57 relations: Alpha helix, Calcium in biology, Cell (biology), Cell growth, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Class (biology), Concentration, Conformational isomerism, Covalent bond, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Diglyceride, Dissociation (chemistry), Domain (biology), Downregulation and upregulation, Effector (biology), Fungus, G beta-gamma complex, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, Gi alpha subunit, Gq alpha subunit, Gs alpha subunit, Guanine, Helix, Heterotrimeric G protein, Homology (biology), Hormone, Hydrolysis, Intracellular, Ion, Ion channel, Ligand, Lipid, Mammal, Molecular binding, Neurotransmitter, Nucleotide, Phospholipase, Physiology, Plant, Protein, Protein dimer, Protein isoform, Protein structure, Protein subunit, Receptor (biochemistry), Regulation, Regulation of gene expression, RNA splicing, ..., Sequence (biology), Sodium, T-cell receptor, Transcription (biology), Transcriptional regulation, Transducin, Turn (biochemistry). Expand index (7 more) » « Shrink index
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The G beta-gamma complex (Gβγ) is a tightly bound dimeric protein complex, composed of one Gβ and one Gγ subunit, and is a component of heterotrimeric G proteins.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Molecular binding is an attractive interaction between two molecules that results in a stable association in which the molecules are in close proximity to each other.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
A sequence in biology is the one-dimensional ordering of monomers, covalently linked within a biopolymer; it is also referred to as the primary structure of the biological macromolecule.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The T-cell receptor, or TCR, is a molecule found on the surface of T cells, or T lymphocytes, that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
Transducin (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate phototransduction.
A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction.