362 relations: A Christmas Tree and a Wedding, A Gentle Creature, A Moveable Feast, A Nasty Story, A Writer's Diary, Adam Mickiewicz, Akira Kurosawa, Albert Einstein, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Aleksey Pleshcheyev, Aleksey Suvorin, Alexander Herzen, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Alexander Pushkin, Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Almanac, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Alyosha Karamazov, An Honest Thief, Ancient Rome, Andrzej Wajda, Ann Radcliffe, Anna Dostoevskaya, Anne Jaclard, Anthony Trollope, Anti-Europeanism, Anton Chekhov, Anton Rubinstein, Apollon Grigoryev, Apollon Maykov, Apoplexy, Artemy Troitsky, Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, AST (publisher), Atheism, Augustine of Hippo, Étienne Cabet, Baden-Baden, Balkans, Barnaul, Beat Generation, Belarus, Bobok, Book of Job, Book of Revelation, Boris Godunov (play), Byzantine Empire, Carl Friedrich Gauss, ..., Carl Gustav Carus, Catarrh, Catechism, Catholic Church, Charles Dickens, Charles Fourier, Christian socialism, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Constance Garnett, Constitutional monarchy, Crime and Punishment, Dacha, Darmstadt, Decembrist revolt, Demons (Dostoevsky novel), Dimitry of Rostov, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dmitry Donskoy, Dmitry Grigorovich, Dogma, Donation of Pepin, Dostoevskaya (Moscow Metro), Dostoevskij (crater), Dostoevsky Museum, Dostoevsky's Pushkin Speech, Dostoyevskaya (Saint Petersburg Metro), Dresden, E-book, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Eastern Catholic Churches, Edgar Allan Poe, Edition (book), Ef (Cyrillic), Electronic publishing, Epic poetry, Epigram, Epileptic seizure, Epistolary novel, Epoch (Russian magazine), Ernest Hemingway, Eugène Sue, Eugénie Grandet, Existentialism, Expressionism, Fairy tale, Femme fatale, First-person narrative, Fita, François Guizot, Frankfurt, Franz Kafka, Friedrich Nietzsche, Friedrich Schiller, From the House of the Dead, Fyodor Stellovsky, Gavrila Derzhavin, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Geneva, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Sand, Georges Florovsky, Giambattista Vico, Golden Eagle Award for Best Television Motion Picture (Russia), Golden Horde, Gospel, Gothic fiction, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Inquisitor, Grigory Eliseev, Hectare, Heidelberg, Heinrich Zschokke, Hemorrhoid, Henri de Saint-Simon, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Hermann Hesse, Homer, Honoré de Balzac, Hooker with a heart of gold, Humiliated and Insulted, Ilya Repin, Immanuel Kant, Individualism, Irrational Man, Islam, Ivan Bunin, Ivan Liprandi, Ivan Nabokov, Ivan Nikolaev, Ivan the Terrible, Ivan Turgenev, J. M. Coetzee, James Joyce, Janek Ambros, January Uprising, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jesus, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Journalist, Karlsruhe, Katorga, Knut Hamsun, Konstantin Leontiev, Konstantin Pobedonostsev, Konstantin Staniukovich, Konstantin Trutovsky, Kursk, Legalism (Western philosophy), Legend, Leo Tolstoy, Leoš Janáček, Leopold von Ranke, Limerick (poetry), List of minor planets: 3001–4000, Literary modernism, Literary realism, Lyublino District, Lyubov Dostoevskaya, Lyudmila Karachkina, Malaria, Malayalam, Mary Magdalene, Mary Stuart (play), Masterpiece, Materialism, Miguel de Cervantes, Mikhail Bakhtin, Mikhail Bakunin, Mikhail Dostoevsky, Mikhail Lermontov, Mikhail Petrashevsky, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin, Military engineering, Military Engineering-Technical University, Mineral spa, Minor planet, Modernization theory, Morza, Moscow, Moscow Governorate, Moscow Metro, Most Holy Synod, Mr. Prokharchin, Name of Russia (Russia TV), Narodnaya Volya, Naturalism (literature), Netochka Nezvanova (novel), New Testament, Nicholas I of Russia, Nikolai Berdyaev, Nikolai Gogol, Nikolay Dobrolyubov, Nikolay Karamzin, Nikolay Mikhaylovsky, Nikolay Nekrasov, Nikolay Strakhov, Notes from Underground, Novelist, Novella, Novokuznetsk, Novosibirsk, Obsolete Russian units of measurement, Old Believers, Oligarchy, Omsk, Oru Sankeerthanam Pole, Otto Julius Bierbaum, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turks, Pamphlet, Parable, Paul Heyse, Pavel Gagarin, Perumbadavam Sreedharan, Peter and Paul Fortress, Peter the Great, Petrashevsky Circle, Petrozavodsk State University, Philosophy, Photios I of Constantinople, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Pinsk, Plagiarism, Plato, Pochvennichestvo, Polemic, Polina Suslova, Polyphony, Polyphony (literature), Poor Folk, Pravda, Prince Myshkin, Princeton University Press, Problem gambling, Protestantism, Psyche (book), Psychologist, Psychology, Public domain, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, Quran, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationalism, Religion, Republicanism, Revolutions of 1848, Rodion Raskolnikov, Roman Empire, Romano Guardini, Romanticism, RT (TV network), Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Russian symbolism, Russians, Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), S. S. Koteliansky, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, Second Coming, Sectarianism, Semey, Serfdom, Serfdom in Russia, Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Witte, Sergey Durov, Sergey Nechayev, Serial (literature), Seville, Shoqan Walikhanov, Shorthand, Siberia, Sigmund Freud, Slavophilia, Social novel, Sofia Kovalevskaya, Somebody else's wife and a husband under the bed, Sophia Tolstaya, Sovremennik, Spanish Inquisition, Staraya Russa, Stepan Yanovsky, Surrealism, Survival of the fittest, Tallinn, Tatars, The Brothers Karamazov, The Crocodile (short story), The Crystal Palace, The Double (Dostoevsky novel), The Dream of a Ridiculous Man, The Eternal Husband, The Gambler (novel), The Gambler (Prokofiev), The Grand Inquisitor, The Hindu, The House of the Dead (novel), The Idiot, The Idiot (1951 film), The Landlady (novella), The Master of Petersburg, The Peasant Marey, The Possessed (1988 film), The Raw Youth, The Russian Messenger, The Trial, The Village of Stepanchikovo, Tikhvin Cemetery, Timofey Granovsky, Tobolsk, Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, Tuberculosis, Tula Oblast, Tver, Typhus, Uncle's Dream, University of Toronto, Ustashe, Utopia, Utopian socialism, Valerian Maykov, Vasily Andreyevich Dolgorukov, Vasily Perov, Vasily Zhukovsky, Vevey, Victor Hugo, Virginia Woolf, Vissarion Belinsky, Vladimir Khotinenko, Vladimir Meshchersky, Vladimir Nabokov, Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher), Vremya (magazine), Vsevolod Solovyov, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Walter Scott, White Nights (short story), Wiesbaden, William Barrett (philosopher), William Shakespeare, Winter Notes on Summer Impressions, World literature, Xenophobia, Yakov Polonsky, Yakov Rostovtsev. Expand index (312 more) » « Shrink index
"A Christmas Tree and a Wedding" (Ёлка и свадьба, Yolka i svad'ba) is a short story written by Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky published in 1848.
"A Gentle Creature" (Кроткая, Krotkaya), sometimes also translated as "The Meek One", is a short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky in 1876.
A Moveable Feast is a memoir by American author Ernest Hemingway about his years as a struggling young expatriate journalist and writer in Paris in the 1920s.
"A Nasty Story" (Скверный анекдот, Skverny anekdot), also translated as "A Disgraceful Affair", as well as "A Most Unfortunate Incident" and "An Unpleasant Predicament", is a satirical short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky concerning the escapades of a Russian civil servant.
A Writer's Diary (Дневник писателя; Dnevnik pisatelya) is a collection of non-fiction and fictional writings by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz (24 December 179826 November 1855) was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.
was a Japanese film director and screenwriter, who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.
Aleksey Nikolayevich Pleshcheyev (Алексе́й Никола́евич Плеще́ев; 8 October 1893) was a radical Russian poet of the 19th century, once a member of the Petrashevsky Circle.
Aleksei Sergeyevich Suvorin (Russian: Алексей Сергеевич Суворин, 11 September 1834, Korshevo, Voronezh Governorate – 11 August 1912, Tsarskoye Selo) was a Russian newspaper and book publisher and journalist whose publishing empire wielded considerable influence during the last decades of the Russian Empire.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about away from that site.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Prince Alexey Fyodorovich Orlov (Алексе́й Фёдорович Орло́в) was a Russian diplomat, the natural son of Count Fyodor Grigoryevich Orlov.
Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of Great Britain and Ireland during much of Queen Victoria's reign and remains one of the most popular British poets.
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication listing a set of events forthcoming in the next year.
The Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (AAU), or University of Klagenfurt, is a federal Austrian university and the largest research and higher education institution in the Austrian province Carinthia.
Alyosha Karamazov (Алёша Карамазов) is the protagonist in The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
"An Honest Thief" (Честный вор, Chestny vor) is an 1848 short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrzej Witold Wajda (6 March 1926 – 9 October 2016) was a Polish film and theatre director.
Ann Radcliffe (born Ward, 9 July 1764 – 7 February 1823) was an English author and pioneer of the Gothic novel.
Anna Grigoryevna Dostoyevskaya (Анна Григорьевна Достоевская; 12 September 1846, Saint Petersburg – 9 June 1918, Yalta) was a Russian memoirist, stenographer, assistant, and the second wife of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (since 1867).
Anne Jaclard, born Anna Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya (1843–1887), was a Russian socialist and feminist revolutionary.
Anthony Trollope (24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist of the Victorian era.
Anti-Europeanism and Europhobia are political terms used in a variety of contexts, implying sentiment or policies in opposition to "Europe".
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.
Apollon Aleksandrovich Grigoryev (a); (20 July 1822 – 7 October 1864) was a Russian poet, literary and theatrical critic, translator, memoirist and author of popular art songs.
Apollon Nikolayevich Maykov (Аполло́н Никола́евич Ма́йков,, Moscow –, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian poet, best known for his lyric verse showcasing images of Russian villages, nature, and history.
Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.
Art, Artem, Artemiy or Artemy Troitsky (Russian: Арте́мий Тро́ицкий, born 16 June 1955 in Yaroslavl) is a Russian journalist, music critic, concert promoter, broadcaster, and an academic who has taught classes on music journalism at Moscow State University.
The Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale (ALAI) was founded in 1878 in Paris.
AST (АСТ) is one of the largest book publishing companies in Russia, headed by Oleg Bartenev (Олег Бартенев).
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Étienne Cabet (January 1, 1788 – November 9, 1856) was a French philosopher and utopian socialist who founded the Icarian movement.
Baden-Baden is a spa town located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
Barnaul (p) is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka and Ob Rivers in the West Siberian Plain.
The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
"Bobok" (Бобок, Bobok) is a short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky that first appeared in 1873.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
Boris Godunov («Борис Годунов», Borís Godunóv; variant title: Драматическая повесть, Комедия o настоящей беде Московскому государству, o царе Борисе и о Гришке Отрепьеве, A Dramatic Tale, The Comedy of the Distress of the Muscovite State, of Tsar Boris, and of Grishka Otrepyev) is a closet play by Alexander Pushkin.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.
Carl Gustav Carus (3 January 1789 – 28 July 1869) was a German physiologist and painter, born in Leipzig, who played various roles during the Romantic era.
Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.
A catechism (from κατηχέω, "to teach orally") is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker and one of the founders of utopian socialism.
Christian socialism is a form of religious socialism based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Constance Clara Garnett (née Black; 19 December 1861 – 17 December 1946) was an English translator of nineteenth-century Russian literature.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Crime and Punishment (Pre-reform Russian: Преступленіе и наказаніе; post-reform prʲɪstʊˈplʲenʲɪje ɪ nəkɐˈzanʲɪje) is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Demons (pre-reform Russian: Бѣсы; post-reform Bésy; sometimes also called The Possessed or The Devils) is a novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in the journal The Russian Messenger in 1871–2.
Saint Dimitry of Rostov (sometimes Latinized as Demetrius, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitri Rostovsky, Димитрій (Туптало)) was a leading opponent of the Caesaropapist reform of the Russian Orthodox church promoted by Feofan Prokopovich.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.
Dmitry Vasilyevich Grigorovich (Дми́трий Васи́льевич Григоро́вич) (–) was a Russian writer, best known for his first two novels, The Village and Anton Goremyka, and lauded as the first author to have realistically portrayed the life of the Russian rural community and openly condemn the system of serfdom.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
The Donation of Pepin in 756 provided a legal basis for the erection of the Papal States, which extended the temporal rule of the Popes beyond the duchy of Rome.
Dostoevskaya (Достоевская) is a Moscow Metro station in the Meshchansky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
Dostoevskij (sometimes Dostoevskii) is a crater on Mercury.
The F. M. Dostoyevsky Literary Memorial Museum (Государственный Литературно-мемориальный музей Ф. М. Достоевского), located on Kuznechny Lane 5/2 in Saint Petersburg, was opened on November 12, 1971 in the former apartment of the famous writer.
Dostoyevsky's Pushkin Speech was a speech delivered by Fyodor Dostoyevsky in honour of the Russian poet Alexander Pushkin on at the unveiling of the Pushkin Monument in Moscow.
Dostoyevskaya (Достоéвская) is a station on the Pravoberezhnaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro, opened on December 30, 1991.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
An electronic book (or e-book or eBook) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann (commonly abbreviated as E. T. A. Hoffmann; born Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann; 24 January 177625 June 1822) was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, composer, music critic, draftsman and caricaturist.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American writer, editor, and literary critic.
The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from substantially the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
Electronic publishing (also referred to as e-publishing or digital publishing or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-books, digital magazines, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An epigram is a brief, interesting, memorable, and sometimes surprising or satirical statement.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.
Epoch (Эпо́ха) was a Russian literary magazine published in 1864-65 by Fyodor Dostoyevsky and his brother Mikhail.
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
Marie-Joseph "Eugène" Sue (26 January 1804 – 3 August 1857) was a French novelist.
Eugénie Grandet is an 1833 novel by French author Honoré de Balzac, about miserliness and how it is bequeathed from the father to the daughter, Eugénie, through her unsatisfying love attachment with her cousin.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is folklore genre that takes the form of a short story that typically features entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
A femme fatale, sometimes called a maneater, is a stock character of a mysterious and seductive woman whose charms ensnare her lovers, often leading them into compromising, dangerous, and deadly situations.
A first-person narrative is a mode of storytelling in which a narrator relays events from their own point of view using the first person It may be narrated by a first person protagonist (or other focal character), first person re-teller, first person witness, or first person peripheral (also called a peripheral narrator).
Fita (Ѳ ѳ; italics: Ѳ ѳ) is a letter of the Early Cyrillic alphabet.
François Pierre Guillaume Guizot (4 October 1787 – 12 September 1874) was a French historian, orator, and statesman.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright.
From the House of the Dead is an opera in three acts by Leoš Janáček.
Fyodor Timofeyevich Stellovsky (Фёдор Тимофеевич Стелловский, 1826, Moscow, Imperial Russia, — 27 April 1875, Saint Petersburg) was a prominent Russian publisher and editor.
Gavriil (Gavrila) Romanovich Derzhavin (a; 14 July 1743 – 20 July 1816) was one of the most highly esteemed Russian poets before Alexander Pushkin, as well as a statesman.
The Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister (Old Masters Gallery) in Dresden, Germany, displays around 750 paintings from the 15th to the 18th centuries.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin (1 July 1804 – 8 June 1876), best known by her nom de plume George Sand, was a French novelist and memoirist.
Georges Vasilievich Florovsky (Russian: Гео́ргий Васи́льевич Флоро́вский; September 9, 1893 – August 11, 1979) was an Orthodox Christian priest, theologian, historian and ecumenist.
Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.
The Golden Eagle Award for Best Television Motion Picture (Russian: Золотой Орёл для лучший игровой телевизионный фильм) is one of twenty award categories presented annually by the National Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences of Russia.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance.
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century up to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Grand Inquisitor (Inquisitor Generalis, literally Inquisitor General or General Inquisitor) was the lead official of the Inquisition.
Grigory Zakharovich Eliseev (Григо́рий Заха́рович Елисе́ев, 6 February (25 January) 1821, village Spasskoe, Kainsk district, Tomsk Governorate, Russian Empire – 30 (18) January 1891, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian journalist, editor, and publisher.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke (22 March 177127 June 1848) was a German, later Swiss, author and reformer.
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures in the anal canal.
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (17 October 1760 – 19 May 1825), was a French political and economic theorist and businessman whose thought played a substantial role in influencing politics, economics, sociology, and the philosophy of science.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 – March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline.
Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Honoré de Balzac (born Honoré Balzac, 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright.
The hooker with a heart of gold (also the whore with a heart of gold or the tart with a heart) is a stock character involving a courtesan or prostitute with a hidden integrity and kindness.
Humiliated and Insulted (Униженные и оскорблённые, Unizhennye i oskorblyonnye) — also known in English as The Insulted and Humiliated, The Insulted and the Injured or Injury and Insult — is a novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in 1861 in the monthly magazine Vremya.
Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.
Irrational Man: A Study In Existential Philosophy is a 1958 book by the philosopher William Barrett, in which the author explains the philosophical background of existentialism and provides a discussion of several major existentialist thinkers, including Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, and Jean-Paul Sartre.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Ivan Petrovich Liprandi (Иван Петрович Липранди; –) was a Russian secret service officer, major general, and memoirist of Spanish and Italian descent.
Ivan Aleksandrovich Nabokov (Иван Александрович Набоков) (11 March 1787 – 21 April 1852) was a Russian Adjutant general and general of infantry prominent during the Napoleonic wars.
Ivan Sergeevich Nikolaev (19011979) was a Soviet architect and educator, notable for his late 1920s constructivist architecture and later work in industrial architecture.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ tʊrˈɡʲenʲɪf; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator and popularizer of Russian literature in the West.
John Maxwell Coetzee (born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
Janek Ambros (born April 19, 1988) is an American film director, screenwriter, and film producer.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
Karlsruhe (formerly Carlsruhe) is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the French-German border.
Katorga (p; from medieval and modern Greek: katergon, κάτεργον, "galley") was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union (see Katorga labor in the Soviet Union).
Knut Hamsun (August 4, 1859 – February 19, 1952) was a major Norwegian writer, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1920.
Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontiev (Константи́н Никола́евич Лео́нтьев; January 25, 1831 in Kudinovo, Kaluga Governorate – November 24, 1891 in Sergiyev Posad) was a conservative tsarist and imperial monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East against what he believed to be the West's catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences.
Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (p; May 21, 1827, Moscow – March 23, 1907, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian jurist, statesman, and adviser to three Tsars.
Konstantin Mikhailovich Staniukovich or Stanyukovich (Константин Михайлович Станюкович) (March 30, 1843 – May 20, 1903) was a Russian writer, remembered today mostly for his stories of the Russian Imperial Navy.
Konstantin Aleksandrovich Trutovsky (Russian: Константин Александрович Трутовский: 9 February 1826 in Kursk – 29 March 1893 in Yakovlevka, Belgorod Oblast) was a Russian genre painter and illustrator.
Kursk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.
Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Leoš Janáček (baptised Leo Eugen Janáček; 3 July 1854 – 12 August 1928) was a Czech composer, musical theorist, folklorist, publicist and teacher.
Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.
A limerick is a form of verse, often humorous and sometimes obscene, in five-line, predominantly anapestic meter with a strict rhyme scheme of AABBA, in which the first, second and fifth line rhyme, while the third and fourth lines are shorter and share a different rhyme.
#d6d6d6 | 3089 Oujianquan || || December 3, 1981 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.
Literary modernism, or modernist literature, has its origins in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mainly in Europe and North America, and is characterized by a very self-conscious break with traditional ways of writing, in both poetry and prose fiction.
Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Lyublino (Люблино) is a district of South-Eastern Administrative Okrug of the federal city of Moscow, Russia.
Lyubov Fyodorovna Dostoyevskaya (Любо́вь Фёдоровна Достое́вская; 1869–1926) was a Russian writer, memoirist and the second daughter of famous writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky and his wife Anna.
Lyudmila Georgievna Karachkina (Людмила Георгиевна Карачкина, born 3 September 1948, Rostov-on-Don) is a Russian astronomer and discoverer of minor planets.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Saint Mary Magdalene, sometimes called simply the Magdalene, was a Jewish woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion, burial, and resurrection.
Mary Stuart (Maria Stuart) is a verse play by Friedrich Schiller that depicts the last days of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Masterpiece, magnum opus (Latin, great work) or chef-d’œuvre (French, master of work, plural chefs-d’œuvre) in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Бахти́н,; – 7 March 1975) was a Russian philosopher, literary critic, semiotician and scholar who worked on literary theory, ethics, and the philosophy of language.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Достое́вский) (25 November 1820 – 22 July 1864) was a Russian short story writer, publisher, literary critic and the elder brother of Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Butashevich-Petrashevsky (–), commonly known as Mikhail Petrashevsky, was a Russian revolutionary and Utopian theorist.
Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin (Михаи́л Евгра́фович Салтыко́в-Щедри́н, born Saltykov, pseudonym Nikolai Shchedrin; –), was a major Russian satirist of the 19th century.
Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
The Saint Petersburg Military Engineering-Technical University (Nikolaevsky) (Санкт-Петербургский Военный инженерно-технический университет, VITU), previously known as the Saint Petersburg Nikolaevsky Engineering Academy, was established in 1810 under Alexander I.
Mineral spas are spa resorts developed around naturally occurring mineral springs.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun (or more broadly, any star with a planetary system) that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Morza (plural morzalar; from Persian mirza) is a Princely title in Tatar states, such as Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Astrakhan and others, and in Russia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moscow Governorate (Московская губерния; pre-reform Russian: Московская губернія), or the Government of Moscow, was an administrative division (a guberniya) of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Russian SFSR, which existed in 1708–1929.
The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.
The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святѣйшій Правительствующій Сѵнодъ, Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918 (when the Church re-instated the Patriarchate).
Name of Russia (Имя Россия, "The Name Russia") was a project of the Russia TV channel aimed to elect the most notable personality in Russian history through Internet, radio and television voting.
Narodnaya Volya (Will) was a 19th-century revolutionary political organization in the Russian Empire which conducted targeted killing of government officials in attempt to promote reforms in the country.
The term naturalism was coined by Émile Zola, who defines it as a literary movement which emphasizes observation and the scientific method in the fictional portrayal of reality.
Netochka Nezvanova (Неточка Незванова) is an unfinished novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian political and also Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person.
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.
Nikolay Alexandrovich Dobrolyubov (a; February 5, 1836 – November 29, 1861) was a Russian literary critic, journalist, poet and revolutionary democrat.
Nikolay Mikhailovich Karamzin (p) was a Russian writer, poet, historian and critic.
Nikolay Konstantinovich Mikhaylovsky (Meshchovsk–, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian literary critic, sociologist, writer on public affairs, and one of the theoreticians of the Narodniki movement.
Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Strakhov, also transliterated as Nikolai Strahov (October 16, 1828 – January 24, 1896), was a Russian philosopher, publicist and literary critic.
Notes from Underground (pre-reform Russian: Записки изъ подполья; post-reform Zapíski iz podpólʹya), also translated as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld, is an 1864 novella by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction.
A novella is a text of written, fictional, narrative prose normally longer than a short story but shorter than a novel, somewhere between 7,500 and 40,000 words.
Novokuznetsk (p; literally: "new smith's") is a city in Kemerovo Oblast in south-western Siberia, Russia.
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
A native system of weights and measures was used in Imperial Russia and after the Russian Revolution, but it was abandoned after July 21, 1925, when the Soviet Union adopted the metric system, per the order of the Council of People's Commissars.
In Eastern Orthodox church history, the Old Believers, or Old Ritualists (старове́ры or старообря́дцы, starovéry or staroobryádtsy) are Eastern Orthodox Christians who maintain the liturgical and ritual practices of the Eastern Orthodox Church as they existed prior to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow between 1652 and 1666.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.
Oru Sankeerthanam Pole (Malayalam: ഒരു സങ്കീർത്തനം പോലെ) is a widely acclaimed novel written by Perumbadavam Sreedharan, first published in September, 1993.
Otto Julius Bierbaum (28 June 1865 – 1 February 1910) was a German writer.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding).
A parable is a succinct, didactic story, in prose or verse that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles.
Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (15 March 1830 – 2 April 1914) was a distinguished German writer and translator.
Prince Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin (Павел Павлович Гагарин; 4 (15) March 1789 in Moscow – 21 February (4 March) 1872 in Saint Petersburg) was a Russian statesman from the Rurikid Gagarin family.
Perumbadavom Sreedharan (പെരുമ്പടവം ശ്രീധരന്) (born 12 February 1938) is a prolific Malayalam author from Kerala state, South India.
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Petrashevsky Circle was a Russian literary discussion group of progressive-minded intellectuals in St. Petersburg in the 1840s.
Petrozavodsk State University (PetrSU) is a classical university in Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Photios I (Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), also spelled PhotiusFr.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.
Pinsk (Пі́нск, Pinsk; Пи́нск; Пи́нськ, Pyns'k; Pińsk; Yiddish/פינסק, Pinskas) is a city in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pina, at the confluence of the Pina and Pripyat rivers.
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pochvennichestvo (p, roughly "return to the soil", from почва "soil") was a late 19th-century Russian movement tied in closely with its contemporary ideology, the Slavophile movement.
A polemic is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position.
Apollinaria Prokofyevna Suslova (Аполлина́рия Проко́фьевна Су́слова; 1839–1918), commonly known as Polina Suslova (Поли́на Су́слова), was a Russian short story writer, who is perhaps best known as a mistress of writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky, wife of Vasily Rozanov and a sister of Russia's first female physician Nadezhda Suslova.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Polyphony (полифония) is a concept taken up by literary theory, speech act theory and linguistics to refer to the simultaneity of points of view and voices within a particular narrative plane.
Poor Folk (Бедные люди, Bednye lyudi), sometimes translated as Poor People, is the first novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, written over the span of nine months between 1844 and 1845.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
Prince Lev Nikolayevich Myshkin (pre-reform Russian: князь Левъ Николаевичъ Мышкинъ; post-reform knyazʹ Lev Nikoláyevich Mýshkin) is the protagonist of Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel The Idiot.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Problem gambling (or ludomania, but usually referred to as "gambling addiction" or "compulsive gambling") is an urge to gamble continuously despite harmful negative consequences or a desire to stop.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psyche (Psyche, zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Seele) is an 1846 book by Carl Gustav Carus, a physician and painter noted for his work on animal psychology and physiognomy.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Pulmonary hemorrhage (or pulmonary haemorrhage) is an acute bleeding from the lung, from the upper respiratory tract and the trachea, and the alveoli.
Pyotr Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky (Пётр Петрович Семёнов-Тян-Шанский) (2 January (New style: 14 January), 1827 – 26 February (New style: March 11), 1914) was a Russian geographer and statistician who managed the Russian Geographical Society for more than 40 years.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov (pre-reform Russian: Родіонъ Романовичъ Раскольниковъ; post-reform rədʲɪˈon rɐˈmanəvʲɪtɕ rɐˈskolʲnʲɪkəf) is the fictional protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romano Guardini (17 February 1885 – 1 October 1968) was an Italian-born German Catholic priest, author, and academic.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Russian symbolism was an intellectual and artistic movement predominant at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Samuel Solomonovich Koteliansky (Самуил Соломонович Котелянский) (February 28, 1880 – January 21, 1955) was a Russian-born British translator.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University) (Санкт-Петербургский Технологический Институт (Технический Университет)) was founded in 1828.
The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future (or past) return of Jesus Christ after his incarnation and ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Semey (Semeı, Семей), until 2007 known as Semipalatinsk (Semıpalatinsk, Семипалатинск) and in 1917–1920 as Alash-kala (Алаш-қала, Alash-qala), is a city in Kazakhstan, in East Kazakhstan Region, and in the Kazakhstani part of Siberia, near the border with Russia, around north of Almaty, and southeast of the Russian city of Omsk, along the Irtysh River.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
The term serf, in the sense of an unfree peasant of the Russian Empire, is the usual translation of krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин).
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte (translit), also known as Sergius Witte, was a highly influential econometrician, minister, and prime minister in Imperial Russia, one of the key figures in the political arena at the end of 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.
Sergey Fyodorovich Durov (Серге́й Фёдорович Ду́ров, 1816, Oryol Governorate, Russian Empire - December 18, 1869, Poltava, Ukraine, then Russian Empire) was a Russian poet, translator, writer, and political activist.
Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (or Nyechayev; Серге́й Генна́диевич Неча́ев) (October 2, 1847 – November 21 or December 3, 1882) was a Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including terrorism.
In literature, a serial, is a printing format by which a single larger work, often a work of narrative fiction, is published in smaller, sequential installments.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Shoqan Shynghysuly Walikhanov (Шоқан Шыңғысұлы Уәлихан, Shoqan Shynghysuly Walikhan; Чокан Чингисович Валиханов), given name Muhammed Qanapiya (Мұхаммед Қанапия)Shoqan was his pen-name, and later became his official name.
Shorthand is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
The social novel, also known as the social problem (or social protest) novel, is a "work of fiction in which a prevailing social problem, such as gender, race, or class prejudice, is dramatized through its effect on the characters of a novel".
Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Со́фья Васи́льевна Ковале́вская), born Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya (– 10 February 1891), was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics.
"Somebody else's wife and a husband under the bed" (Чужая жена и муж под кроватью, Chuzhaya zhena i muzh pod krovatyu) is an 1848 short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Countess Sophia Andreyevna Tolstaya (née Behrs; Со́фья Андре́евна Толста́я, sometimes Anglicised as Sophia Tolstoy; 22 August 1844 – 4 November 1919), was a Russian diarist, and the wife of Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy.
Sovremennik (a, "The Contemporary") was a Russian literary, social and political magazine, published in Saint Petersburg in 1836-1866.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Staraya Russa (p) is a town in Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Polist River, south of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast.
Stepan Dmitrievich Yanovsky (Russian: Степа́н Дми́триевич Яно́вский; 1815 – 13 July 1897, Switzerland) was a family doctor of Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Brothers Karamazov (Бра́тья Карама́зовы, Brat'ya Karamazovy), also translated as The Karamazov Brothers, is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
"The Crocodile" (Крокодил, Krokodil) is a short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky that was first published in 1865 in his magazine Epoch.
The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and plate-glass structure originally built in Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851.
The Double (Двойник, Dvoynik) is a novella written by Fyodor Dostoevsky.
"The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" (Сон смешного человека, Son smeshnovo cheloveka) is a short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky written in 1877.
The Eternal Husband (Вечный муж, Vechny muzh) is a novella by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky that was first published in 1870 in Zarya magazine.
The Gambler (Игрокъ, Igrok; modern spelling Игрок) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky about a young tutor in the employment of a formerly wealthy Russian general.
The Gambler (Russian: Игрок — Igrok in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by Sergei Prokofiev to a Russian libretto by the composer, based on the story of the same name by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
"The Grand Inquisitor" is a poem in Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel The Brothers Karamazov (1879–1880).
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The House of the Dead (Записки из Мёртвого дома, Zapiski iz Myortvogo doma) is a semi-autobiographical novel published in 1860–2 in the journal Vremya by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, which portrays the life of convicts in a Siberian prison camp.
The Idiot (pre-reform Russian: Идіотъ; post-reform Idiót) is a novel by the 19th-century Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky.
is a 1951 Japanese film directed by Akira Kurosawa.
The Landlady (Хозяйка, Khozayka) is a novella by Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky, written in 1847.
The Master of Petersburg is a 1994 novel by South African writer J. M. Coetzee.
The Peasant Marey (Мужик Марей), written in 1876, is both the "best-known autobiographical account" from the Writer's Diary of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, and frequently anthologized as a work of fiction.
The Possessed (Les Possédés) is a 1988 French drama film directed by Andrzej Wajda and starring Isabelle Huppert.
The Raw Youth (Подросток, Podrostok), also published as The Adolescent or An Accidental Family, is a novel by Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in monthly installments in 1875 in the Russian literary magazine Notes of the Fatherland.
The Russian Messenger or Russian Herald (Ру́сский ве́стник Russkiy Vestnik, Pre-reform Russian: Русскій Вѣстникъ Russkiy Vestnik) has been the title of three notable magazines published in Russia during the 19th century and early 20th century.
The Trial (original German title: Der Process, later Der Proceß, Der Prozeß and Der Prozess) is a novel written by Franz Kafka between 1914 and 1915 and published posthumously in 1925.
The Village of Stepanchikovo (Село Степанчиково и его обитатели, Selo Stepanchikovo i ego obitateli), also known as The Friend of the Family, is a novel written by Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1859.
Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Timofey Nikolayevich Granovsky (Тимофей Николаевич Грановский; 9 March 1813 – 4 October 1855) was a founder of mediaeval studies in the Russian Empire.
Tobolsk (Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers.
The Trinity Cathedral (Троицкий собор, Troitsky sobor; Троице-Измайловский соборTroitse-Izmailovsky sobor), sometimes called the Troitsky Cathedral, in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is a late example of the Empire style, built between 1828 and 1835 to a design by Vasily Stasov.
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius (Тро́ице-Се́ргиева Ла́вра) is the most important Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tula Oblast (Ту́льская о́бласть, Tulskaya oblast) is a top-level political division of European Russia (namely an oblast).
Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Uncle's Dream (Дядюшкин сон, Dyadushkin son) is an 1859 novella by Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
Valerian Nikolayevich Maykov (Валериа́н Никола́евич Ма́йков, September 9, 1823, Moscow, Russia — July 27, 1847, v.Novoye) was a Russian writer and literary critic, son of painter Nikolay Maykov, brother of poet Apollon and novelist Vladimir Maykov.
Prince Vasily Andreyevich Dolgorukov (князь Василий Андреевич Долгоруков) (1804–1868) was a Russian statesman, General of the Cavalry (1856, a full General equivalent), Minister of War (1852–1856), Chief of Gendarmes and Executive Head of the Third Section of H.I.M. Chancellery (1856–1866).
Vasily Grigorevich Perov (Васи́лий Григо́рьевич Перо́в; 2 January 1834 (21 December 1833 O.S.) – 10 June (29 May O.S.) 1882) was a Russian painter, a key figure of the Russian Realist movement and one of the founding members of Peredvizhniki.
Vasily Zhukovsky was the foremost Russian poet of the 1810s and a leading figure in Russian literature in the first half of the 19th century.
Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva, near Lausanne.
Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.
Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.
Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky (vʲɪsərʲɪˈon grʲɪˈgorʲjɪvʲɪtɕ bʲɪˈlʲinskʲɪj; –) was a Russian literary critic of Westernizing tendency.
Vladimir Ivanovich Khotinenko (Влади́мир Ива́нович Хотине́нко; born 20 January 1952 in Slavgorod, Altai Krai, Soviet Union) is a Russian actor, film director and designer.
Prince Vladimir Petrovich Meshchersky (11 January 1839 – 23 July 1914) was a Russian journalist and novelist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (Влади́мир Серге́евич Соловьёв; –) was a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, pamphleteer, and literary critic.
Vremya (Вре́мя) (Time) was a monthly magazine published by Fyodor Dostoyevsky under the editorship of his brother Mikhail Dostoyevsky, as Fyodor himself, due to his status as a former convict, was unable to be the official editor.
Vsevolod Sergeyevich Solovyov (Всеволод Серге́евич Соловьёв; &ndash) was a Russian historical novelist.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
"White Nights" (Белые ночи, Belye nochi) is a short story by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, originally published in 1848, early in the writer's career.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
William Christopher Barrett (1913–1992) was a professor of philosophy at New York University from 1950 to 1979.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
"Winter Notes on Summer Impressions" (Зимние заметки о летних впечатлениях, Zimniye zamyetki o lyetnikh vpyechatlyeniyakh) is an essay by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
World literature is sometimes used to refer to the sum total of the world's national literatures, but usually it refers to the circulation of works into the wider world beyond their country of origin.
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
Yakov Petrovich Polonsky (Russian: Яков Петрович Полонский) was a leading Pushkinist poet who tried to uphold the waning traditions of Russian Romantic poetry during the heyday of realistic prose.
Iakov Ivanovich Rostovtsev (–) was a leading figure in the formulation of statutes which effectively emancipated the Russian serfs.
Doestoyevski, Dosteovsky, Dostoevsk, Dostoevski, Dostoevskij, Dostoevsky, Dostoievski, Dostoievsky, Dostojevski, Dostojevskij, Dostojevsky, Dostoyevskey, Dostoyevski, Dostoyevskii, Dostoyevsky, Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, F. M. Dostoevsky, Fedor Dostoevsky, Fedor Dostoyevski, Fedor Dostoyevsky, Fedor M. Dostoevsky, Fedor M. Dostoyevsky, Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevskii, Fedor dostoevski, Feodor Dostoevsky, Feodor Dostoievsky, Feodor Dostoyevsky, Feodor Mikhailovich Dostoievsky, Feodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky, Feodor dostojevski, Feodor dostojevskij, Fiodor Dostoevsky, Fiodor Dostoievski, Fiodor Dostoïevski, Fiódor Dostoiévski, Fjodor Dostojewski, Fjodor M. Dostojewski, Fodor dostoevsky, Fydor Dostoevsky, Fydor Dostoyevsky, Fyoder Dostoyevsky, Fyoder doestoyevski, Fyoder dostoyevski, Fyodor Dostoevski, Fyodor Dostoevskii, Fyodor Dostoevsky (old), Fyodor Dostoievski, Fyodor Dostoyevski, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Fyodor M. Dostoevsky, Fyodor M. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevski, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky, Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky, Fyodr Dostoevsky, Fëdor Mikhailovich Dostoevskii, The heavenly christmas tree, Достоевский, Фёдор Михайлович Достоевский.