289 relations: A Beautiful Mind (book), A Beautiful Mind (film), Abstract algebra, Addison-Wesley, Agent (economics), Agent-based computational economics, Algorithm, Algorithmic game theory, Algorithmic mechanism design, Allan Gibbard, Alpha–beta pruning, Altruism (biology), Alvin E. Roth, An Economic Theory of Democracy, Analysis of algorithms, Animal communication, Anthony Downs, Antoine Augustin Cournot, Applied mathematics, Artificial intelligence, Artificial neural network, Auction, Automated planning and scheduling, Axiom of choice, Émile Borel, Backgammon, Backward induction, Bargaining, Bargaining problem, Behavioral economics, Behavioral game theory, Best response, Biographical film, Biology, Black swan theory, Bounded rationality, Boyan Jovanovic, Brian Skyrms, Brouwer fixed-point theorem, Butterfly Economics, Cambridge University Press, Carl Shapiro, Centipede game, Chainstore paradox, Charles Darwin, Charles Plott, Cheap talk, Chess, Chicken (game), Colin Camerer, ..., Collective intentionality, Combinatorial game theory, Combinatorics, Common knowledge (logic), Complete information, Complex system, Computational complexity theory, Computer science, Confrontation analysis, Continuous game, Contract, Contract bridge, Convention (norm), Convex set, Cooperative game theory, Coordination game, Core (game theory), Correlated equilibrium, Cournot competition, Crafoord Prize, Cristina Bicchieri, Cuban Missile Crisis, David Lewis (philosopher), David M. Kreps, Decision theory, Decision tree, Democratic peace theory, Descriptive set theory, Deterrence theory, Dictator game, Differential equation, Differential game, Dover Publications, Dr. Strangelove, Draughts, Drew Fudenberg, Duopoly, Economic equilibrium, Economic model, Economics, Electoral system, Epistemology, Eric Maskin, Ernst Zermelo, Ethics, Evolution, Evolution and the Theory of Games, Evolutionarily stable strategy, Evolutionary game theory, Expected value, Experimental economics, Extensive-form game, Fair division, Faruk Gül, Fictitious play, Fitness (biology), Frederik Zeuthen, Gains from trade, Game complexity, Game semantics, Game studies, General equilibrium theory, George Loewenstein, George R. Price, Glossary of game theory, Go (game), Gold standard, Graph (discrete mathematics), Guess 2/3 of the average, Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation, Harvard University Press, Hex (board game), Hotelling's law, Idealization (science philosophy), Incentive compatibility, Industrial organization, Infinite chess, Information economics, INSEAD, Interactive computation, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Intra-household bargaining, James Madison, James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave, Jörg Bewersdorff, Jean Tirole, John Forbes Nash Jr., John Harsanyi, John Maynard Smith, John von Neumann, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Halpern, Journal of Economic Literature, K-server problem, Kenneth Arrow, Kin selection, Kingmaker scenario, Law and economics, Le Her, Leigh Tesfatsion, Leonard Jimmie Savage, Leonid Hurwicz, Liar Game, List of cognitive biases, List of emerging technologies, List of games in game theory, Lloyd Shapley, Logic, Manga, Markov decision process, Martin Shubik, Massachusetts, Matching pennies, Mathematical economics, Mathematical model, Mathematische Annalen, Matrix (mathematics), Matthew Rabin, McGraw-Hill Education, Mean field game theory, Meaning (semiotics), Mechanism design, Melvin Dresher, Mergers and acquisitions, Merrill M. Flood, Metagame analysis, Metagaming, Military science fiction, Minimax, MIT Press, Mobbing (animal behavior), Move by nature, Multi-agent system, Nash equilibrium, Natural history, Natural selection, Noam Nisan, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Non-cooperative game theory, Non-credible threat, Normal-form game, Nuclear strategy, Oligopoly, Online algorithm, Operations research, Optimal control, Oskar Morgenstern, Outcome (game theory), Outline of artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, Parrondo's paradox, Paul Ormerod, Perfect information, Peter E. Caines, Philosophy, Philosophy and economics, Physicist, Physics, Pierre-Louis Lions, Plato, Player (game), Poker, Political economy, Political philosophy, Political science, Pontryagin's maximum principle, Population, Positive political theory, Princeton University Press, Prisoner's dilemma, Probability, Probability distribution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proper equilibrium, Psychology, Public choice, Pursuit-evasion, Quantum game theory, Quantum refereed game, RAND Corporation, Randomized algorithm, Rationality, Reinforcement learning, Reinhard Selten, Repeated game, Robert A. Heinlein, Robert Aumann, Robert Stalnaker, Robert W. Rosenthal, Roger Myerson, Ronald Fisher, Russell Crowe, Self-confirming equilibrium, Self-enforcing agreement, Sequential game, Sergiu Hart, Set theory, Sex ratio, Shapley value, Signaling game, Simultaneous game, Social choice theory, Social contract, Social network, Social norm, Solution concept, Solved game, Stag hunt, Starship Troopers, Stochastic game, Strategy (game theory), Strategy game, Strategy-stealing argument, Strictly determined game, Subgame perfect equilibrium, Surreal number, Sylvia Nasar, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Schelling, Tic-tac-toe, Time horizon, Tragedy of the commons, Tree (graph theory), Trembling hand perfect equilibrium, Ultimatum game, Umbrella term, Upper and lower bounds, Utility, Vernon L. Smith, Vervet monkey, W. W. Norton & Company, Waldegrave problem, War's inefficiency puzzle, Yao's principle, Zermelo's theorem (game theory), Zero-sum game. Expand index (239 more) » « Shrink index
A Beautiful Mind (1998) is a biography of Nobel Prize-winning economist and mathematician John Forbes Nash, Jr. by Sylvia Nasar, professor of journalism at Columbia University.
A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 American biographical drama film based on the life of John Nash, a Nobel Laureate in Economics.
In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.
Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
In economics, an agent is an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.
Agent-based computational economics (ACE) is the area of computational economics that studies economic processes, including whole economies, as dynamic systems of interacting agents.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Algorithmic game theory is an area in the intersection of game theory and computer science, whose objective is to understand and design algorithms in strategic environments.
Algorithmic mechanism design (AMD) lies at the intersection of economic game theory and computer science.
Allan Gibbard (born 1942) is the Richard B. Brandt Distinguished University Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Alpha–beta pruning is a search algorithm that seeks to decrease the number of nodes that are evaluated by the minimax algorithm in its search tree.
In biology, altruism refers to behaviour by an individual that increases the fitness of another individual while decreasing the fitness of the actor.
Alvin Elliot Roth (born December 18, 1951) is an American academic.
An Economic Theory of Democracy is a political science treatise written by Anthony Downs, published in 1957.
In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the determination of the computational complexity of algorithms, that is the amount of time, storage and/or other resources necessary to execute them.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Anthony Downs (born November 21, 1930) is an American economist specializing in public policy and public administration.
Antoine Augustin Cournot (28 August 180131 March 1877) was a French philosopher and mathematician who also contributed to the development of economics theory.
Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.
An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder.
Automated planning and scheduling, sometimes denoted as simply AI Planning, is a branch of artificial intelligence that concerns the realization of strategies or action sequences, typically for execution by intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles.
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that the Cartesian product of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty.
Félix Édouard Justin Émile Borel (7 January 1871 – 3 February 1956) was a French mathematician and politician.
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games.
Backward induction is the process of reasoning backwards in time, from the end of a problem or situation, to determine a sequence of optimal actions.
Bargaining or haggling is a type of negotiation in which the buyer and seller of a good or service debate the price and exact nature of a transaction.
The two-person bargaining problem studies how two agents share a surplus that they can jointly generate.
Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.
Behavioral game theory analyzes interactive strategic decisions and behavior using the methods of game theory, experimental economics, and experimental psychology.
In game theory, the best response is the strategy (or strategies) which produces the most favorable outcome for a player, taking other players' strategies as given. The concept of a best response is central to John Nash's best-known contribution, the Nash equilibrium, the point at which each player in a game has selected the best response (or one of the best responses) to the other players' strategies.
A biographical film, or biopic (abbreviation for biographical motion picture), is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalized after the fact with the benefit of hindsight.
Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.
Boyan Jovanovic is a professor of economics at New York University.
Brian Skyrms (born 1938) is a Distinguished Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science and Economics at the University of California, Irvine and a Professor of Philosophy at Stanford University.
Brouwer's fixed-point theorem is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named after L. E. J. (Bertus) Brouwer.
Butterfly Economics: A New General Theory of Social and Economic Behavior is a book by Paul Ormerod dealing with economic theory, published in 1999.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carl Shapiro (born 20 March 1955) is the Transamerica Professor of Business Strategy at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley.
In game theory, the centipede game, first introduced by Robert Rosenthal in 1981, is an extensive form game in which two players take turns choosing either to take a slightly larger share of an increasing pot, or to pass the pot to the other player.
The chainstore paradox (or "chain-store paradox") is a concept that purports to refute standard game theory reasoning.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Raymond Plott (born July 8, 1938) is an American economist.
In game theory, cheap talk is communication between players that does not directly affect the payoffs of the game.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The game of chicken, also known as the hawk–dove game or snowdrift game, is a model of conflict for two players in game theory.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Colin Farrell Camerer (born December 4, 1959) is an American Behavioral Financier and a Robert Kirby Professor of Behavioral Finance and Economics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
In the philosophy of mind, collective intentionality characterizes the intentionality that occurs when two or more individuals undertake a task together.
Combinatorial game theory (CGT) is a branch of mathematics and theoretical computer science that typically studies sequential games with perfect information.
Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.
Common knowledge is a special kind of knowledge for a group of agents.
In economics and game theory, complete information is an economic situation or game in which knowledge about other market participants or players is available to all participants.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
Computational complexity theory is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Confrontation analysis (also known as dilemma analysis) is an operational analysis technique used to structure, understand and think through multi-party interactions such as negotiations.
A continuous game is a mathematical generalization, used in game theory.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
In convex geometry, a convex set is a subset of an affine space that is closed under convex combinations.
In game theory, a cooperative game (or coalitional game) is a game with competition between groups of players ("coalitions") due to the possibility of external enforcement of cooperative behavior (e.g. through contract law).
In game theory, coordination games are a class of games with multiple pure strategy Nash equilibria in which players choose the same or corresponding strategies.
In game theory, the core is the set of feasible allocations that cannot be improved upon by a subset (a coalition) of the economy's agents.
In game theory, a correlated equilibrium is a solution concept that is more general than the well known Nash equilibrium.
Cournot competition is an economic model used to describe an industry structure in which companies compete on the amount of output they will produce, which they decide on independently of each other and at the same time.
The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord.
Cristina Bicchieri (born 1950) is an Italian–American philosopher.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
David Kellogg Lewis (September 28, 1941 – October 14, 2001) was an American philosopher.
David Marc "Dave" Kreps (born 1950 in New York) is a game theorist and economist and professor at the Graduate School of Business at Stanford University.
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.
A decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs, and utility.
Democratic peace theory is a theory which posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies.
In mathematical logic, descriptive set theory (DST) is the study of certain classes of "well-behaved" subsets of the real line and other Polish spaces.
Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
The dictator game is a popular experimental instrument in psychology and economics, a derivative of the ultimatum game.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
In game theory, differential games are a group of problems related to the modeling and analysis of conflict in the context of a dynamical system.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Draughts (British English) or checkers (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces.
Drew Fudenberg (born March 2, 1957 in New York City) is the Paul A. Samuelson Professor of Economics at MIT.
A duopoly (from Greek δύο, duo (two) + πωλεῖν, polein (to sell)) is a form of oligopoly where only two sellers exist in one market.
In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.
In economics, a model is a theoretical construct representing economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and/or quantitative relationships between them.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
An electoral system is a set of rules that determines how elections and referendums are conducted and how their results are determined.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Eric Stark Maskin (born December 12, 1950) is an American economist and 2007 Nobel laureate recognized with Leonid Hurwicz and Roger Myerson "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory".
Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo (27 July 1871 – 21 May 1953) was a German logician and mathematician, whose work has major implications for the foundations of mathematics.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolution and the Theory of Games is a book by the British evolutionary biologist John Maynard Smith on evolutionary game theory.
An evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a strategy which, if adopted by a population in a given environment, cannot be invaded by any alternative strategy that is initially rare.
Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is the application of game theory to evolving populations in biology.
In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.
Experimental economics is the application of experimental methods to study economic questions.
An extensive-form game is a specification of a game in game theory, allowing (as the name suggests) for the explicit representation of a number of key aspects, like the sequencing of players' possible moves, their choices at every decision point, the (possibly imperfect) information each player has about the other player's moves when they make a decision, and their payoffs for all possible game outcomes.
Fair division is the problem of dividing a set of goods or resources between several people who have an entitlement to them, such that each person receives his/her due share.
Faruk R. Gül is a Turkish American economist, a professor of economics at Princeton University and a Fellow of the Econometric Society.
In game theory, fictitious play is a learning rule first introduced by George W. Brown.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
Frederik Ludvig Bang Zeuthen (9 September 1888 – 24 February 1959) was a Danish economist.
In economics, gains from trade are the net benefits to economic agents from being allowed an increase in voluntary trading with each other.
Combinatorial game theory has several ways of measuring game complexity.
Game semantics (dialogische Logik, translated as dialogical logic) is an approach to formal semantics that grounds the concepts of truth or validity on game-theoretic concepts, such as the existence of a winning strategy for a player, somewhat resembling Socratic dialogues or medieval theory of Obligationes.
Game studies, or ludology, is the study of games, the act of playing them, and the players and cultures surrounding them.
In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium.
George Freud Loewenstein (born August 9, 1955) is an American educator and economist.
George Robert Price (October 6, 1922 – January 6, 1975) was an American population geneticist.
Game theory is the branch of mathematics in which games are studied: that is, models describing human behaviour.
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.
A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a graph is a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense "related".
In game theory, "guess of the average" is a game where several people guess what of the average of their guesses will be, and where the numbers are restricted to the real numbers between 0 and 100, inclusive.
The Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation is a partial differential equation which is central to optimal control theory.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hex is a strategy board game for two players played on a hexagonal grid, theoretically of any size and several possible shapes, but traditionally as an 11×11 rhombus.
Hotelling's law is an observation in economics that in many markets it is rational for producers to make their products as similar as possible.
Idealization is the process by which scientific models assume facts about the phenomenon being modeled that are strictly false but make models easier to understand or solve.
A mechanism is called incentive-compatible (IC) if every participant can achieve the best outcome to him/herself just by acting according to his/her true preferences.
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.
Infinite chess is any of several variations of the game chess played on an unbounded chessboard.
Information economics or the economics of information is a branch of microeconomic theory that studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions.
INSEAD is a graduate and proprofit business school with campuses in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), and the Middle East (Abu Dhabi).
In computer science, interactive computation is a mathematical model for computation that involves input/output communication with the external world during computation.
The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.
Intra-household bargaining refers to negotiations that occur between members of a household in order to arrive at decisions regarding the household unit, like whether to spend or save, whether to study or work.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave, (1684 – 11 April 1741) was a British diplomat who served as ambassador to Austria and France.
Jörg Bewersdorff (born 1 February 1958 in Neuwied) is a German mathematician who is working as mathematics writer and game designer.
Jean Tirole (born 9 August 1953) is a French professor of economics.
John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.
John Charles Harsanyi (Harsányi János Károly; May 29, 1920 – August 9, 2000) was a Hungarian-American economist.
John Maynard Smith (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph Yehuda Halpern (born 1953) is a professor of computer science at Cornell University.
The Journal of Economic Literature is a peer-reviewed academic journal, published by the American Economic Association, that surveys the academic literature in economics.
The k-server problem is a problem of theoretical computer science in the category of online algorithms, one of two abstract problems on metric spaces that are central to the theory of competitive analysis (the other being metrical task systems).
Kenneth Joseph "Ken" Arrow (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist.
Kin selection is the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives, even at a cost to the organism's own survival and reproduction.
In game theory, a kingmaker scenario in a game of three or more players, is an endgame situation where a player who is unable to win has the capacity to determine which player among others will.
Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.
Le Her (or le Hère) is a French card game that dates back to the 16th century.
Leigh Tesfatsion is a computational economist who taught at Iowa State University.
Leonard Jimmie Savage (born Leonard Ogashevitz; 20 November 1917 – 1 November 1971) was an American mathematician and statistician.
Leonid "Leo" Hurwicz (August 21, 1917 – June 24, 2008) was a Polish American economist and mathematician.
is a Japanese manga series originally written and illustrated by Shinobu Kaitani.
Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.
Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage.
Game theory studies strategic interaction between individuals in situations called games.
Lloyd Stowell Shapley (June 2, 1923 – March 12, 2016) was an American mathematician and Nobel Prize-winning economist.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
Markov decision processes (MDPs) provide a mathematical framework for modeling decision making in situations where outcomes are partly random and partly under the control of a decision maker.
Martin Shubik (born March 24, 1926) is an American economist, who is Professor Emeritus of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Matching pennies is the name for a simple game used in game theory.
Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical methods to represent theories and analyze problems in economics.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Mathematische Annalen (abbreviated as Math. Ann. or, formerly, Math. Annal.) is a German mathematical research journal founded in 1868 by Alfred Clebsch and Carl Neumann.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Matthew Joel Rabin (born December 27, 1963) is the Pershing Square Professor of Behavioral Economics in the Harvard Economics Department and Harvard Business School.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Mean field game theory is the study of strategic decision making in very large populations of small interacting agents.
In semiotics, the meaning of a sign is its place in a sign relation, in other words, the set of roles that it occupies within a given sign relation.
Mechanism design is a field in economics and game theory that takes an engineering approach to designing economic mechanisms or incentives, toward desired objectives, in strategic settings, where players act rationally.
Melvin Dresher (Dreszer) (March 13, 1911 – June 4, 1992) was a Polish-born American mathematician, notable for developing, with Merrill Flood, the game theoretical model of cooperation and conflict known as the Prisoner's dilemma while at RAND in 1950 (Albert W. Tucker gave the game its prison-sentence interpretation, and thus the name by which it is known today).
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Merrill Meeks Flood (1908 – 1991) was an American mathematician, notable for developing, with Melvin Dresher, the basis of the game theoretical Prisoner's dilemma model of cooperation and conflict while being at RAND in 1950 (Albert W. Tucker gave the game its prison-sentence interpretation, and thus the name by which it is known today).
Metagame analysis involves framing a problem situation as a strategic game in which participants try to realise their objectives by means of the options available to them.
Metagaming is any strategy, action or method used in a game which transcends a prescribed ruleset, uses external factors to affect the game, or goes beyond the supposed limits or environment set by the game.
Military science fiction is a subgenre of science fiction that features the use of science fiction technology, mainly weapons, for military purposes and usually principal characters that are members of a military organization involved in military activity; occurring sometimes in outer space or on a different planet or planets.
Minimax (sometimes MinMax or MM) is a decision rule used in decision theory, game theory, statistics and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case (maximum loss) scenario.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Mobbing in animals is an antipredator adaptation in which individuals of prey species mob a predator by cooperatively attacking or harassing it, usually to protect their offspring.
In game theory a move by nature is a decision or move in an extensive form game made by a player who has no strategic interests in the outcome.
A multi-agent system (MAS or "self-organized system") is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents.
In game theory, the Nash equilibrium, named after American mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr., is a solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two or more players in which each player is assumed to know the equilibrium strategies of the other players, and no player has anything to gain by changing only their own strategy.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Noam Nisan (נעם ניסן; born June 20, 1961) is an Israeli computer scientist, a professor of computer science at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
In game theory, a non-cooperative game is a game with competition between individual players and in which only self-enforcing (e.g. through credible threats) alliances (or competition between groups of players, called "coalitions") are possible due to the absence of external means to enforce cooperative behavior (e.g. contract law), as opposed to cooperative games.
A non-credible threat is a term used in game theory and economics to describe a threat in a sequential game that a rational player would actually not carry out, because it would not be in his best interest to do so.
In game theory, normal form is a description of a game.
Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons.
An oligopoly (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos) "few" + πωλεῖν (polein) "to sell") is a market form wherein a market or industry is dominated by a small number of large sellers (oligopolists).
In computer science, an online algorithm is one that can process its input piece-by-piece in a serial fashion, i.e., in the order that the input is fed to the algorithm, without having the entire input available from the start.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
Optimal control theory deals with the problem of finding a control law for a given system such that a certain optimality criterion is achieved.
Oskar Morgenstern (January 24, 1902 – July 26, 1977) was a German-born economist.
In game theory, an outcome is a situation which results from a combination of player's strategies.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence (AI) – intelligence exhibited by machines or software.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Parrondo's paradox, a paradox in game theory, has been described as: A combination of losing strategies becomes a winning strategy.
Paul Andrew Ormerod (born 20 March 1950) is a British economist who is a partner at Volterra Partners consultancy.
In economics, perfect information is a feature of perfect competition.
Peter Edwin Caines, FRSC is a control theorist and James McGill Professor and Macdonald Chair in Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, which he joined in 1980.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy and economics, also philosophy of economics, studies topics such as rational choice, the appraisal of economic outcomes, institutions and processes, and the ontology of economic phenomena and the possibilities of acquiring knowledge of them.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre-Louis Lions (born 11 August 1956) is a French mathematician.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
A player of a game is a participant therein.
Poker is a family of card games that combines gambling, strategy, and skill.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Pontryagin's maximum (or minimum) principle is used in optimal control theory to find the best possible control for taking a dynamical system from one state to another, especially in the presence of constraints for the state or input controls.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Positive political theory or explanatory political theory is the study of politics using formal methods such as social choice theory, game theory, and statistical analysis.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The prisoner's dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely rational individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so.
Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.
In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proper equilibrium is a refinement of Nash Equilibrium due to Roger B. Myerson.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public choice or public choice theory is "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science".
Pursuit-evasion (variants of which are referred to as cops and robbers and graph searching) is a family of problems in mathematics and computer science in which one group attempts to track down members of another group in an environment.
Quantum game theory is an extension of classical game theory to the quantum domain.
Quantum refereed game in quantum information processing is a class of games in the general theory of quantum games.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
A randomized algorithm is an algorithm that employs a degree of randomness as part of its logic.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning inspired by behaviourist psychology, concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward.
Reinhard Justus Reginald Selten (5 October 1930 – 23 August 2016) was a German economist, who won the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with John Harsanyi and John Nash).
In game theory, a repeated game is an extensive form game that consists of a number of repetitions of some base game (called a stage game).
Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.
Robert John Aumann (Hebrew name: ישראל אומן, Yisrael Aumann; born June 8, 1930) is an Israeli-American mathematician and a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.
Robert C. Stalnaker (born 1940) is an American philosopher, who is Laurence S. Rockefeller Professor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Robert W. Rosenthal (1945 – February 7, 2002) was an American economist, most known for his contributions to game theory.
Roger Bruce Myerson (born 1951) is an American economist and professor at the University of Chicago.
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.
Russell Ira Crowe (born 7 April 1964) is an actor, film producer and musician.
In game theory, self-confirming equilibrium is a generalization of Nash equilibrium for extensive form games, in which players correctly predict the moves their opponents make, but may have misconceptions about what their opponents would do at information sets that are never reached when the equilibrium is played.
A self-enforcing agreement is an agreement or contract between two parties that is enforced only by those two parties; a third party cannot enforce or interfere with the agreement.
In game theory, a sequential game is a game where one player chooses their action before the others choose theirs.
Sergiu Hart (born 1949) is an Israeli mathematician and economist and the past President of the Game Theory Society (2008–2010).
Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
The Shapley value is a solution concept in cooperative game theory.
In game theory, a signaling game is a simple type of a dynamic Bayesian game.
In game theory, a simultaneous game is a game where each player chooses his action without knowledge of the actions chosen by other players.
Social choice theory or social choice is a theoretical framework for analysis of combining individual opinions, preferences, interests, or welfares to reach a collective decision or social welfare in some sense.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
In game theory, a solution concept is a formal rule for predicting how a game will be played.
A solved game is a game whose outcome (win, lose or draw) can be correctly predicted from any position, assuming that both players play perfectly.
In game theory, the stag hunt is a game that describes a conflict between safety and social cooperation.
Starship Troopers is a military science fiction novel by U.S. writer Robert A. Heinlein.
In game theory, a stochastic game, introduced by Lloyd Shapley in the early 1950s, is a dynamic game with probabilistic transitions played by one or more players.
In game theory, a player's strategy is any of the options he or she can choose in a setting where the outcome depends not only on his own actions but on the action of others.
A strategy game or strategic game is a game (e.g. video or board game) in which the players' uncoerced, and often autonomous decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome.
In combinatorial game theory, the strategy-stealing argument is a general argument that shows, for many two-player games, that the second player cannot have a guaranteed winning strategy.
In game theory, a strictly determined game is a two-player zero-sum game that has at least one Nash equilibrium with both players using pure strategies.
In game theory, a subgame perfect equilibrium (or subgame perfect Nash equilibrium) is a refinement of a Nash equilibrium used in dynamic games.
In mathematics, the surreal number system is a totally ordered proper class containing the real numbers as well as infinite and infinitesimal numbers, respectively larger or smaller in absolute value than any positive real number.
Sylvia Nasar (born 17 August 1947) is a Uzbek German-born American journalist, best known for her biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr., A Beautiful Mind.
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher which combines Mendelian genetics with Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection, with Fisher being the first to argue that "Mendelism therefore validates Darwinism" and stating with regard to mutations that "The vast majority of large mutations are deleterious; small mutations are both far more frequent and more likely to be useful", thus refuting orthogenesis.
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.
Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, published in 1944 by Princeton University Press, is a book by mathematician John von Neumann and economist Oskar Morgenstern which is considered the groundbreaking text that created the interdisciplinary research field of game theory.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Crombie Schelling (April 14, 1921 – December 13, 2016) was an American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland, College Park.
Tic-tac-toe (also known as noughts and crosses or Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid.
A time horizon, also known as a planning horizon, is a fixed point of time in the future at which point certain processes will be evaluated or assumed to end.
The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one path.
In game theory, trembling hand perfect equilibrium is a refinement of Nash equilibrium due to Reinhard Selten.
The ultimatum game is a game that has become a popular instrument of economic experiments.
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
In mathematics, especially in order theory, an upper bound of a subset S of some partially ordered set (K, ≤) is an element of K which is greater than or equal to every element of S. The term lower bound is defined dually as an element of K which is less than or equal to every element of S. A set with an upper bound is said to be bounded from above by that bound, a set with a lower bound is said to be bounded from below by that bound.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
Vernon Lomax Smith (born January 1, 1927) is an American professor of economics and law at Chapman University's Argyros School of Business and Economics and School of Law in Orange, California, a former professor of economics and law at George Mason University, and a board member of the Mercatus Center in Arlington, Virginia.
The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), or simply vervet, is an Old World monkey of the family Cercopithecidae native to Africa.
In probability and game theory, the Waldegrave problem refers to a problem first described in the second edition of Montmort`s Essay d'analyse sur les jeux de hazard.
War's inefficiency puzzle is a research question asking why unitary-actor states would choose to fight wars when doing so is costly.
In computational complexity theory, Yao's principle or Yao's minimax principle states that the expected cost of a randomized algorithm on the worst case input, is no better than a worst-case random probability distribution of the deterministic algorithm which performs best for that distribution.
In game theory, Zermelo’s theorem, named after Ernst Zermelo, says that in any finite two-person game of perfect information in which the players move alternatingly and in which chance does not affect the decision making process, if the game cannot end in a draw, then one of the two players must have a winning strategy (i.e. force a win).
In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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