107 relations: A Coruña, Affricate consonant, Alfonso X of Castile, Alveolar consonant, Ancient Greek, Apical consonant, Arabic, Archilochus, Aristotle, Bernal de Bonaval, Bilabial consonant, Braga, Buri tribe, Cancioneiro da Ajuda, Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional, Cancioneiro da Vaticana, Cantiga de amigo, Cantigas de Santa Maria, Castro Laboreiro, Celtic languages, Coco (folklore), Complementary distribution, Corpus Christi (feast), County of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Culture of Portugal, Denis of Portugal, Dental consonant, Dialect, Douro, Dragon, Entrimo, Extremadura, Fala language, Flap consonant, Francisco Franco, Fricative consonant, Galician language, Galician-Asturian, Gallaecia, Gallaecian language, Hipponax, Hispania, History of Portuguese, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Romance languages, Iberians, Italic languages, Kingdom of Aragon, ..., Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Galicia, Kingdom of León, Kingdom of Majorca, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of the Suebi, Kingdom of Valencia, Labiodental consonant, Laminal consonant, Language, Languages of Iberia, Late Latin, Lateral consonant, Lisbon, List of Catalan-language poets, List of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, Lobios, Lugo, Lusitanian language, Lyric poetry, Mary, mother of Jesus, Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, Medieval Latin, Middle Ages, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, Noticia de Torto, Occitan language, Official language, Old French, Palatal consonant, Pergaminho Sharrer, Philology, Phonetics, Porto, Portuguese language, Postalveolar consonant, Principality of Catalonia, Reconquista, Reintegrationism, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Saint George, Santiago de Compostela, Secularism, Spanish language, Stop consonant, Suebi, Terras de Bouro, Trill consonant, Velar consonant, Vernacular, Visigoths, Vulgar Latin, West Iberian languages, Western Romance languages. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
A Coruña (is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country. The city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having also served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean. It provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archilochus (Ἀρχίλοχος Arkhilokhos; c. 680c. 645 BC)While these have been the generally accepted dates since Felix Jacoby, "The Date of Archilochus," Classical Quarterly 35 (1941) 97–109, some scholars disagree; Robin Lane Fox, for instance, in Travelling Heroes: Greeks and Their Myths in the Epic Age of Homer (London: Allen Lane, 2008), p. 388, dates him c. 740–680 BC.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Bernal(do) de Bonaval(le), also known as Bernardo (de) Bonaval, was a 13th-century troubadour in the Kingdom of Galicia (in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in parts of modern Portugal and Spain) who wrote in the Galician-Portuguese language.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Braga (Bracara) is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province.
The Buri were a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus, where they initially "close the back" of the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia and Moravia.
The Cancioneiro da Ajuda ("Ajuda Songbook") is a collection of Galician-Portuguese lyric poems probably dating from the last quarter of the 13th century.
The Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional ("The National Library Songbook"), commonly called Colocci-Brancuti, is a compilation of Galician-Portuguese lyrics by both troubadours and jograes (non-noble performers and composers).
The Cancioneiro da Vaticana (Vatican Songbook) is a compilation of troubadour lyrics in Galician-Portuguese.
The Cantiga de amigo or Cantiga d'amigo (Old Galician-Portuguese spelling), literally a "song of a friend", is a genre of medieval lyric poetry, apparently rooted in a song tradition native to the northwest quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Canticles of Holy Mary"),, are 420 poems with musical notation, written in the medieval Galician-Portuguese language during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile ''El Sabio'' (1221–1284) and often attributed to him.
Castro Laboreiro is a village and a former civil parish in the municipality of Melgaço in the Viana do Castelo District, Portugal.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Coco (or Cuco, Coca, Cuca, Cucuy, Cucuí) is a mythical ghost-monster, equivalent to the bogeyman, found in many Latino and Lusophone countries.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for "Body of Christ") is a Catholic liturgical solemnity celebrating the real presence of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, in the Eucharist—known as transubstantiation.
The County of Portugal (Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto, today corresponding to littoral northern Portugal. It is the first state within which the identity of the Portuguese people formed, there the first Portuguese nation state and a predecessor to modern Portugal. The county existed from the mid-ninth to the mid-eleventh centuries as a vassalage of the Kingdom of Asturias and later the Kingdoms of Galicia and León, before being abolished as a result of a rebellion against the king of Galicia. A larger entity under the same name was then reestablished by the king of León in the late 11th century and lasted until the mid-12th century when its count elevated it into an independent Kingdom of Portugal.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
The culture of Portugal is the result of a complex flow of different civilizations during the past millennia.
Denis (9 October 1261 – 7 January 1325 in Santarém), called the Farmer King (Rei Lavrador) and the Poet King (Rei Poeta), was King of Portugal and the Algarve.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
Entrimo is a municipality in Ourense (province) in the Galicia region of north-west Spain.
Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Fala ("Speech", also called Xalimego) is a Romance language commonly classified in the Portuguese-Galician subgroup, with some traits from Leonese, spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of whom 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal.
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Galician-Asturian or Eonavian (official name by Act 1/1998, March 23 of Principality of Asturias; autonym: eonaviego, gallego-asturiano; eonaviegu, gallego-asturianu; eonaviego, galego-asturiano) is a set of Romance dialects or falas whose linguistic dominion extends into the zone of Asturias between the Eo River and Navia River (or more specifically the Eo and the Frejulfe River).
Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.
Gallaecian or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Celtic language, and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages.
Hipponax (Ἱππῶναξ; gen.: Ἱππώνακτος), of Ephesus and later Clazomenae, was an Ancient Greek iambic poet who composed verses depicting the vulgar side of life in Ionian society in the sixth century BC.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The Portuguese language developed in the Western Iberian Peninsula from Latin spoken by Roman soldiers and colonists starting in the 3rd century BC.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Galicia (Reino de Galicia, or Galiza; Reino de Galicia; Reino da Galiza; Galliciense Regnum) was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Majorca (Regne de Mallorca,; Reino de Mallorca; Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of the Suebi (Regnum Suevorum), also called the Kingdom of Gallæcia (Regnum Gallæciae), was a Germanic post-Roman kingdom that was one of the first to separate from the Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Valencia (Regne de València,; Reino de Valencia; Regnum Valentiae), located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
This is a list of poets and writers writing in the Catalan language.
This is a list of the Pre-Roman people of the Iberian peninsula (the Roman Hispania, i. e., modern Portugal, Spain and Andorra).
Lobios is a municipality in Ourense in the Galicia region of north-west Spain.
Lugo is a city in northwestern Spain in the autonomous community of Galicia.
Lusitanian (so named after the Lusitani or Lusitanians) was an Indo-European Paleohispanic language.
Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
The "Notícia de Torto" is a minuta of a notarial document written in the first decades of the 13th century, and though it does not contain any date it has been dated as between 1211 and 1216, the first reigning years of King Afonso II of Portugal.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The Pergaminho Sharrer (Pergamiño Sharrer;, Sharrer Parchment) is the name given to a mediaeval parchment fragment containing seven songs by King Dinis I of Portugal, with lyrics in the Galician-Portuguese language and musical notation.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The Principality of Catalonia (Principat de Catalunya, Principatus Cathaloniæ, Principautat de Catalonha, Principado de Cataluña) was a medieval and early modern political entity or state in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Reintegrationism (Galician and reintegracionismo, or) is the linguistic and cultural movement in Galicia which advocates for the unity of Galician and Portuguese as a single language.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Terras de Bouro is a municipality in the district of Braga in Portugal.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
West Iberian is a branch of the Romance languages that includes Castilian (Spanish and Judaeo-Spanish/Ladino), Astur-Leonese (Asturian, Extremaduran, Leonese, Mirandese and Cantabrian, where cantabrian language is listed in the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.), and the modern descendants of Galician-Portuguese (Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language).
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.
Galaico-Portuguese, Galaico-portugués, Galaico-português, Galego-portugués, Galego-português, Galician Portuguese, Galician-Portuguese language, Medieval Galician, Old Portuguese, Old Portuguese language, Old portuguese, Old portuguese language, Portuguese-Galician, Portuguese-Galician languages.