73 relations: Actin, Adenylyl cyclase, ADP ribosylation factor, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Alpha helix, Beta adrenergic receptor kinase, Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2, Beta-propeller, Bruton's tyrosine kinase, C-Raf, Calcium channel, Cardiac muscle cell, Catecholamine, CDC42, Cell membrane, Cell signaling, Chaperone (protein), Chemokine, Chemotaxis, Coiled coil, Conformational change, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cytosol, Desensitization (medicine), Downregulation and upregulation, Effector (biology), Endoplasmic reticulum, G alpha subunit, G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, G protein–coupled receptor, Guanosine diphosphate, Heart failure, Heterotrimeric G protein, In vitro, In vivo, Inflammation, Ion channel, KCNJ5, KCNJ6, Leukemia, Ligand, Lymphocyte, Murinae, N-type calcium channel, Neutrophil, Norepinephrine, P21-activated kinases, Peptide, Pheromone, ..., Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phospholipase A, Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3, Polymerization, Potassium channel, Prenylation, PREX1, Protein, Protein isoform, Protein–protein interaction, Rac (GTPase), Ras subfamily, RhoGEF domain, Rod cell, SNAP25, Transducin, Tyrosine kinase, Viral vector, Voltage-gated calcium channel, WD40 repeat. Expand index (23 more) » « Shrink index
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) are members of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Beta adrenergic receptor kinase (also referred to as βARK or BARK) is a serine/threonine intracellular kinase.
Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2 (beta-ARK-2) also known as G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADRBK2 gene.
In structural biology, a beta-propeller is a type of all-β protein architecture characterized by 4 to 8 blade-shaped beta sheets arranged toroidally around a central axis.
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (abbreviated Btk or BTK) also known as tyrosine-protein kinase BTK is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BTK gene.
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, also known as proto-oncogene c-RAF or simply c-Raf or even Raf-1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAF1 gene.
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions.
Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
Cell division control protein 42 homolog, also known as Cdc42, is a protein involved in regulation of the cell cycle.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
A coiled coil is a structural motif in proteins in which 2–7 alpha-helices are coiled together like the strands of a rope (dimers and trimers are the most common types).
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma.
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ5 gene and is a type of G protein-gated ion channel.
G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ6 gene.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.
N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
p21 activated kinases (PAKs) are members of a family of enzymes.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
Phospholipase A can refer to.
The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell.
1-Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLCB1 gene.
1-Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLCB2 gene.
1-Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLCB3 gene.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound.
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchanger 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PREX1 gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Rac is a subfamily of the Rho family of GTPases, small (~21 kDa) signaling G proteins (more specifically a GTPase).
Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
RhoGEF domain is a structural domain of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPases.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a t-SNARE protein that is encoded by the SNAP25 gene in humans.
Transducin (Gt) is a protein naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones and it is very important in vertebrate phototransduction.
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
The WD40 repeat (also known as the WD or beta-transducin repeat) is a short structural motif of approximately 40 amino acids, often terminating in a tryptophan-aspartic acid (W-D) dipeptide.