110 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylyl cyclase, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal medulla, Adrenaline, Alfred G. Gilman, Anterior pituitary, Apoptosis, Arvid Carlsson, Bernard Katz, Bernardo Houssay, Brian Kobilka, C-terminus, Calcitonin, Calcitonin receptor, CAMP-dependent pathway, Cancer, Carl Ferdinand Cori, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Conformational change, Contractility, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Diabetes mellitus, Diglyceride, Dopamine, Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr., Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs, Embryogenesis, Enzyme, Eric Kandel, Follicle-stimulating hormone, G alpha subunit, G beta-gamma complex, G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, G protein–coupled receptor, G12/G13 alpha subunits, George H. Hitchings, Gertrude B. Elion, Gerty Cori, Gi alpha subunit, Glucagon, Glucocorticoid, Glucose, Glycogen, Glycogenolysis, Gq alpha subunit, Gs alpha subunit, GTPase, ..., GTPase-activating protein, Guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Guanosine diphosphate, Guanosine triphosphate, Heterotrimeric G protein, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Hormone, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Hydrolysis, Inositol phosphate, Inositol trisphosphate, Ion channel, James Black (pharmacologist), Julius Axelrod, Kidney, Ligand (biochemistry), Linda B. Buck, Martin Rodbell, Membrane transport protein, Molecular switch, Monomer, Motility, Myristoylation, Neurotransmitter, Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Olfactory receptor, Palmitoylation, Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor, Parathyroid hormone 2 receptor, Paul Greengard, Phospholipase C, Phosphorylation, Posterior pituitary, Prenylation, Protein, Protein complex, Protein kinase A, Protein subunit, Ras subfamily, Receptor antagonist, Regulator of G protein signaling, Reuptake, Rho family of GTPases, RhoGEF domain, Richard Axel, Robert Lefkowitz, Second messenger system, Secretion, Signal transduction, Small GTPase, Spermatogenesis, Thyroid, Transcription (biology), Ulf von Euler, Vasopressin, Zona fasciculata, Zona glomerulosa. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal medulla (medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
Alfred Goodman Gilman (July 1, 1941 – December 23, 2015) was an American pharmacologist and biochemist.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arvid Carlsson (25 January 1923 — 29 June 2018) was a Swedish neuropharmacologist who is best known for his work with the neurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson's disease.
Sir Bernard Katz, FRS (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology.
Bernardo Alberto Houssay (April 10, 1887 – September 21, 1971) was an Argentine physiologist who, in 1947, received one half Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar (glucose) in animals.
Brian Kent Kobilka (born May 30, 1955) is an American physiologist and a recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Lefkowitz for discoveries that reveal the inner workings of an important family G protein-coupled receptors.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.
The calcitonin receptor (CT) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the peptide hormone calcitonin and is involved in maintenance of calcium homeostasis, particularly with respect to bone formation and metabolism.
In the field of molecular biology, the cAMP-dependent pathway, also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway, is a G protein-coupled receptor-triggered signaling cascade used in cell communication.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl Ferdinand Cori, ForMemRS (December 5, 1896 – October 20, 1984) was a Czech-American biochemist and pharmacologist born in Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, now Czech Republic) who, together with his wife Gerty Cori and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, received a Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of how glycogen (animal starch) – a derivative of glucose – is broken down and resynthesized in the body, for use as a store and source of energy.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
Contractility refers to the ability for self-contraction, especially of the muscles, or similar active biological tissue.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (November 19, 1915 – March 9, 1974) was an American pharmacologist and biochemist born in Burlingame, Kansas.
Edmond Henri Fischer (born April 6, 1920) is a Chinese Swiss American biochemist.
Edwin Gerhard Krebs (June 6, 1918 – December 21, 2009) was an American biochemist.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) are membrane-associated, heterotrimeric proteins composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma.
The G beta-gamma complex (Gβγ) is a tightly bound dimeric protein complex, composed of one Gβ and one Gγ subunit, and is a component of heterotrimeric G proteins.
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
G12/G13 subunits are alpha units of heterotrimeric G proteins that regulate cell processes through the use of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
George Herbert Hitchings (April 18, 1905 – February 27, 1998) was an American doctor who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sir James Black and Gertrude Elion "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment," Hitchings specifically for his work on chemotherapy.
Gertrude Belle Elion (January 23, 1918 – February 21, 1999) was an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black.
Gerty Theresa Cori (née Radnitz; August 15, 1896 – October 26, 1957) was a Jewish Czech-American biochemist who became the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, and the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
GTPase-activating proteins or GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event.
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the release of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to allow binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Inositol phosphates are a group of mono- to polyphosphorylated inositols.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Sir James Whyte Black (14 June 1924 – 22 March 2010) was a Scottish physician and pharmacologist.
Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Linda Brown Buck (born January 29, 1947) is an American biologist best known for her work on the olfactory system.
Martin Rodbell (December 1, 1925 – December 7, 1998) was an American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist who is best known for his discovery of G-proteins.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
A molecular switch is a molecule that can be reversibly shifted between two or more stable states.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Myristoylation is a lipidation modification where a myristoyl group, derived from myristic acid, is covalently attached by an amide bond to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute is a body at Karolinska Institute which awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and it is headquartered in the Nobel Forum on the grounds of the Karolinska Institute campus.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.
Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, to cysteine and less frequently to serine and threonine residues of proteins, which are typically membrane proteins.
Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, also known as parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTH1R gene.
Parathyroid hormone 2 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PTH2R gene.
Paul Greengard (born December 11, 1925) is an American neuroscientist best known for his work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.
Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Regulators of G protein signaling (or RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
The Rho family of GTPases is a family of small (~21 kDa) signaling G proteins, and is a subfamily of the Ras superfamily.
RhoGEF domain is a structural domain of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPases.
Richard Axel (born July 2, 1946) is a molecular biologist and University Professor in the Department of Neuroscience at Columbia University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Robert Joseph Lefkowitz (born April 15, 1943) is an American physician (internist and cardiologist) and biochemist.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Small GTPases, also known as small G-proteins, are a family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Ulf Svante von Euler (7 February 1905 – 9 March 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The zona fasciculata constitutes the middle and also the widest zone of the adrenal cortex, sitting directly beneath the zona glomerulosa.
The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is the most superficial layer of the adrenal cortex, lying directly beneath the renal capsule.
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