264 relations: Acetylcholine, Acyl group, Adenosine, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylyl cyclase, Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, Adiponectin receptor 1, Adiponectin receptor 2, Adrenaline, Agonist, Allosteric regulation, Alpha helix, Alternative splicing, Amphiphysin, Anaphylatoxin, Angular resolution, AP2 adaptor complex, Aripiprazole, Arrestin, Bacteriorhodopsin, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Biogenic amine, Biomolecular structure, Bombesin, Bradykinin, Bradykinin receptor B2, Brain, Brian Kobilka, C-Raf, C-terminus, Calcitonin, Calcium in biology, Calmodulin, CAMK, Cannabinoid, Carazolol, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cell surface receptor, Channelrhodopsin, Chemical compound, Chemokine, Choanoflagellate, Cholesterol, Class (biology), Class C GPCR, Clathrin, Conformational change, Covalent bond, ..., Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclic AMP receptors, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, Cysteine, Cytokine receptor, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, De novo protein structure prediction, Degradative enzyme, Desensitization (medicine), Dictyostelium, Dictyostelium discoideum, Diffusion, Diglyceride, Dissociation (chemistry), Disulfide, Dopamine, Dynamic equilibrium, Dynamin, Effector (biology), Electromagnetic radiation, Endocytosis, Endogeny (biology), Endoplasmic reticulum, Endothelin, Eukaryote, Experiment, Extracellular signal–regulated kinases, Feedback, Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Frizzled, Functional selectivity, Fungal mating pheromone receptors, Fungus, G beta-gamma complex, G protein, G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, G protein-coupled receptor kinase, G protein-coupled receptors database, G protein–coupled receptor, G12/G13 alpha subunits, GABAB receptor, GABBR1, GABBR2, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, Genome, Gi alpha subunit, Glucagon, Glutamic acid, Glycosylation, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Gq alpha subunit, GRAFS, Growth hormone, Gs alpha subunit, GTPase, GTPase-activating protein, Guanine, Guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Guanosine diphosphate, Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, Guanosine triphosphate, Gustducin, Hepatocyte growth factor, Heterologous desensitisation, Heterotrimeric G protein, Histamine, Histamine receptor, Homologous desensitization, Homology modeling, Hormone, Hormone receptor, Human, I-TASSER, Immune system, Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, Inflammation, Inositol trisphosphate, Inositol trisphosphate receptor, Integral membrane protein, Integrin, Inverse agonist, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, Kinase, Leukotriene, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipase, Lipid, Lipid raft, List of MeSH codes (D12.776), Lysosome, Mammal, MAPK/ERK pathway, MAPK1, Melanocortin, Metabotropic glutamate receptor, Metabotropic receptor, Metastasis, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, Molecule, Monomer, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, N-terminus, N-type calcium channel, Negative feedback, Nematode, Neoplasm, Neuropeptide Y, Neurotransmitter, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Norepinephrine, Odor, Olfaction, Olfactory epithelium, Olfactory receptor, Opioid, Opsin, Opsonin, Orphan receptor, Oxytocin, P-type calcium channel, Palmitoylation, Parasympathetic nervous system, PDZ domain, Pepducin, Peptide, Pheromone, Phosphatidylinositol, Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, Phosphodiesterase, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Phospholipase C, Phosphorylation, Photoisomerization, Physiology, Platelet-activating factor, Polymerization, Post-translational modification, Promiscuity, Prostaglandin, Prostanoid, Protease-activated receptor, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein isoform, Protein kinase, Protein kinase A, Protein kinase C, Protein phosphatase, Protein primary structure, Protein structure, Protein targeting, Protein tertiary structure, Protein trimer, Proteolysis, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, Proton, Pseudo amino acid composition, PTK2, Q-type calcium channel, Ras subfamily, Reaction rate constant, Receptor activated solely by a synthetic ligand, Receptor antagonist, Receptor theory, Receptor tyrosine kinase, Receptor-mediated endocytosis, Regulator of G protein signaling, Retina, Rho family of GTPases, Rho-associated protein kinase, Rhodopsin, Rhodopsin-like receptors, RhoGEF domain, Robert Lefkowitz, Second messenger system, Secretin, Secretin receptor, Secretin receptor family, Sequence analysis, Sequence homology, Serine, Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, Serotonin, Signal transduction, Slime mold, Small GTPase, Smoothened, Somatostatin, Sphingolipid, Steric effects, Subcellular localization, Sympathetic nervous system, Tachykinin peptides, Taste receptor, Terpenoid, Threonine, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Tissue (biology), TOG superfamily, Transducer, Transmembrane domain, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Vasopressin, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Voltage-gated calcium channel, X-ray crystallography, Yeast. 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Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acyl group is a moiety derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl groups from an oxoacid, including inorganic acids.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.
Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion GPCRs) are a class of 33 human protein receptors with a broad distribution in embryonic and larval cells, cells of the reproductive tract, neurons, leukocytes, and a variety of tumours.
Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOR1 gene.
Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOR2 gene.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.
Amphiphysin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMPH gene.
Anaphylatoxins, or complement peptides, are fragments (C3a, C4a and C5a) that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
The AP2 adaptor complex is a multimeric protein that works on the cell membrane to internalize cargo in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.
Arrestins (abbreviated Arr) are a small family of proteins important for regulating signal transduction at G protein-coupled receptors.
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by Halobacteria, a class of the Euryarchaeota.
The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.
A biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with one or more amine groups.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Bombesin is a 14-amino acid peptide originally isolated from the skin of the European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina).
Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.
Bradykinin receptor B2 is a G-protein coupled receptor for bradykinin, encoded by the BDKRB2 gene in humans.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brian Kent Kobilka (born May 30, 1955) is an American physiologist and a recipient of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Lefkowitz for discoveries that reveal the inner workings of an important family G protein-coupled receptors.
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, also known as proto-oncogene c-RAF or simply c-Raf or even Raf-1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAF1 gene.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid gland, and in many other animals in the ultimopharyngeal body.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for calcium-modulated protein) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Carazolol is a high affinity antagonist/partial inverse agonist (also referred to as a beta blocker) of the β-adrenergic receptor.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the membranes of cells.
Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
The class C G-protein-coupled receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that include the metabotropic glutamate receptors and several additional receptors.
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cyclic AMP receptors from slime molds are a distinct family of G-protein coupled receptors.
Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytokine receptors are receptors that bind cytokines.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
In computational biology, de novo protein structure prediction refers to an algorithmic process by which protein tertiary structure is predicted from its amino acid primary sequence.
A degradative enzyme is an enzyme (in a broader sense a protein) which degrades biological molecules.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
Dictyostelium is a genus of single- and multi-celled eukaryotic, phagotrophic bacterivores.
Dictyostelium discoideum is a species of soil-living amoeba belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa, infraphylum Mycetozoa.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A diglyceride, or diacylglycerol (DAG), is a glyceride consisting of two fatty acid chains covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.
Dynamin is a GTPase responsible for endocytosis in the eukaryotic cell.
In biochemistry, an effector molecule is usually a small molecule that selectively binds to a protein and regulates its biological activity.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
In molecular biology, extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERKs) or classical MAP kinases are widely expressed protein kinase intracellular signalling molecules that are involved in functions including the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells.
Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
The combination preparation fluticasone/salmeterol is a formulation containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate, used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Frizzled is a family of G protein-coupled receptor proteins that serves as receptors in the Wnt signaling pathway and other signaling pathways.
Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”, "ligand bias" and “differential engagement”) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways relative to a reference ligand (often the endogenous hormone or peptide) at the same receptor.
Fungal pheromone mating factor receptors form a distinct family of G-protein-coupled receptors.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The G beta-gamma complex (Gβγ) is a tightly bound dimeric protein complex, composed of one Gβ and one Gγ subunit, and is a component of heterotrimeric G proteins.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
The G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs) are a family of inward-rectifier potassium ion channels which are activated (opened) via a signal transduction cascade starting with ligand-stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs, GPCRKs) are a family of protein kinases that regulate the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by phosphorylating their intracellular domains after their associated G proteins have been released and activated.
GPCRdb contains data, web tools and diagrams for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
G12/G13 subunits are alpha units of heterotrimeric G proteins that regulate cell processes through the use of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 (GABAB1), is a G-protein coupled receptor subunit encoded by the GABBR1 gene.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 (GABAB2) is a G-protein coupled receptor subunit encoded by the GABBR2 gene in humans.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).
The GPCR superfamily is the largest gene family in the human genome containing approximately 800 genes.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
GTPases (singular GTPase) are a large family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
GTPase-activating proteins or GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the release of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to allow binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Guanosine diphosphate, abbreviated GDP, is a nucleoside diphosphate.
A guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) binds to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevents exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevents the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action.
Guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) is a purine nucleoside triphosphate.
Gustducin is a G protein associated with taste and the gustatory system, found in some taste receptor cells.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells and T cells. It has been shown to have a major role in embryonic organ development, specifically in myogenesis, in adult organ regeneration, and in wound healing.
Heterologous desensitization (also known as cross-desensitization) is the term for the unresponsiveness of cells to one or more agonists to which they are normally responsive.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
The histamine receptors are a class of G protein–coupled receptors which bind histamine as their primary endogenous ligand.
Homologous desensitization occurs when a receptor decreases its response to an agonist at high concentration.
Homology modeling, also known as comparative modeling of protein, refers to constructing an atomic-resolution model of the "target" protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein (the "template").
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
I-TASSER (Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement) is a bioinformatics method for predicting three-dimensional structure model of protein molecules from amino acid sequences.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM), is a conserved sequence of amino acids (S/I/V/LxYxxI/V/L) that is found in the cytoplasmic tails of many inhibitory receptors of the immune system.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) is a membrane glycoprotein complex acting as a Ca2+ channel activated by inositol trisphosphate (InsP3).
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
The JAK-STAT signalling pathway is a chain of interactions between proteins in a cell, and is involved in processes such as immunity, cell division, cell death and tumour formation.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Leukotrienes are a family of eicosanoid inflammatory mediators produced in leukocytes by the oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA) and the essential fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the enzyme arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts.
This is part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The MAPK/ERK pathway (also known as the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) is a chain of proteins in the cell that communicates a signal from a receptor on the surface of the cell to the DNA in the nucleus of the cell.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, also known as MAPK1, p42MAPK, and ERK2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK1 gene.
The melanocortins are a group of peptide hormones which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the pituitary gland.
The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor that are active through an indirect metabotropic process.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (also known as MAP2K, MEK, MAPKK) is a kinase enzyme which phosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK).
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinases (nRTKs) are cytosolic enzymes that are responsible for catalysing the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate donor, such as ATP, to tyrosine residues in proteins.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
An odor, odour or fragrance is always caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell.
Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
In biochemistry, an orphan receptor is a protein that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
Palmitoylation is the covalent attachment of fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, to cysteine and less frequently to serine and threonine residues of proteins, which are typically membrane proteins.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
The PDZ domain is a common structural domain of 80-90 amino-acids found in the signaling proteins of bacteria, yeast, plants, viruses and animals.
Pepducins are cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right, a class of the phosphatidylglycerides.
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or PtdIns(4,5)P2, also known simply as PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2, is a minor phospholipid component of cell membranes.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that breaks a phosphodiester bond.
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
In chemistry, photoisomerization is a molecular behavior in which structural change between isomers is caused by photoexcitation.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Platelet-activating factor, also known as PAF, PAF-acether or AGEPC (acetyl-glyceryl-ether-phosphorylcholine), is a potent phospholipid activator and mediator of many leukocyte functions, platelet aggregation and degranulation, inflammation, and anaphylaxis.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Prostanoids are a subclass of eicosanoids consisting of the prostaglandins (mediators of inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions), the thromboxanes (mediators of vasoconstriction), and the prostacyclins (active in the resolution phase of inflammation.).
Protease-activated receptors are a subfamily of related G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by cleavage of part of their extracellular domain.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 188.8.131.52), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
A protein phosphatase is a phosphatase enzyme that removes a phosphate group from the phosphorylated amino acid residue of its substrate protein.
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
Protein tertiary structure is the three dimensional shape of a protein.
In biochemistry, a protein trimer is a macromolecular complex formed by three, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src or simply c-Src, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene.
Pseudo amino acid composition, or PseAAC, was originally introduced by Kuo-Chen Chou (周国城) in 2001 to represent protein samples for improving protein subcellular localization prediction and membrane protein type prediction.
PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTK2 gene.
The Q-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
Ras is a family of related proteins which is expressed in all animal cell lineages and organs.
In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.
A receptor activated solely by a synthetic ligand (RASSL) or designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD), permits spatial and temporal control of G protein signaling in vivo.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Receptor theory is the application of receptor models to explain drug behavior.
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), also called clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is a process by which cells absorb metabolites, hormones, other proteins – and in some cases viruses – by the inward budding of plasma membrane vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being absorbed (endocytosis).
Regulators of G protein signaling (or RGS) are protein structural domains that activate GTPases for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunits.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The Rho family of GTPases is a family of small (~21 kDa) signaling G proteins, and is a subfamily of the Ras superfamily.
Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Rhodopsin-like receptors are a family of proteins that comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors.
RhoGEF domain is a structural domain of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPases.
Robert Joseph Lefkowitz (born April 15, 1943) is an American physician (internist and cardiologist) and biochemist.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
Human secretin receptor (gene name SCTR) is a G protein-coupled receptor which binds secretin and is the leading member (i.e., first cloned) of the class B GPCR subfamily.
Secretin family of 7 transmembrane receptors is a family of evolutionarily related proteins.
In bioinformatics, sequence analysis is the process of subjecting a DNA, RNA or peptide sequence to any of a wide range of analytical methods to understand its features, function, structure, or evolution.
Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the evolutionary history of life.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A serine/threonine protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine (which have similar sidechains).
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.
Small GTPases, also known as small G-proteins, are a family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP).
Smoothened is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMO gene.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
Steric effects are nonbonding interactions that influence the shape (conformation) and reactivity of ions and molecules.
The cells of eukaryotic organisms are elaborately subdivided into functionally-distinct membrane-bound compartments.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest families of neuropeptides, found from amphibians to mammals.
A taste receptor is a type of receptor which facilitates the sensation of taste.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The transporter-opsin-G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) superfamily is a protein superfamily of integral membrane proteins, usually of 7 or 8 transmembrane alpha-helical segments (TMSs).
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.
Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
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