65 relations: Alpha particle, Alpha-particle spectroscopy, Analog-to-digital converter, Background radiation, Backscatter, Becquerel, Beta particle, Bismuth germanate, Cadmium telluride, Cadmium zinc telluride, Caesium, Cobalt, Compton scattering, Cryogenics, Data acquisition, Decay chain, Decay product, Decay scheme, Discrete spectrum, Doping (semiconductor), Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron shell, Electronic anticoincidence, Electronvolt, Energy, Full width at half maximum, Gamma probe, Gamma ray, Gamma-ray spectrometer, Germanium, Internal conversion, Ionization chamber, Isomeric shift, Lead, Liquid nitrogen, Liquid scintillation counting, List of things named after Carl Friedrich Gauss, Lithium, Mass spectrometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Multichannel analyzer, Normal distribution, Nuclide, Operating temperature, Pair production, Pandemonium effect, Photoelectric effect, Photomultiplier, Photon, ..., Radionuclide, Scintillation counter, Scintillator, Second, Secular equilibrium, Semiconductor detector, Sodium iodide, Spectroscopy, Spectrum, Thallium, Thermoluminescent dosimeter, Total absorption spectroscopy, Trapezoid, Valence and conduction bands, X-ray spectroscopy. Expand index (15 more) » « Shrink index
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
One method for testing of (and measuring) many alpha emitters is to use alpha-particle spectroscopy.
In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
In physics, backscatter (or backscattering) is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction from which they came.
The becquerel (symbol: Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Bismuth germanium oxide or bismuth germanate is an inorganic chemical compound of bismuth, germanium and oxygen.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a stable crystalline compound formed from cadmium and tellurium.
Cadmium zinc telluride, (CdZnTe) or CZT, is a compound of cadmium, zinc and tellurium or, more strictly speaking, an alloy of cadmium telluride and zinc telluride.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer.
In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to a series of radioactive decays of different radioactive decay products as a sequential series of transformations.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
The decay scheme of a radioactive substance is a graphical presentation of all the transitions occurring in a decay, and of their relationships.
A physical quantity is said to have a discrete spectrum if it takes only distinct values, with gaps between one value and the next.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronic anticoincidence is a method (and its associated hardware) widely used to suppress unwanted, "background" events in high energy physics, experimental particle physics, gamma-ray spectroscopy, gamma-ray astronomy, experimental nuclear physics, and related fields.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Full width at half maximum (FWHM) is an expression of the extent of function given by the difference between the two extreme values of the independent variable at which the dependent variable is equal to half of its maximum value.
A gamma probe is a handheld device containing a scintillation counter, for intraoperative use following injection of a radionuclide, to locate sentinel lymph nodes by their radioactivity.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) is an instrument for measuring the distribution (or spectrum—see figure) of the intensity of gamma radiation versus the energy of each photon.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
The isomeric shift (also called isomer shift) is the shift on atomic spectral lines and gamma spectral lines, which occurs as a consequence of replacement of one nuclear isomer by another.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of activity of a sample of radioactive material which uses the technique of mixing the active material with a liquid scintillator (e.g. Zinc sulfide), and counting the resultant photon emissions.
Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) is the eponym of all of the topics listed below.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
A multichannel analyzer (MCA) is a laboratory instrument used to analyze an input signal that primarily consists of pulses.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
A nuclide (from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is an atomic species characterized by the specific constitution of its nucleus, i.e., by its number of protons Z, its number of neutrons N, and its nuclear energy state.
An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
Schematic showing how the Pandemonium effect can affect the results in an imaginary decay to a nucleus that has 3 levels. If this effect is large, feeding to high lying levels is not detected, and more beta feeding is assigned to the low-lying energy levels. The Pandemonium effect is a problem that may appear when high resolution detectors (usually germanium detectors) are used in beta decay studies.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
In nuclear physics, secular equilibrium is a situation in which the quantity of a radioactive isotope remains constant because its production rate (e.g., due to decay of a parent isotope) is equal to its decay rate.
This article is about ionizing radiation detectors.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without steps, across a continuum.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
A thermoluminescent dosimeter, or TLD, is a type of radiation dosimeter.
Total absorption spectroscopy is a measurement technique that allows the measurement of the gamma radiation emitted in the different nuclear gamma transitions that may take place in the daughter nucleus after its unstable parent has decayed by means of the beta decay process.
In Euclidean geometry, a convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides is referred to as a trapezoid in American and Canadian English but as a trapezium in English outside North America.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.