, Missouri), was a Spanish citizen and later, became an American citizen who, while living on the western frontier, became a land owner, merchant, fur trader, United States Indian agent, and explorer. Lisa was among the founders, in St. Louis, of the Missouri Fur Company, an early fur trading company. Manuel Lisa gained respect through his trading among Native American tribes of the upper Missouri River region, such as the Teton Sioux, Omaha and Ponca. After being appointed, as US Indian agent, during the War of 1812, Lisa used his standing among the tribes to encourage their alliance with the United States and their warfare against tribes allied with the United Kingdom. While still married to a European-American woman in St. Louis, where he kept a residence, in 1814 Lisa married Mitane, a daughter of Big Elk, the principal chief of the Omaha people, as part of securing their alliance. They had two children together, whom Lisa provided for equally in his will with his children by his other marriage.
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae.
Médard Chouart des Groseilliers (1618–1696) was a French explorer and fur trader in Canada.
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to indigenous North Americans and European settlers.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mohawk people (who identify as Kanien'kehá:ka) are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
A mountain man is an explorer who lives in the wilderness.
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
Native Hawaiians (Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
The New River is a river which flows through the U.S. states of North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia before joining with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River at the town of Gauley Bridge, West Virginia.
Newfoundland (Terre-Neuve) is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
The Nonintercourse Act (also known as the Indian Intercourse Act or the Indian Nonintercourse Act) is the collective name given to six statutes passed by the Congress in 1790, 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834 to set Amerindian boundaries of reservations.
Nonsuch was the ketch that sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668-1669 under Zachariah Gillam, in the first trading voyage for what was to become the Hudson's Bay Company two years later.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821.
The northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) is an eared seal found along the north Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Sea of Okhotsk.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Novosibirsk Oblast (Новосиби́рская о́бласть, Novosibirskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) located in southwestern Siberia.
The Nuu-chah-nulth (Nuučaan̓uł), also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, Nuuchahnulth or Tahkaht, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in Canada.
An oblast is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Pechora River (Печо́ра; Komi: Печӧра; Nenets: Санэроˮ яха) is a river in northwest Russia which flows north into the Arctic Ocean on the west side of the Ural Mountains.
Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye (November 17, 1685 – December 5, 1749) was a French Canadian military officer, fur trader and explorer.
Pierre-Charles Le Sueur (c. 1657, Artois, France – 17 July 1704, Havana, Cuba) was a French fur trader and explorer in North America, recognized as the first known European to explore the Minnesota River valley.
Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636/1640–1710) was a French fur trader and explorer.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
Plymouth Colony (sometimes New Plymouth) was an English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691.
A potlatch is a gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States,Harkin, Michael E., 2001, Potlatch in Anthropology, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., vol 17, pp.
The promyshlenniki (from Russian промысел (promysel), literally "a trade" or "business" or "industry") were Russian and indigenous Siberian contract workers drawn largely from the state serf and townsman class who engaged in the Siberian, maritime and later the Russian American fur trade.
The Red River (Rivière rouge or Rivière Rouge du Nord, American English: Red River of the North) is a North American river.
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a French explorer.
The enterprise that eventually came to be known as the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, was established in St. Louis, Missouri in 1822 by William Henry Ashley and Andrew Henry.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
The Russian colonization of the Americas covers the period from 1732 to 1867, when the Russian Empire laid claim to northern Pacific Coast territories in the Americas.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
The "Russian-American Company Under the Supreme Patronage of His Imperial Majesty" (Под высочайшим Его Императорского Величества покровительством Российская-Американская Компания Pod vysochayshim Yego Imperatorskogo Velichestva porkrovitelstvom Rossiyskaya-Amerikanskaya Kompaniya) was a state-sponsored chartered company formed largely on the basis of the United American Company.
The sable (Martes zibellina) is a marten species, a small carnivorous mammal inhabiting forest environments, primarily in Russia from the Ural Mountains throughout Siberia, northern Mongolia.
The Saguenay River (French: Rivière Saguenay) is a major river of Quebec, Canada.
The Saint Lawrence River (Fleuve Saint-Laurent; Tuscarora: Kahnawáʼkye; Mohawk: Kaniatarowanenneh, meaning "big waterway") is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Salekhard (Салеха́рд; Khanty: Пуӆңават, Pułñawat; Саляʼ харад, Salja’ harad - lit. house on a peninsula) is a town and the administrative center of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia.
Sally Ainse (also known as Sally Montour, Sara Montour, Sara Hands, Sara Hains, Sara Willson, and Sarah Hance) (c. 1728–1823) was an Oneida diplomat and fur trader, who was most commonly known as Sally throughout her life.
Samuel de Champlain (born Samuel Champlain; on or before August 13, 1574Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – December 25, 1635), known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
Science and technology in Canada consists of three distinct but closely related phenomena.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Simon Fraser (20 May 1776 – 18 August 1862) was a fur trader and explorer of Scottish ancestry who charted much of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia (B.C.). He also built the first European settlement in B.C..
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
The Stroganovs or Strogonovs (Стро́гановы, Стро́гоновы), referred to in French as Stroganoffs, were a family of highly successful Russian merchants, industrialists, landowners, and statesmen.
Sverdlovsk Oblast (Свердло́вская о́бласть, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia located in the Ural Federal District.
Synthetic fibers (British English: synthetic fibres) are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes.
Tadoussac is a village in Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saguenay and Saint Lawrence rivers.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
The Tlingit (or; also spelled Tlinkit) are Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of North America.
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.
Animal trapping, or simply trapping, is the use of a device to remotely catch an animal.
The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, 31 July (Gregorian calendar), 1667, by England, the United Provinces (Netherlands), France, and Denmark–Norway.
The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (Кяхтинский договор, Kjahtinskij dogovor;, Wade-Giles: Pu4lien2ssŭ1ch‘i2 / Ch‘ia4k‘o4tu2 t‘iao2yüeh1, Xiao'erjing: بُلِيًاصِٿِ / ٿِاكْتُ تِيَوْيُؤ; Хиагтын гэрээ, Xiagtın gerê; Manchu:, Wylie: chuwan emu hatsin-i pitghe, Möllendorff: juwan emu hacin-i bithe), along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid-19th century.
Triangular trade or triangle trade is a historical term indicating trade among three ports or regions.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tyumen Oblast (Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
VoivodeAlso spelled "voievod", "woiwode", "voivod", "voyvode", "vojvoda", or "woiwod" (Old Slavic, literally "war-leader" or "warlord") is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The voyageurs (travelers) were French Canadians who engaged in the transporting of furs by canoe during the fur trade years.
Vychegda is a river in the European part of Russia, tributary to the Northern Dvina.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William John Eccles (July 17, 1917 – October 2, 1998), commonly known as W. J. Eccles, was a historian of Canada.
Yasak or yasaq, sometimes iasak, (ясак; akin to Yassa) is a Turkic word for "tribute" that was used in Imperial Russia to designate fur tribute exacted from the indigenous peoples of Siberia.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
Yermak Timofeyevich (p; born between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585) was a Cossack ataman who started the Russian conquest of Siberia, in the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
Yugra or Iuhra (Old Russian Югра Jugra; Byzantine Greek Οὔγγροι Oὔggroi) was a collective name for lands and peoples between the Pechora River and Urals (modern north-west Russia), in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th Centuries.
Fur Country, Fur Trade, Fur Trader, Fur Trappers, Fur country, Fur hunting, Fur production, Fur trader, Fur traders, Fur trades, Fur trading, Fur trappers, Fur-trader, Peltry, Russian fur-hunting, The fur trade.