190 relations: 'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi, Abascantus, Abbasid Caliphate, Aelius Aristides, Aelius Nicon, Aeschrion of Pergamon, Al-Zahrawi, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Anatomical terms of muscle, Anatomy, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient history, Ancient Rome, Andrea Cesalpino, Andreas Vesalius, Anglicisation, Aquileia, Arab Muslims, Arabic, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Artery, Asclepeion, Asclepius, Athenaeus, Athens, Augustine of Hippo, Avicenna, İzmir, Barbary macaque, Basel, Bergama, Bloodletting, Body fluid, Burgundio of Pisa, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge University Press, Caracalla, Cataract, Catarrh, Charles Singer, Chukurova, Cilicia, Circulatory system, Collins English Dictionary, Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, Commodus, Compendium, Constantine the African, ..., Crete, Cyprus, De humani corporis fabrica, Dissection, Divination, Dogmatic school, Early Middle Ages, Early modern period, Empiric school, Empiricism, Epicureanism, Erasistratus, Exanthem, Experiment, Extant literature, Fall of Constantinople, Four temperaments, Galenic corpus, Galenic formulation, George of Pisidia, Great Lavra, Greece, Greeks, Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Herophilos, Hieronymus Fabricius, Hippocrates, History of medicine, Humorism, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences, Ibn Zuhr, International Society for the History of Medicine, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Interventricular septum, Jacques Dubois, Janus Cornarius, Johann Winter von Andernach, Johannes Ilberg, Johannes Oporinus, John Caius, John of Alexandria, Julian (emperor), Kai Brodersen, Karl Gottlob Kühn, Larynx, Latin translations of the 12th century, Leipzig, Library of Pergamum, Literae Humaniores, Logic, Lucius Verus, Lyon, Marcomanni, Marcus Aurelius, Medical research, Medicine, Michael Servetus, Middle Ages, Mondino de Luzzi, Motor nerve, Mount Athos, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Muscle tone, Mysticism, Nervous system, Neurology, New Learning, Old World monkey, Oribasius, Otto Seeck, Owsei Temkin, Palermo, Palladius (physician), Paracelsus, Paris, Pathology, Patrician (ancient Rome), Pergamon, Peripatetic school, Pharmacology, Philosophy, Physician, Physiology, Pig, Plasmodium malariae, Plato, Platonism, Pneuma, Pneuma (Stoic), Polemon of Laodicea, Primate, Prognosis, Psychotherapy, Pulmonary circulation, Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Respiratory system, Rete mirabile, Robert, King of Naples, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Schola Medica Salernitana, Science Museum, London, Scientific method, Scribe, Sensory nerve, Septimius Severus, Sibyl, Smallpox, Smyrna, Stoicism, Suda, Surgeon, Surgery, Susanne Bobzien, Switzerland, The Canon of Medicine, Theodotus of Byzantium, Thesaurus Linguae Graecae, Thomas Linacre, Thucydides, Timeline of medicine and medical technology, Trachea, Tree of Jesse, Turkey, University and State Library Düsseldorf, University of Basel, University of Michigan Press, University of Montpellier, University of Naples Federico II, Venipuncture, Venous blood, Vivisection, Western culture, William Harvey, Wound, Yunani medicine. Expand index (140 more) » « Shrink index
'Ali ibn al-'Abbas al-Majusi (died 982–994), also known as Masoudi, or Latinized as Haly Abbas, was a Persian physician and psychologist from the Islamic Golden Age, most famous for the Kitab al-Maliki or Complete Book of the Medical Art, his textbook on medicine and psychology.
Abascantus (Greek: Ἀβάσκαντος) was a physician of Lugdunum, who probably lived in the 2nd century AD.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus (Αἴλιος Ἀριστείδης; 117–181 CE) was a Greek orator and author considered to be a prime example of the Second Sophistic, a group of celebrated and highly influential orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 CE.
Aelius Nicon was a Greek architect and builder in 2nd century AD Pergamon.
Aeschrion (Gr. Αισχρίων) of Pergamon was a physician in the 2nd century AD.
Abū al-Qāsim Khalaf ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī al-Ansari (أبو القاسم خلف بن العباس الزهراوي;‎ 936–1013), popularly known as Al-Zahrawi (الزهراوي), Latinised as Abulcasis (from Arabic Abū al-Qāsim), was an Arab Muslim physician, surgeon and chemist who lived in Al-Andalus.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.
Muscles are described using unique anatomical terminology according to their actions and structure.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrea Cesalpino (Latinized as Andreas Cæsalpinus) (6 June 1519 – 23 February 1603) was an Italian physician, philosopher and botanist.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
Arab Muslims are adherents of Islam who identify linguistically, culturally, and genealogically as Arabs.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
In ancient Greece and Rome, an asclepeion (Ἀσκληπιεῖον Asklepieion; Ἀσκλαπιεῖον in Doric dialect; Latin aesculapīum) was a healing temple, sacred to the god Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine.
Asclepius (Ἀσκληπιός, Asklēpiós; Aesculapius) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
İzmir is a metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia and the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara.
The Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus), also known as Barbary ape or magot, is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Bergama is a populous district, as well as the center city of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Burgundio of Pisa, sometimes erroneously styled "Burgundius", was an Italian jurist of the 12th century.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.
Charles Joseph Singer (2 November 1876 – 10 June 1960) was a British historian of science, technology, and medicine.
Çukurova, alternatively known as Cilicia, is a geo-cultural region in south-central Turkey, covering the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon is a manuscript written in the 13th century by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis.
Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
A compendium (plural: compendia) is a concise compilation of a body of knowledge.
Constantine the African (Constantinus Africanus; died before 1098/1099, Monte Cassino) was a physician who lived in the 11th century.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Dogmatic school of medicine (Dogmatics, or Dogmatici, Δογματικοί) was a school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The Empiric school of medicine (Empirics, Empiricists, or Empirici, Ἐμπειρικοί) was an ancient school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.
Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.
An exanthem or exanthema (from Greek ἐξάνθημα exánthēma, "a breaking out") is a widespread rash usually occurring in children.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
Extant literature and extant music refers to texts or music that has survived from the past to the present time, as opposed to lost work.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.
The Galenic corpus is the collection of writings of Galen, a prominent Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire during the second century C.E.
Galenic formulation deals with the principles of preparing and compounding medicines in order to optimize their absorption.
George of Pisidia (Γεώργιος Πισίδης, Geōrgios Pisidēs; Latinized as Pisida) was a Byzantine poet, born in Pisidia, who flourished during the 7th century AD.
The Monastery of Great Lavra (Μονή Μεγίστης Λαύρας) is the first monastery built on Mount Athos.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman is well known for his contribution to Unani medicine.
Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.
Hieronymus Fabricius or Girolamo Fabrizio, known also by his full Latin and Italian names, Fabricius ab Aquapendente or Girolamo Fabrizi d'Acquapendente, (20 May 1537 – 21 May 1619) was a pioneering anatomist and surgeon known in medical science as "The Father of Embryology.".
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences (IAMMS) (ابن سینا اکاڈمی آف میڈیول میڈیسین اینڈ سائنسیز.) is a trust registered under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.
Ibn Zuhr (ابن زهر; 1094–1162), traditionally known by his Latinized name of Avenzoar, was an Arab physician, surgeon, and poet.
The International Society for the History of Medicine is a non profit international society devoted to the academic study of the history of medicine, including the organization of international congresses.
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
The interventricular septum (IVS, or ventricular septum, or during development septum inferius), is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another.
Jacques Dubois (1478 – 14 January 1555), also known as Jacobus Sylvius in Latin, was a French anatomist in Paris.
Janus Cornarius (ca. 1500 – March 16, 1558) was a Saxon humanist and friend of Erasmus.
Johann Winter von Andernach (1505 – 4 October 1574) was a Renaissance physician, university professor, humanist, translator of ancient, mostly medical works, and writer of his own medical, philological and humanities works.
Johannes Ilberg (10 July 1860, Magdeburg – 20 August 1930, Leipzig) was a German educator and classical philologist who was the author of numerous works on ancient Greek medicine.
Johannes Oporinus (original German name: Johannes Herbster or Herbst) (25 January 1507 – 6 July 1568) was a humanist printer in Basel, the son of the painter Hans Herbst.
John Caius MD (born John Kays) (6 October 1510 – 29 July 1573), also known as Johannes Caius and Ioannes Caius, was an English physician, and second founder of the present Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
John of Alexandria was a Byzantine medical writer who lived in Alexandria, in present-day Egypt.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
Kai Brodersen (born 6 June 1958) is a contemporary ancient historian and classicist on the faculty of the University of Erfurt.
Karl Gottlob Kühn (12 July 1754 in Spergau – 19 June 1840 in Leipzig) was a German physician and medical historian.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world.
Literae Humaniores is the name given to an undergraduate course focused on Classics (Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Latin, ancient Greek and philosophy) at the University of Oxford and some other universities.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus; 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 AD) was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mondino de Luzzi, or de Liuzzi or de Lucci, (ca. 1270 – 1326), also known as Mundinus, was an Italian physician, anatomist and professor of surgery, who lived and worked in Bologna.
A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.
Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
In the history of ideas the New Learning in Europe is the Renaissance humanism, developed in the later fifteenth century.
The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a family of catarrhines, the only family in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini.
Oribasius or Oreibasius (Ὀρειβάσιος; c. 320 – 403) was a Greek medical writer and the personal physician of the Roman emperor Julian the Apostate.
Otto Karl Seeck (2 February 1850 – 29 June 1921) was a German classical historian who is perhaps best known for his work on the decline of the ancient world.
Owsei Temkin (Аўсей Цемкін; October 6, 1902 – July 18, 2002) was William H. Welch Professor Emeritus of the History of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University.
Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.
Palladius (Παλλάδιος; c. 6th century) a Greek medical writer, some of whose works are still extant.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoa that causes malaria in humans.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Platonism, rendered as a proper noun, is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it.
Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul".
In Stoic philosophy, pneuma (πνεῦμα) is the concept of the "breath of life," a mixture of the elements air (in motion) and fire (as warmth).
Marcus Antonius Polemon (Μάρκος Ἀντώνιος Πολέμων; c. 90 – 144) or Antonius Polemon, also known as Polemon of Smyrna or Polemon of Laodicea (Πολέμων ὁ Λαοδικεύς; c. 90 – 144), was a sophist who lived in the 2nd century.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
The Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, commonly called the Pauly–Wissowa or simply RE, is a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
A rete mirabile (Latin for "wonderful net"; plural retia mirabilia) is a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other, found in some vertebrates, mainly warm-blooded ones.
Robert of Anjou (Roberto d'Angiò), known as Robert the Wise (Roberto il Saggio; 1275 – 20 January 1343), was King of Naples, titular King of Jerusalem and Count of Provence and Forcalquier from 1309 to 1343, the central figure of Italian politics of his time.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Schola Medica Salernitana (Scuola Medica Salernitana) was a late Medieval medical school, the first and most important of its kind.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.
A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The sibyls were women that the ancient Greeks believed were oracles.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Susanne Bobzien, FBA is a German-born philosopher,Who'sWho in America 2012, 64th Edition whose research interests focus on philosophy of logic and language, determinism and freedom, and ancient philosophy.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
Theodotus of Byzantium (Θεoδoτoς; also known as Theodotus the Tanner, Theodotus the Shoemaker, and Theodotus the Fuller; flourished late 2nd century) was an early Christian writer from Byzantium, one of several named Theodotus whose writings were condemned as heresy in the early church.
The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) is a research center at the University of California, Irvine.
Thomas Linacre (or Lynaker) (c. 1460 – 20 October 1524) was an English humanist scholar and physician, after whom Linacre College, Oxford and Linacre House The King's School, Canterbury are named.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
Timeline of the history of medicine and medical technology.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The Tree of Jesse is a depiction in art of the ancestors of Christ, shown in a tree which rises from Jesse of Bethlehem, the father of King David and is the original use of the family tree as a schematic representation of a genealogy.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The University and State Library Düsseldorf (Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf, abbreviated ULB Düsseldorf) is a central service institution of Heinrich Heine University.
The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located in Basel, Switzerland.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
The University of Montpellier (Université de Montpellier) is a French public research university in Montpellier in south-east of France.
The University of Naples Federico II (Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a university located in Naples, Italy.
In medicine, venipuncture or venepuncture is the process of obtaining intravenous access for the purpose of intravenous therapy or for blood sampling of venous blood.
Venous blood is deoxygenated blood which travels from the peripheral vessels, through the venous system into the right atrium of the heart.
Vivisection is surgery conducted for experimental purposes on a living organism, typically animals with a central nervous system, to view living internal structure.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
"Yunani" or "Unani medicine" (Urdu: طب یونانی tibb yūnānī) is the term for Perso-Arabic traditional medicine as practiced in Mughal India and in Muslim culture in South Asia and modern day Central Asia.
Claudius Galen, Claudius Galenus, Claudius Galenus of Pergamum, Galen of Pergamon, Galen of Pergamum, Galen of pergamon, Galen the Physician, Galen the physician, Galenian, Galenic medicine, Galenism, Galenist, Galenists, Galenos, Galenus, Galenus Claudius, Jalinos, Omnia Opera (Galen).