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GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991. [1]

142 relations: A5/1, A5/2, Adaptive Multi-Rate audio codec, Antenna (radio), AT&T Mobility, Australia, Bangladesh, Base station, Base station subsystem, Base transceiver station, Belgium, Bit rate, Bmobile, Brazil, Burst transmission, Canada, Carrier frequency, Cell Broadcast, Cellular network, Cellular repeater, Challenge–response authentication, Chile, Ciphertext-only attack, Code-division multiple access, Codec, Comparison of mobile phone standards, Copenhagen, Downgrade attack, Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution, Enhanced full rate, Enhanced Network Selection, ETSI, European Commission, European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations, Femtocell, Field-programmable gate array, Finland, Forbes, France, Full Rate, General Packet Radio Service, GEO-Mobile Radio Interface, Germany, GPRS core network, GSM 02.07, GSM 03.48, GSM frequency bands, GSM services, GSM-R, GSMA, ..., Half Rate, Handover, Harri Holkeri, High Speed Packet Access, Hong Kong, India, Intelligent Network, International mobile subscriber identity, Iran, Italy, KASUMI, Known-plaintext attack, Lebanon, Linear predictive coding, LTE (telecommunication), LTE Advanced, Macrocell, Malaysia, Memorandum of understanding, Microcell, Mobile device, Mobile network operator, Mobile phone, Mobile phone tracking, Motorola, MSISDN, Multimedia Messaging Service, Nepal, Network packet, Network simulation, Network switching subsystem, NITZ, Nokia Networks, Non-repudiation, Nordic Mobile Telephone, Northern Territory, Open-source model, OpenBTS, Openmoko, Operations support system, Optus, ORFS, Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access, OsmocomBB, Packet analyzer, Pakistan, Paris, Parlay X, Personal communications network, Picocell, Poland, Pre-shared key, Radio frequency, Radio resource location services protocol, Radiolinja, Rainbow table, Roaming, RTP audio video profile, SIM lock, Singapore, Skype, Smart card, SMS, South Africa, Stream cipher, Subscriber identity module, Tablet computer, Tampere, Telecom Australia, Telephony, Telstra, Thailand, Time-division multiple access, Time-division multiplexing, Timing advance, Trademark, Trinidad and Tobago, Um interface, UMTS, UMTS frequency bands, United Kingdom, United States, Unstructured Supplementary Service Data, Vodafone UK, Voicemail, Western Australia, Wireless Application Protocol, 1G, 2G, 3G, 3GPP, 4G. Expand index (92 more) »

A5/1

A5/1 is a stream cipher used to provide over-the-air communication privacy in the GSM cellular telephone standard.

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A5/2

A5/2 is a stream cipher used to provide voice privacy in the GSM cellular telephone protocol.

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Adaptive Multi-Rate audio codec

The Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR or AMR-NB or GSM-AMR) audio codec is an audio compression format optimized for speech coding.

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Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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AT&T Mobility

AT&T Mobility LLC, also known as AT&T Wireless marketed as simply AT&T, is a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T that provides wireless services to 138.8 million subscribers in the United States including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Base station

Base station (or base radio station) is – according to the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – a "land station in the land mobile service." The term is used in the context of mobile telephony, wireless computer networking and other wireless communications and in land surveying.

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Base station subsystem

The base station subsystem (BSS) is the section of a traditional cellular telephone network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the network switching subsystem.

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Base transceiver station

A base transceiver station (BTS) is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a network.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Bit rate

In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.

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Bmobile

bmobile is a Mobile Phone, IPTV, Home Security provider, and ISP of Trinidad and Tobago, operating as a division of TSTT.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Burst transmission

In telecommunication, a burst transmission or data burst is the broadcast of a relatively high-bandwidth transmission over a short period.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carrier frequency

In telecommunication systems, Carrier frequency is a technical term used to indicate.

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Cell Broadcast

Cell Broadcast/Cell Information (CB) messaging is a mobile technology feature defined by the ETSI’s GSM committee and is part of the 2G, 3G, 4G LTE (telecommunication) and 5G standards.

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Cellular network

A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network where the last link is wireless.

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Cellular repeater

A cellular repeater (also known as cell phone signal booster or amplifier) is a type of bi-directional amplifier used to improve cell phone reception.

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Challenge–response authentication

In computer security, challenge–response authentication is a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Ciphertext-only attack

In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack (COA) or known ciphertext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts.

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Code-division multiple access

Code-division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.

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Codec

A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.

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Comparison of mobile phone standards

This is a comparison of standards of mobile phones.

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Downgrade attack

A downgrade attack is a form of attack on a computer system or communications protocol that makes it abandon a high-quality mode of operation (e.g. an encrypted connection) in favor of an older, lower-quality mode of operation (e.g. clear text) that is typically provided for backward compatibility with older systems.

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Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) (also known as Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC), or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution) is a digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates as a backward-compatible extension of GSM.

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Enhanced full rate

Enhanced Full Rate or EFR or GSM-EFR or GSM 06.60 is a speech coding standard that was developed in order to improve the quite poor quality of GSM-Full Rate (FR) codec.

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Enhanced Network Selection

Enhanced Network Selection (sometimes referred to as Enhanced Network Service, or simply ENS) extends GSM by making it possible for a GSM cellular device (e.g., handset) to be "homed" OTA (over the air) to different networks.

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ETSI

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, headquartered in Sophia-Antipolis, France, with worldwide projection.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations

The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) was established on June 26, 1959, as a coordinating body for European state telecommunications and postal organizations.

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Femtocell

In telecommunications, a femtocell is a small, low-power cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business.

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Field-programmable gate array

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable".

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Full Rate

Full Rate (FR or GSM-FR or GSM 06.10 or sometimes simply GSM) was the first digital speech coding standard used in the GSM digital mobile phone system.

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General Packet Radio Service

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data standard on the 2G and 3G cellular communication network's global system for mobile communications (GSM).

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GEO-Mobile Radio Interface

GEO-Mobile Radio Interface (GEO stands for Geostationary Earth Orbit), better known as GMR, is an ETSI standard for satellite phones.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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GPRS core network

The GPRS core network is the central part of the general packet radio service (GPRS) which allows 2G, 3G and WCDMA mobile networks to transmit IP packets to external networks such as the Internet.

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GSM 02.07

The SMG GSM 02.07 Technical Specification (Version 7.1.0 Release 1998) called Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Mobile Stations (MS) features defines Mobile Station (MS) features and to classifies them according to their type and whether they are mandatory or optional.

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GSM 03.48

It is used to exchange secured packets between an entity in a GSM PLMN and an entity in the SIM.

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GSM frequency bands

GSM frequency bands or frequency ranges are the cellular frequencies designated by the ITU for the operation of GSM mobile phones and other mobile devices.

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GSM services

Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world.

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GSM-R

GSM-R, Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway or GSM-Railway is an international wireless communications standard for railway communication and applications.

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GSMA

The GSM Association (commonly referred to as 'the GSMA' or Global System for Mobile Communications, originally Groupe Spécial Mobile) is an originally-European trade body that represents the interests of mobile network operators worldwide.

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Half Rate

Half Rate (HR or GSM-HR or GSM 06.20) is a speech coding system for GSM, developed in the early 1990s.

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Handover

In cellular telecommunications, the terms handover or handoff refer to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel.

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Harri Holkeri

Harri Hermanni Holkeri KBE (6 January 1937 – 7 August 2011) was a Finnish statesman representing the National Coalition Party of Finland (Kokoomus / Samlingspartiet).

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High Speed Packet Access

High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing 3G mobile telecommunication networks using the WCDMA protocols.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Intelligent Network

The Intelligent Network (IN) is the standard network architecture specified in the.

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International mobile subscriber identity

The International Mobile Subscriber Identity or IMSI is used to identify the user of a cellular network and is a unique identification associated with all cellular networks.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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KASUMI

KASUMI is a block cipher used in UMTS, GSM, and GPRS mobile communications systems.

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Known-plaintext attack

The known-plaintext attack (KPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has access to both the plaintext (called a crib), and its encrypted version (ciphertext).

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Lebanon

Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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Linear predictive coding

Linear predictive coding (LPC) is a tool used mostly in audio signal processing and speech processing for representing the spectral envelope of a digital signal of speech in compressed form, using the information of a linear predictive model.

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LTE (telecommunication)

In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.

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LTE Advanced

LTE Advanced is a mobile communication standard and a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard.

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Macrocell

A macrocell or macrosite is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a high power cell site (tower, antenna or mast).

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Memorandum of understanding

A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties.

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Microcell

A microcell is a cell in a mobile phone network served by a low power cellular base station (tower), covering a limited area such as a mall, a hotel, or a transportation hub.

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Mobile device

A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.

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Mobile network operator

A mobile network operator or MNO, also known as a wireless service provider, wireless carrier, cellular company, or mobile network carrier, is a provider of wireless communications services that owns or controls all the elements necessary to sell and deliver services to an end user including radio spectrum allocation, wireless network infrastructure, back haul infrastructure, billing, customer care, provisioning computer systems and marketing and repair organizations.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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Mobile phone tracking

Mobile phone tracking is the ascertaining of the position or location of a mobile phone, whether stationary or moving.

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Motorola

Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.

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MSISDN

MSISDN (pronounced as /'em es ai es di en/ or misden) is a number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or a UMTS mobile network.

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Multimedia Messaging Service

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network.

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Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.

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Network simulation

In computer network research, network simulation is a technique whereby a software program models the behavior of a network by calculating the interaction between the different network entities (routers, switches, nodes, access points, links etc.). Most simulators use discrete event simulation - the modeling of systems in which state variables change at discrete points in time.

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Network switching subsystem

Network switching subsystem (NSS) (or GSM core network) is the component of a GSM system that carries out call switching and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations.

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NITZ

NITZ, or Network Identity and Time Zone, is a mechanism for provisioning local time and date, time zone and DST offset, as well as network provider identity information, to mobile devices via a wireless network.

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Nokia Networks

Nokia Networks (formerly Nokia Solutions and Networks (NSN) and Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and wholly owned subsidiary of Nokia Corporation. It started as a joint venture between Nokia of Finland and Siemens of Germany known as Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia Networks has operations in around 120 countries. In 2013, Nokia acquired 100% of Nokia Networks, buying all of Siemens' shares. In April 2014, NSN name was phased out as part of rebranding process.

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Non-repudiation

Non-repudiation refers to a state of affairs where the author of a statement will not be able to successfully challenge the authorship of the statement or validity of an associated contract.

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Nordic Mobile Telephone

NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephony in English) is the first fully automatic cellular phone system.

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Northern Territory

The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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OpenBTS

OpenBTS (Open Base Transceiver Station) is a software-based GSM access point, allowing standard GSM-compatible mobile phones to be used as SIP endpoints in Voice over IP (VoIP) networks.

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Openmoko

Openmoko was a project to create a family of open source mobile phones, including the hardware specification, the operating system (Openmoko Linux), and actual smartphone development implementation like the Neo 1973 and Neo FreeRunner.

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Operations support system

Operations support systems (OSS), or operational support systems in British usage, are computer systems used by telecommunications service providers to manage their networks (e.g., telephone networks).

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Optus

Singtel Optus Pty Limited is the second largest telecommunications company in Australia.

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ORFS

ORFS stands for Output RF Spectrum, where 'RF' stands for Radio Frequency.

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Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access

Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is a multi-user version of the popular orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme.

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OsmocomBB

OsmocomBB (open-source mobile communications – baseband) is a free firmware for the baseband processor of GSM mobile phones which handles the encoding and radio communication of both voice and data.

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Packet analyzer

A packet analyzer (also known as a packet sniffer) is a computer program or piece of computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a digital network or part of a network.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parlay X

Parlay X was a set of standard Web service APIs for the telephone network (fixed and mobile.). It is defunct and now replaced by OneAPI, which is the current valid standard from the GSM association for Telecom third party API.

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Personal communications network

Personal communications network (PCN) is the European digital cellular mobile telephone network, developed in accordance with GSM standards.

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Picocell

A picocell is a small cellular base station typically covering a small area, such as in-building (offices, shopping malls, train stations, stock exchanges, etc.), or more recently in-aircraft.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Pre-shared key

In cryptography, a pre-shared key (PSK) is a shared secret which was previously shared between the two parties using some secure channel before it needs to be used.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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Radio resource location services protocol

Radio resource location services (LCS) protocol (RRLP) applies to GSM and UMTS Cellular Networks.

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Radiolinja

Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM operator founded on September 19, 1988.

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Rainbow table

A rainbow table is a precomputed table for reversing cryptographic hash functions, usually for cracking password hashes.

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Roaming

Roaming is a wireless telecommunication term typically used with mobile devices (like mobile phones).

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RTP audio video profile

The RTP audio/video profile (RTP/AVP) is a profile for Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) that specifies the technical parameters of audio and video streams.

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SIM lock

A SIM lock, simlock, network lock, carrier lock or (master) subsidy lock is a technical restriction built into GSM and CDMA mobile phones by mobile phone manufacturers for use by service providers to restrict the use of these phones to specific countries and/or networks.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Skype

Skype is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One console, and smartwatches via the Internet and to regular telephones.

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Smart card

A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits.

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SMS

SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Stream cipher

A stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream).

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Subscriber identity module

A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers).

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Tablet computer

A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a portable personal computer, typically with a mobile operating system and LCD touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package.

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Tampere

Tampere (Swedish: Tammerfors) is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland.

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Telecom Australia

Telecom Australia was the trading name of the.

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Telephony

Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.

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Telstra

Telstra Corporation Ltd. (known as Telstra) is Australia's largest telecommunications company which builds and operates telecommunications networks and markets voice, mobile, internet access, pay television and other products and services.

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Thailand

Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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Time-division multiple access

Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared-medium networks.

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Time-division multiplexing

Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.

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Timing advance

In the GSM cellular mobile phone standard, timing advance value corresponds to the length of time a signal takes to reach the base station from a mobile phone.

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Trademark

A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).

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Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Um interface

The Um interface is the air interface for the GSM mobile telephone standard.

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UMTS

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.

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UMTS frequency bands

The UMTS frequency bands are radio frequencies used by third generation (3G) wireless Universal Mobile Telecommunications System networks.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Unstructured Supplementary Service Data

Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD), sometimes referred to as "Quick Codes" or "Feature codes", is a communications protocol used by GSM cellular telephones to communicate with the mobile network operator's computers.

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Vodafone UK

Vodafone UK is a provider of telecommunications services in the United Kingdom, and a part of the Vodafone Group, the world's second-largest mobile phone company.

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Voicemail

A voicemail system (also known as voice message or voice bank) is a computer-based system that allows users and subscribers to exchange personal voice messages; to select and deliver voice information; and to process transactions relating to individuals, organizations, products and services, using an ordinary telephone.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Wireless Application Protocol

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a technical standard for accessing information over a mobile wireless network.

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1G

1G refers to the first generation of wireless cellular technology (mobile telecommunications).

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2G

2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular technology.

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3G

3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.

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3GPP

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications standards associations, known as the Organizational Partners.

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4G

4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G.

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Redirects here:

Digital Communications System, Extended Global System, Extended Global System for Mobile Communications, GSM 07.07, GSM Gateway, GSM network, GSM phone system, Global System For Mobile Communications, Global System for Mobile, Global System for Mobile Communication, Global System for Mobile Communications, Global System for Mobile communications, Global system for mobile cellular communications, Global system for mobile communications, Groupe Special Mobile, Groupe Spécial Mobile, Gsm, History of GSM, Mobile phone base station.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSM

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