30 relations: Antiganglioside antibodies, Apoptosis, Brain, Cholera toxin, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Dementia, Diarrhea, Electrolyte, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Ganglioside, Glucose, Gs alpha subunit, GTPase, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Heat-labile enterotoxin, Lupus erythematosus, Necrosis, Neurodegeneration, Neuroplasticity, Neurotrophin, Parkinson's disease, Phases of clinical research, Physiology, Sialic acid, SLC5A1, Sodium, Spinal cord injury, Substantia nigra, Traveler's diarrhea, Vibrio cholerae.
Antiganglioside antibodies that react to self-gangliosides are found in autoimmune neuropathies.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea.
A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.
Lupus erythematosus is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that induce the survival, development, and function of neurons.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
The phases of clinical research are the steps in which scientists do experiments with a health intervention in an attempt to find enough evidence for a process which would be useful as a medical treatment.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 also known as solute carrier family 5 member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A1 gene.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.