147 relations: AKR7A2, Alcohol (drug), Allosteric modulator, Alpha cell, Amentoflavone, Amino acid, Anterograde amnesia, Apoplast, Asthma, Autocrine signalling, Autoimmune disease, Baclofen, Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Beta cell, Bicuculline, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Carboxylic acid, Carisoprodol, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Cellular differentiation, Central nervous system, Chandelier cell, Chemical synapse, Chloral hydrate, Chloride, Cicutoxin, Citric acid cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Conformational isomerism, Deramciclane, Development of the nervous system, Diabetes mellitus, Dietary supplement, Electrical resistance and conductance, Embryonic stem cell, Enteric nervous system, Enzyme, Epithelium, Etaqualone, Ethanol, Etomidate, Flumazenil, Furosemide, G protein, G protein–coupled receptor, GABA analogue, ..., GABA receptor, GABA reuptake inhibitor, GABA tea, GABA transaminase, GABAA receptor, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, GABAB receptor, Gabaculine, Gabapentin, Gabazine, Gamma-Butyrolactone, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Ganglionic eminence, Giant depolarizing potential, Gland, Glucagon, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate-glutamine cycle, Glutamic acid, Glutethimide, Grammatical modifier, Growth hormone, Hyperforin, Hyperpolarization (biology), Immune system, Infant, Inflammation, Inhalational anaesthetic, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Insect, Insulin, Ion channel, Kava, Lemon balm, Ligand-gated ion channel, Mammal, Medium spiny neuron, Melatonin, Membrane potential, Metabotropic receptor, Methaqualone, Muscimol, Muscle, Muscle tone, N-Acetylserotonin, Nerve, Nervous system, Neural stem cell, Neurite, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuropathology, Neurosteroid, Neurotransmitter, Oenanthotoxin, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Paracrine signalling, Periventricular nucleus, Phaclofen, Phenelzine, Phenibut, Picamilon, Picrotoxin, Potassium, Pregabalin, Progabide, Progenitor cell, Propofol, Protein, Pyridoxal phosphate, Quantum chemistry, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Retrograde amnesia, Ro15-4513, Saclofen, Scutellaria lateriflora, Shunting inhibition, Solvation, Spastic diplegia, Spasticity, Succinic acid, Succinic semialdehyde, Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, Testicle, Theanine, Thujone, Tiagabine, Valerian (herb), Valproate, Vertebrate, Vigabatrin, Vitamin B6, Z-drug, Zwitterion, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase. Expand index (97 more) » « Shrink index
Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase member 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR7A2 gene.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, an allosteric modulator (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is a substance which indirectly influences (modulates) the effects of a primary ligand that directly activates or deactivates the function of a target protein.
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid (bis-apigenin coupled at 8 and 3' positions, or 3′,8′′-biapigenin) constituent of a number of plants including Ginkgo biloba, Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki), Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort) and Xerophyta plicata.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
Inside a plant, the apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane within which material can diffuse freely.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Bicuculline is a phthalide-isoquinoline compound that is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carisoprodol, marketed under the brand name Soma among others, is a prescription drug marketed since 1959.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chandelier neurons or chandelier cells are a subset of GABA-ergic cortical interneurons.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Cicutoxin is a poisonous polyyne and alcohol found in various plants, such as the highly toxic water hemlock (Cicuta species).
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
Deramciclane (EGIS-3886) is a non-benzodiazepine-type anxiolytic drug to treat various types of anxiety disorders.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone) is a quinazolinone-class GABAergic and is an analogue of methaqualone that was developed in the 1960s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Etomidate (USAN, INN, BAN) (marketed as Amidate) is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints, tracheal intubation, and cardioversion.
Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal.
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
A GABA analogue is a compound which is an analogue or derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) (the IUPAC of which is 4-aminobutanoic acid).
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
GABA tea (other names: Gabaron, Jia Wu Long cha, Jing Bai Long cha, 佳叶龙茶) is tea that has undergone a special oxygen-free fermentation process, and as a result has accumulated GABA in tea leaves.
A GABA transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes two reactions.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
In pharmacology, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators are positive allosteric modulator (PAM) molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Gabaculine is a naturally occurring neurotoxin first isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces toyacaensis, which acts as a potent and irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, and also a GABA reuptake inhibitor.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gabazine (SR-95531) is a drug that acts as an antagonist at GABAA receptors.
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration.
A giant depolarizing potential (GDP) is a type of patterned spontaneous activity that can be observed in preparations of developing brain at early stages of development.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2.
In biochemistry, the glutamate-glutamine cycle is a sequence of events by which an adequate supply of the neurotransmitter glutamate is maintained in the central nervous system.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced by Ciba in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia.
In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort).
Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
An inhalational anaesthetic is a chemical compound possessing general anaesthetic properties that can be delivered via inhalation.
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), balm, common balm, or balm mint, is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.
Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude" in the United States and Mandrax in the United Kingdom and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
N-Acetylserotonin (NAS), also known as normelatonin, is a naturally occurring chemical precursor and intermediate in the endogenous production of melatonin from serotonin.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing, multipotent cells that generate the neurons and glia of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development.
A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Oenanthotoxin is a toxin extracted from hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) and other plants of the genus Oenanthe.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior of those cells.
The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure of the hypothalamus.
Phaclofen, or phosphonobaclofen, is a selective antagonist for the GABAB receptor.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and sedative effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.
Picamilon (also known as N-nicotinoyl-GABA, pycamilon, and pikamilon) is a drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin and GABA.
Picrotoxin, also known as cocculin, is a poisonous crystalline plant compound.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Progabide (INN) (trade name Gabrene, Sanofi-Aventis) is an analogue and prodrug of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) used in the treatment of epilepsy.
A progenitor cell is a biological cell that, like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell and is pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.
Ro15-4513 is a weak partial inverse agonist of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, developed by Hoffmann–La Roche in the 1980s.
Saclofen is a competitive antagonist for the GABAB receptor.
Scutellaria lateriflora, known commonly as blue skullcap, mad dog skullcap, NatureServe.
Shunting inhibition, also known as divisive inhibition, is a form of postsynaptic potential inhibition that can be represented mathematically as reducing the excitatory potential by division, rather than linear subtraction.
Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.
Spastic diplegia, historically known as Little's Disease, is a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that is a chronic neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity—manifested as an especially high and constant "tightness" or "stiffness"—in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.
Succinic semialdehyde (SSA) is a GABA metabolite.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the degradation pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Z-drugs are a group of nonbenzodiazepine drugs with effects similar to benzodiazepines, which are used in the treatment of trouble sleeping, and most of whose names start with the letter "Z".
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
In enzymology, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, also called GABA transaminase or 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-aminobutanoate (GABA) and 2-oxoglutarate.
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