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Index Gallium

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. [1]

228 relations: Absolute scale, Acid, Adduct, Allotropes of plutonium, Alloy, Alum, Aluminium, Aluminium gallium arsenide, Aluminium hydride, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium oxide, Amalgam (dentistry), Amine, Ammonia, Amphoterism, Antimony, Aqueous solution, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arsenic, Atomic number, Bauxite, Bayer process, Benzene, Beta decay, Biological half-life, Bismuth, Blu-ray, Boron group, By-product, Caesium, Carbocation, Carbometalation, Chalcogen, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chlorine, Chloroquine, Citric acid, Cobalt, Conchoidal fracture, Covalent bond, Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystalline silicon, Cubic crystal system, Czochralski process, Density, Diborane, Diethyl ether, Diffusion, ..., Digallane, Dimer (chemistry), Dimethyl ether, Direct and indirect band gaps, Disproportionation, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dopant, DOTA-TATE, Dust, Edotreotide, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electrolysis, Electron capture, Electronics, Elution, Environmentally friendly, Eutectic system, Flue, Fluorine, Focused ion beam, Fusible alloy, Gadolinium gallium garnet, Galinstan, Gallane, GALLEX, Gallic acid, Gallium antimonide, Gallium arsenide, Gallium maltolate, Gallium nitrate, Gallium nitride, Gallium phosphide, Gallium scan, Gallium trichloride, Gallium(I) oxide, Gallium(II) sulfide, Gallium(III) bromide, Gallium(III) fluoride, Gallium(III) hydroxide, Gallium(III) iodide, Gallium(III) oxide, Gallium(III) sulfide, Gallium-68 generator, Gaul, Germanium, Glass, Grain boundary, Haloalkane, Halogenation, Hemozoin, Hexamethylbenzene, Hydride, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Hydroxide, Hypercalcaemia, Indium, Indium gallium arsenide, Indium gallium nitride, Indium gallium phosphide, Inflammation, Infrared, International Bureau of Weights and Measures, International Temperature Scale of 1990, Iodine, Ion-exchange resin, Isotopes of gallium, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Journal of Chemical Education, Kidney, Laser diode, Latin, Lead, Lewis acids and bases, Light-emitting diode, Liquid metal embrittlement, Liquid metal ion source, Lithium, Malaria, Mars Exploration Rover, Mass number, Medication, Melting point, Mendeleev's predicted elements, Mercury (element), MESFET, Mesitylene, Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy, Metastability, Metastasis, Microwave, Mirror, Molecular beam epitaxy, Multi-junction solar cell, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neuroendocrine tumor, Neutrino, Neutron emission, Niobium, Nitrate, Nitride, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear weapon, Optical spectrometer, Optoelectronics, Orthorhombic crystal system, Osteoclast, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Phenol, Phosphor, Phosphorus, Photovoltaics, Picometre, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plutonium, Plutonium–gallium alloy, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Porcelain, Positron emission, Potassium hydroxide, Practical joke, Properties of water, Proton emission, Pseudomonas, Pun, Radionuclide, Radiopharmaceutical, Radiopharmacology, Red mud, Reducing agent, Relative atomic mass, Room temperature, Rooster, Rubidium, Safety data sheet, SAGE (Soviet–American Gallium Experiment), Salt (chemistry), Sandwich compound, Satellite, Seed crystal, Semiconductor, Silicon, Smelting, Sodium hydroxide, Somatostatin, Spectroscopy, Sphalerite, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Steel, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Sulfuric acid, Supercooling, Synthetic radioisotope, Teeny Ted from Turnip Town, Thallium, Thermal expansion, Thermometer, Thin film, Tin, Triple point, United States Geological Survey, Vapor pressure, Violet (color), Wetting, Zinc, Zinc sulfide, Zone melting, 1,4-Dioxane. Expand index (178 more) »

Absolute scale

An absolute scale is a system of measurement that begins at a minimum, or zero point, and progresses in only one direction.

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.

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Allotropes of plutonium

Plutonium occurs in a variety of allotropes, even at ambient pressure.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.

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Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium gallium arsenide

Aluminium gallium arsenide (also gallium aluminium arsenide) (AlxGa1−xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap.

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Aluminium hydride

Aluminium hydride (also known as alane or alumane) is an inorganic compound with the formula AlH3.

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Aluminium hydroxide

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Amalgam (dentistry)

Dental amalgam is a liquid mercury and metal alloy mixture used in dentistry to fill cavities caused by tooth decay.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.

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Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

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Bayer process

The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of refining bauxite to produce alumina (aluminium oxide).

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format.

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Boron group

The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).

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A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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A carbocation (/karbɔkətaɪː'jɔ̃/) is an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.

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Carbometalation (less often carbometallation) is an organometallic reaction involving the insertion of alkenes and alkynes into a metal-carbon bond.

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The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Conchoidal fracture

Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break or fracture when they do not follow any natural planes of separation.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Crystalline silicon

Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is the crystalline forms of silicon, either multicrystalline silicon (multi-Si) consisting of small crystals, or monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si), a continuous crystal.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Czochralski process

The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B2H6.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula, sometimes abbreviated as (see Pseudoelement symbols).

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Digallane (systematically named digallane(6) and di-μ-hydrido-bis(dihydridogallium)) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written or). It is the dimer of the monomeric compound gallane.

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Dimer (chemistry)

A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.

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Dimethyl ether

Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.

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Direct and indirect band gaps

In semiconductor physics, the band gap of a semiconductor is of two types, a direct band gap or an indirect band gap.

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Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.

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Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.

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DOTA-TATE (Also known as DOTA-octreotate, oxodotreotide and DOTA-(Tyr3)-octreotate/ DOTA-0-Tyr3-Octreotate) is an amino acid peptide, with a covalently bonded DOTA bifunctional chelator.

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Dust are fine particles of matter.

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Edotreotide (USAN, codenamed SMT487, also known as (DOTA0-Phe1-Tyr3)octreotide, or DOTATOC) is a substance which, when bound to various radionuclides, is used in the treatment and diagnosis of certain types of cancer.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.

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Environmentally friendly

Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.

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Eutectic system

A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.

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A flue is a duct, pipe, or opening in a chimney for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, water heater, boiler, or generator to the outdoors.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Focused ion beam

Focused ion beam, also known as FIB, is a technique used particularly in the semiconductor industry, materials science and increasingly in the biological field for site-specific analysis, deposition, and ablation of materials.

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Fusible alloy

A fusible alloy is a metal alloy capable of being easily fused, i.e. easily meltable, at relatively low temperatures.

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Gadolinium gallium garnet

Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group, with good mechanical, thermal, and optical properties.

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Galinstan is a brand-name and a common name for a liquid metal alloy whose composition is part of a family of eutectic alloys mainly consisting of gallium, indium, and tin.

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Gallane, also systematically named trihydridogallium, is an inorganic compound of gallium with the chemical formula (also written as). It is a photosensitive, colourless gas that cannot be concentrated in pure form.

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GALLEX or Gallium Experiment was a radiochemical neutrino detection experiment that ran between 1991 and 1997 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS).

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Gallic acid

Gallic acid (also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants.

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Gallium antimonide

Gallium antimonide (GaSb) is a semiconducting compound of gallium and antimony of the III-V family.

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Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.

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Gallium maltolate

Gallium maltolate is a coordination complex consisting of a trivalent gallium cation coordinated to three maltolate ligands.

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Gallium nitrate

Gallium nitrate (brand name Ganite) is the gallium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Ga(NO3)3.

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Gallium nitride

Gallium nitride is a binary III/V direct bandgap semiconductor commonly used in light-emitting diodes since the 1990s.

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Gallium phosphide

Gallium phosphide, a phosphide of gallium, is a compound semiconductor material with an indirect band gap of 2.26 eV(300K).

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Gallium scan

A gallium scan (also called "gallium imaging") is a type of nuclear medicine test that uses either a gallium-67 (67Ga) or gallium-68 (68Ga) radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of a specific type of tissue, or disease state of tissue.

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Gallium trichloride

Gallium trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula GaCl3.

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Gallium(I) oxide

Gallium(I) oxide or gallium suboxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Ga2O.

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Gallium(II) sulfide

Gallium(II) sulfide, GaS, is a chemical compound of gallium and sulfur.

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Gallium(III) bromide

Gallium(III) bromide (GaBr3) is a chemical compound, and one of four Gallium trihalides.

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Gallium(III) fluoride

Gallium(III) fluoride (GaF3) is a chemical compound.

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Gallium(III) hydroxide

Gallium hydroxide, Ga(OH)3 is formed as a gel following the addition of ammonia to Ga3+ salts.

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Gallium(III) iodide

Gallium(III) iodide is the chemical compound with the formula GaI3.

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Gallium(III) oxide

Gallium(III) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Ga2O3.

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Gallium(III) sulfide

Gallium(III) sulfide, Ga2S3, is a compound of sulfur and gallium, that is a semiconductor that has applications in electronics and photonics.

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Gallium-68 generator

A Germanium-68/Gallium-68 Generator is a device used to extract the positron-emitting isotope 68Ga of gallium from a source of decaying germanium-68.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Grain boundary

A grain boundary is the interface between two grains, or crystallites, in a polycrystalline material.

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The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.

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Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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Haemozoin is a disposal product formed from the digestion of blood by some blood-feeding parasites.

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Hexamethylbenzene, also known as mellitene, is a hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C12H18 and the condensed structural formula C6(CH3)6.

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In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrofluoric acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.

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Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.

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Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.

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Indium gallium arsenide

Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) (alternatively gallium indium arsenide, GaInAs) is a ternary alloy (chemical compound) of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).

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Indium gallium nitride

Indium gallium nitride (InGaN, x1−x) is a semiconductor material made of a mix of gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN).

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Indium gallium phosphide

Indium gallium phosphide (InGaP), also called gallium indium phosphide (GaInP), is a semiconductor composed of indium, gallium and phosphorus.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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International Bureau of Weights and Measures

The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures) is an intergovernmental organization established by the Metre Convention, through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.

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International Temperature Scale of 1990

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Ion-exchange resin

An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.

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Isotopes of gallium

Natural gallium (31Ga) consists of a mixture of two stable isotopes: gallium-69 and gallium-71.

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Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

The Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original (primary) research and review articles covering all areas of modern spectrometry including fundamental theory, practice and analytical applications.

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Journal of Chemical Education

The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Laser diode

A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Liquid metal embrittlement

Liquid metal embrittlement, also known as liquid metal induced embrittlement, is a phenomenon of practical importance, where certain ductile metals experience drastic loss in tensile ductility or undergo brittle fracture when exposed to specific liquid metals.

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Liquid metal ion source

A liquid metal ion source (LMIS) is an ion source which uses metal that is heated to the liquid state and used to form an electrospray to form ions.

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Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Mars Exploration Rover

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.

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Mass number

The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mendeleev's predicted elements

Dmitri Mendeleev published a periodic table of the chemical elements in 1869 based on properties that appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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MESFET stands for metal–semiconductor field-effect transistor.

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Mesitylene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene is a derivative of benzene with three methyl substituents positioned symmetrically around the ring.

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Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy

Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), also known as organometallic vapour phase epitaxy (OMVPE) or metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), is a chemical vapour deposition method used to produce single or polycrystalline thin films.

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In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.

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Molecular beam epitaxy

Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an epitaxy method for thin-film deposition of single crystals.

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Multi-junction solar cell

Multi-junction (MJ) solar cells are solar cells with multiple p–n junctions made of different semiconductor materials.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Neuroendocrine tumor

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems.

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A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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Neutron emission

Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.

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Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.

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Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.

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In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of 3-.

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Nuclear medicine

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Optical spectrometer

An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.

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Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that source, detect and control light, usually considered a sub-field of photonics.

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Orthorhombic crystal system

In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.

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An osteoclast is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

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Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran

Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, also called François Lecoq de Boisbaudran (18 April 1838 – 28 May 1912), was a French chemist known for his discoveries of the chemical elements gallium, samarium and dysprosium.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Photovoltaics (PV) is a term which covers the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry.

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The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Pit (nuclear weapon)

The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.

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Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Plutonium–gallium alloy

Plutonium–gallium alloy (Pu–Ga) is an alloy of plutonium and gallium, used in nuclear weapon pits, the component of a nuclear weapon where the fission chain reaction is started.

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Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Positron emission

Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).

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Potassium hydroxide

Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.

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Practical joke

A practical joke, or prank, is a mischievous trick played on someone, generally causing the victim to experience embarrassment, perplexity, confusion, or discomfort.

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Properties of water

Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.

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Proton emission

Proton emission (also known as proton radioactivity) is a rare type of radioactive decay in which a proton is ejected from a nucleus.

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Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.

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The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Radiopharmaceuticals, or medicinal radiocompounds, are a group of pharmaceutical drugs which have radioactivity.

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Radiopharmacology or medicinal radiochemistry is radiochemistry applied to medicine and thus the pharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals (medicinal radiocompounds, that is, pharmaceutical drugs that are radioactive).

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Red mud

Red mud is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of alumina (aluminium oxide, the principal raw material used in the manufacture of aluminium metal and also widely used in the manufacture of ceramics, abrasives and refractories).

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Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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A rooster, also known as a gamecock, a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, usually a male chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

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Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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Safety data sheet

A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures.

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SAGE (Soviet–American Gallium Experiment)

SAGE (Soviet–American Gallium Experiment, or sometimes Russian-American Gallium Experiment) is a collaborative experiment devised by several prominent physicists to measure the solar neutrino flux.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sandwich compound

In organometallic chemistry, a sandwich compound is a chemical compound featuring a metal bound by haptic covalent bonds to two arene ligands.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Seed crystal

A seed crystal is a small piece of single crystal or polycrystal material from which a large crystal of typically the same material is to be grown in a laboratory.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.

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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a neutrino observatory located 2100 m underground in Vale's Creighton Mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.

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Synthetic radioisotope

A synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time.

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Teeny Ted from Turnip Town

Teeny Ted from Turnip Town (2007), published by Robert Chaplin, is certified by Guinness World Records as the world's smallest reproduction of a printed book.

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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.

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Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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Thin film

A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.

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Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

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Violet (color)

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.

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Wetting is the ability of a liquid to maintain contact with a solid surface, resulting from intermolecular interactions when the two are brought together.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zinc sulfide

Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.

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Zone melting

Zone melting (or zone refining or floating zone process or travelling melting zone) is a group of similar methods of purifying crystals, in which a narrow region of a crystal is melted, and this molten zone is moved along the crystal.

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1,4-Dioxane is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether.

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Element 31, Ga (element), Gallium salt.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallium

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