148 relations: Absorbed dose, Acute radiation syndrome, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Annihilation, Astrophysics, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Autoclave, Bacteria, Beta decay, Beta particle, Black hole, Bleeding, Bone scintigraphy, Boson, Bremsstrahlung, Cancer, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Chemist, Compton scattering, Concrete, Container Security Initiative, Cosmic ray, Cross section (physics), Decay product, Depleted uranium, Determinism, Edward Andrade, Electric charge, Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron–positron annihilation, Electronvolt, Energy, Equivalent dose, Ernest Rutherford, Excited state, Exponential decay, Extragalactic background light, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Fludeoxyglucose (18F), Fluorescence, Fluoroscopy, Franck–Condon principle, Gamma camera, ..., Gamma ray, Gamma spectroscopy, Gamma-ray astronomy, Gamma-ray burst, Gaseous ionization detectors, Gemstone, Granite, Gray (unit), Great Britain, Hadron, Half-life, Half-value layer, Henri Becquerel, Internal conversion, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Irradiation, Isotopes of cobalt, Isotopes of nickel, Kerma (physics), Large Hadron Collider, Lead, Leukemia, Lightning strike, Linear particle accelerator, Magnetar, Matter, Mössbauer effect, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Median lethal dose, Megavoltage X-rays, Neutron capture, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear medicine, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear shell model, Observable universe, Pair production, Particle accelerator, Particle decay, Particle physics, Paul Ulrich Villard, Photodisintegration, Photoelectric effect, Photofission, Photon, Photon energy, Physical Review X, Physicist, Pion, Planck energy, Positron, Positron emission tomography, Potassium-40, Pulsar, Quasar, Rad (unit), Radiation, Radiation protection, Radiation therapy, Radiation trapping, Radioactive decay, Radioactive source, Radiography, Radionuclide, Radiosurgery, Radium, Range (particle radiation), Roentgen (unit), Roentgen equivalent man, Science (journal), Sievert, Single-photon emission computed tomography, SN 1987A, Soft gamma repeater, Soil, Spectroscopy, Spin (physics), Stochastic, Strong interaction, Subatomic particle, Sun, Superluminous supernova, Supermassive black hole, Synchrotron radiation, Technetium-99m, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Topaz, Ultraviolet, Wavelength, Weak interaction, X-ray, X-ray astronomy, X-ray tube. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
A bone scan or bone scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging technique of the bone.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
The Container Security Initiative (CSI) was launched in 2002 by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), an agency of the Department of Homeland Security.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Edward Neville da Costa Andrade FRS (27 December 1887 – 6 June 1971) was an English physicist, writer, and poet.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (the electron's antiparticle) collide.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
The diffuse extragalactic background light (EBL) is all the accumulated radiation in the universe due to star formation processes, plus a contribution from active galactic nuclei (AGNs).
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) (INN), or fludeoxyglucose F 18 (USAN and USP), also commonly called fluorodeoxyglucose and abbreviated FDG, 18F-FDG or FDG, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the medical imaging modality positron emission tomography (PET).
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
The Franck–Condon principle is a rule in spectroscopy and quantum chemistry that explains the intensity of vibronic transitions.
A gamma camera (γ-camera), also called a scintillation camera or Anger camera, is a device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes, a technique known as scintigraphy.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources, in such as the nuclear industry, geochemical investigation, and astrophysics.
Gamma-ray astronomy is the astronomical observation of gamma rays,Astronomical literature generally hyphenates "gamma-ray" when used as an adjective, but uses "gamma ray" without a hyphen for the noun.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
Gaseous ionization detectors are radiation detection instruments used in particle physics to detect the presence of ionizing particles, and in radiation protection applications to measure ionizing radiation.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A material's half-value layer (HVL), or half-value thickness, is the thickness of the material at which the intensity of radiation entering it is reduced by one half.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
Naturally occurring cobalt (27Co) is composed of 1 stable isotope, 59Co.
Naturally occurring nickel (28Ni) is composed of five stable isotopes;,,, and with being the most abundant (68.077% natural abundance).
Kerma is an acronym for "kinetic energy released per unit mass", defined as the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all the charged particles liberated by uncharged ionizing radiation (i.e., indirectly ionizing radiation such as photons and neutrons) in a sample of matter, divided by the mass of the sample.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
A lightning strike or lightning bolt is an electric discharge between the atmosphere and an Earth-bound object.
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
A magnetar is a type of neutron star with an extremely powerful inferred magnetic field (\sim 10^ - 10^ G).
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The Mössbauer effect, or recoilless nuclear resonance fluorescence, is a physical phenomenon discovered by Rudolf Mössbauer in 1958.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
Megavoltage X-rays are produced by linear accelerators ("linacs") operating at voltages in excess of 1000 kV (1 MV) range, and therefore have an energy in the MeV range.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle decay is the spontaneous process of one unstable subatomic particle transforming into multiple other particles.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Paul Ulrich Villard (28 September 1860 – 13 January 1934) was a French chemist and physicist.
Photodisintegration (also called phototransmutation) is a nuclear process in which an atomic nucleus absorbs a high-energy gamma ray, enters an excited state, and immediately decays by emitting a subatomic particle.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photofission is a process in which a nucleus, after absorbing a gamma ray, undergoes nuclear fission (splits into two or more fragments).
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.
Physical Review X is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the American Physical Society covering all branches of physics.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
In physics, Planck energy, denoted by, is the unit of energy in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium-40 (40K) is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a very long half-life of 1.251 years.
A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.
A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).
The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radiation trapping, imprisonment of resonance radiation, radiative transfer of spectral lines, line transfer or radiation diffusion is a phenomenon in physics whereby radiation may be "trapped" in a system as it is emitted by one atom and absorbed by another.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive source is a known quantity of a radionuclide which emits ionizing radiation; typically one or more of the radiation types gamma rays, alpha particles, beta particles, and neutron radiation.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
In passing through matter, charged particles ionize and thus lose energy in many steps, until their energy is (almost) zero.
The roentgen or röntgen (symbol R) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.
A soft gamma repeater (SGR) is an astronomical object which emits large bursts of gamma-rays and X-rays at irregular intervals.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A superluminous supernova (SLSN, plural superluminous supernovae or SLSNe; also known as hypernova) is a type of stellar explosion with a luminosity 10 or more times higher than that of standard supernovae.
A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
G Radaition, Gamma Radiation, Gamma Ray, Gamma Ray Control, Gamma Rays, Gamma Rays and their characteristics, Gamma decay, Gamma emission, Gamma particle, Gamma particles, Gamma photon, Gamma radiation, Gamma ray generation, Gamma ray production, Gamma rays, Gamma-Ray, Gamma-decay, Gamma-irradiated, Gamma-irradidated, Gamma-ray, Gamma-ray generation, Gamma-ray production, Gamma-ray source, Gamma-rays, Gammaray, Secondary radiation, Y photons, Γ Radaition, Γ radiation, Γ ray, Γ rays, Γ-ray, Γ-rays.