134 relations: Aceburic acid, Agonist, Allosteric modulator, Alpha-Aminobutyric acid, Amanita muscaria, Analgesic, Androgen receptor, Aniracetam, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antispasmodic, Anxiolytic, Areca nut, Arecaidine, Baclofen, Bamaluzole, Beta-Aminobutyric acid, Bicuculline, Butyl butyrate, Butyrate, Butyric acid, Channel blocker, Corticotropin-releasing factor family, Depressant, Deramciclane, Derivative (chemistry), Designer drug, Drug, Enzyme inhibitor, Epoxide hydrolase, Ethanol, Ethyl butyrate, Ethyl pentanoate, Fengabine, Free fatty acid receptor 2, Free fatty acid receptor 3, GABA receptor agonist, GABA reuptake inhibitor, GABAA receptor, GABAB receptor, Gabaculine, Gabapentin, Gabapentin enacarbil, Gabapentinoid, Gabazine, Gaboxadol, Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gamma-Hydroxybutyraldehyde, GHB receptor, ..., Glufimet, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Guvacine, Histone deacetylase, Histone deacetylase inhibitor, HOCPCA, Homotaurine, Hopantenic acid, Hypnotic, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Isoguvacine, Isonipecotic acid, Isovaleramide, Isovalerate, Isovaline, Lesogaberan, Ligase, Loreclezole, Mechanism of action, Menthyl isovalerate, Metabolic intermediate, Methyl butyrate, Methyl pentanoate, Mood stabilizer, Muscimol, Narcolepsy, NCS-382, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxin, Neurotransmitter, Niacin receptor 1, Nipecotic acid, Nonribosomal peptide, Partial agonist, Pentyl butyrate, Pentyl pentanoate, Phaclofen, Phenibut, Picamilon, Piracetam, Pivagabine, Plant disease resistance, Postherpetic neuralgia, Precursor (chemistry), Pregabalin, Prodrug, Progabide, Progesterone receptor, Propofol, Racetam, Receptor antagonist, Recreational drug use, Restless legs syndrome, Retigabine, Russia, Saclofen, Scientific method, Sedative, Sodium butyrate, Sodium channel, Sodium oxybate, Structural analog, Succinic semialdehyde, T-HCA, Tiagabine, Tolgabide, Tolibut, Tranquilizer, Valerate, Valerenic acid, Valerian (herb), Valeric acid, Valnoctamide, Valproate, Valproate pivoxil, Valpromide, Vigabatrin, Voltage-gated calcium channel, 1,4-Butanediol, 3-Hydroxybutanal, 3-Methylbutanoic acid, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, 4-Hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Aceburic acid (INN), also known as 4-acetoxybutanoic acid or 4-hydroxybutyric acid acetate, is drug described as an analgesic which was never marketed.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
α-Aminobutyric acid (AABA), also known as homoalanine in biochemistry, is a non-proteinogenic alpha amino acid with chemical formula C4H9NO2.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
Aniracetam (brand names Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan), also known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, is a racetam which is sold in Europe as a prescription drug.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
An antispasmodic (synonym: spasmolytic) is a pharmaceutical drug or other agent that suppresses muscle spasms.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
The areca nut is the fruit of the areca palm (Areca catechu), which grows in much of the tropical Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), Southeast and South Asia, and parts of east Africa.
Arecaidine is a bio-active alkaloid in areca nuts.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
Bamaluzole is a GABA receptor agonist.
β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is an isomer of the amino acid aminobutyric acid with the chemical formula C4H9NO2.
Bicuculline is a phthalide-isoquinoline compound that is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors.
Butyl butyrate, or butyl butanoate, is an organic compound that is an ester formed by the condensation of butyric acid and ''n''-butanol.
Butyrate (also known as butanoate) is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butyric acid (also known as butanoic acid).
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.
Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Deramciclane (EGIS-3886) is a non-benzodiazepine-type anxiolytic drug to treat various types of anxiety disorders.
In chemistry, a derivative is a compound that is derived from a similar compound by a chemical reaction.
A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance that has been designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug, while avoiding classification as illegal and/or detection in standard drug tests.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epoxide hydrolases (EH's), also known as epoxide hydratases, are enzymes that metabolize compounds that contain an epoxide residue; they convert this residue to two hydroxyl residues through a dihydroxylation reaction to form diol products.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethyl butyrate, also known as ethyl butanoate, or butyric ether, is an ester with the chemical formula CH3CH2CH2COOCH2CH3.
Ethyl pentanoate, also commonly known as ethyl valerate, is an organic compound used in flavors.
Fengabine (SL-79,229) is a drug which was investigated as an antidepressant but was never marketed.
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the FFAR2 gene.
Free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFA3) is a G-protein coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the FFAR3 gene.
A GABA receptor agonist is a drug that is an agonist for one or more of the GABA receptors, producing typically sedative effects, and may also cause other effects such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant effects.
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Gabaculine is a naturally occurring neurotoxin first isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces toyacaensis, which acts as a potent and irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, and also a GABA reuptake inhibitor.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gabapentin enacarbil (Horizant, Regnite (in Japan)) is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug of the gabapentinoid class, and a prodrug to gabapentin.
Gabapentinoids, also known as α2δ ligands, are a class of drugs that are derivatives of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (i.e., GABA analogues) which block α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs).
Gabazine (SR-95531) is a drug that acts as an antagonist at GABAA receptors.
Gaboxadol, also known as 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP), is a conformationally constrained derivative of the alkaloid muscimol that was first synthesized in 1977 by the Danish chemist Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen.
γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand name Gamibetal among others, is an anticonvulsant which is used for the treatment of epilepsy in Europe, Japan, and Mexico.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
γ-Hydroxybutyraldehyde, also referred to as GHBAL, γ-hydroxybutaldehyde or γ-hydroxybutanal, is a chemical intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD).
The γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) receptor (GHBR), originally identified as GPR172A, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds the neurotransmitter and psychoactive drug γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB).
Glufimet (developmental code name RGPU-238), also known as dimethyl 3-phenylglutamate hydrochloride, is a derivative of glutamic acid (glutamate) which was developed in Russia and is related to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative phenibut (3-phenyl-GABA).
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Guvacine is an alkaloid in areca nuts.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors, HDACi, HDIs) are chemical compounds that inhibit histone deacetylases.
HOCPCA (3-hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid) is a compound with an affinity for the GHB receptor 39 times greater than that of GHB itself.
Homotaurine (3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid (3-APS) or tramiprosate (INN)) is a natural organic compound found in seaweed.
Hopantenic acid (homopantothenic acid), also known as N-pantoyl-GABA, is a central nervous system depressant.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Isoguvacine is a GABAA receptor agonist used in scientific research.
Isonipecotic acid is a heterocyclic compound which acts as a GABAA receptor partial agonist.
Isovaleramide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2C(O)NH2.
An isovalerate compound is a salt or ester of isovaleric acid.
Isovaline is a rare amino acid transported to earth by the Murchison meteorite, which landed in Australia in 1969.
Lesogaberan (AZD-3355) was an experimental drug candidate developed by AstraZeneca for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.
Loreclezole is a sedative and an anticonvulsant which acts as a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
Menthyl isovalerate, also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid.
Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.
Methyl butyrate, also known under the systematic name methyl butanoate, is the methyl ester of butyric acid.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
NCS-382 is a moderately selective antagonist for the GHB receptor. It blocks the effects of GHB in animals and has both anti-sedative and anticonvulsant effects. It has been proposed as a treatment for GHB overdose in humans as well as the genetic metabolic disorder succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), but has never been developed for clinical use.
Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCA2), also known as niacin receptor 1 (NIACR1) and GPR109A, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HCAR2 gene.
Nipecotic acid is a GABA uptake inhibitor used in scientific research.
Nonribosomal peptides (NRP) are a class of peptide secondary metabolites, usually produced by microorganisms like bacteria and fungi.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pentyl butyrate, also known as pentyl butanoate or amyl butyrate, is an ester that is formed when pentanol is reacted with butyric acid,, Cameo Chemicals, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration usually in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst.
Pentyl pentanoate (C4H9COOC5H11) is an ester used in dilute solution to replicate the scent or flavour of apple, and sometimes pineapple.
Phaclofen, or phosphonobaclofen, is a selective antagonist for the GABAB receptor.
Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and sedative effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.
Picamilon (also known as N-nicotinoyl-GABA, pycamilon, and pikamilon) is a drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin and GABA.
Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide.
Pivagabine (INN; brand name Tonerg), also known as N-pivaloyl-γ-aminobutyric acid or N-pivaloyl-GABA, is an antidepressant and anxiolytic drug which was introduced in Italy in 1997 for the treatment of depressive and maladaptive syndromes.
Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is nerve pain which occurs due to damage to a peripheral nerve caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (herpes zoster, also known as shingles).
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Progabide (INN) (trade name Gabrene, Sanofi-Aventis) is an analogue and prodrug of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used in the treatment of epilepsy.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Retigabine or ezogabine is an anticonvulsant used as an adjunctive treatment for partial epilepsies in treatment-experienced adult patients.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saclofen is a competitive antagonist for the GABAB receptor.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Sodium butyrate is a compound with formula Na(C3H7COO).
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.
Sodium oxybate is a prescription medication used to treat two symptoms of narcolepsy: sudden muscle weakness and excessive daytime sleepiness.
A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.
Succinic semialdehyde (SSA) is a GABA metabolite.
trans-4-Hydroxycrotonic acid (T-HCA), also known as γ-hydroxycrotonic acid (GHC), is an agent used in scientific research to study the GHB receptor.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Tolgabide INN (SL-81.0142) is a drug which was patented by Synthélabo as an anticonvulsant but was never marketed.
Tolibut, also known as 3-(p-tolyl)-4-aminobutyric acid (or β-(4-methylphenyl)-GABA), is drug that was developed in Russia.
A tranquilizer refers to a drug which is designed for the treatment of anxiety, fear, tension, agitation, and disturbances of the mind, specifically to reduce states of anxiety and tension.
A valerate compound is a salt or ester of valeric acid.
Valerenic acid is a sesquiterpenoid constituent of the essential oil of the Valerian plant.
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Valeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight-chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula.
Valnoctamide (INN, USAN) has been used in France as a sedative-hypnotic since 1964.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Valproate pivoxil (Pivadin, Valproxen) is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Valpromide (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy and some affective disorders.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
1,4-Butanediol, colloquially known as BD, is the organic compound with the formula HOCH2CH2CH2CH2OH.
3-Hydroxybutanal is an aldol formerly used in medicine as a hypnotic and sedative.
3-Methylbutanoic acid, also known as β-methylbutyric acid or more commonly isovaleric acid, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H.
In enzymology, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, also called GABA transaminase or 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-aminobutanoate (GABA) and 2-oxoglutarate.
4-Hydroxy-4-methylpentanoic acid (UMB68) is a tertiary alcohol, similar in structure to the drug GHB.