134 relations: Alchemy, Algebra, Amedeo Avogadro, Ancient Greek, Argon, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Avogadro constant, Bose gas, Bose–Einstein condensate, Breathing gas, Carbon dioxide, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical polarity, Chemist, Chlorine, Compressibility, Compressibility factor, Compressible flow, Conservation law, Covalent bond, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Delta wing, Density, Diatomic molecule, Diffusion, Dissociation (chemistry), Elementary reaction, Endothermic process, Entropy, Equation of state, Exhaust gas, Fermi gas, Flemish people, Fluid dynamics, Fluorine, Gas constant, Gravitational field, Greenhouse gas, Halogen, Heat capacity, Heat capacity ratio, Helium, Homonuclear molecule, Hydrogen, Hydrostatics, Ideal gas, Ideal gas law, Incompressible flow, ..., Inert gas, Intensive and extensive properties, Intermolecular force, Internal energy, Ion, Jacques Charles, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Jet engine, John Dalton, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Kinetic theory of gases, Krypton, Length scale, Liquid, List of gases, List of refractive indices, List of states of matter, List of things named after Leonhard Euler, Macroscopic scale, Mass flow rate, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Mercury (element), Michael Faraday, Microscopic scale, Microstate, Microstate (statistical mechanics), Mixture, Molar volume, Mole (unit), Molecule, Momentum, Monatomic gas, Mount Redoubt, Multiplicative inverse, Multiplicity (mathematics), Multivariable calculus, Natural gas, Navier–Stokes equations, Neon, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Normal (geometry), Oxygen, Paracelsus, Particle, Particle number, Pascal (unit), Perfect gas, Physical chemistry, Physical property, Physical system, Plasma (physics), Pneumatic chemistry, Pressure, Pressure measurement, Product (mathematics), Proportionality (mathematics), Radon, Real gas, Robert Boyle, Scalar (physics), Schlieren photography, Solid, Space Shuttle, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, State of matter, State variable, Statistical mechanics, Tangential and normal components, Test tube, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermodynamic process, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermodynamics, Van der Waals force, Viscosity, Voiceless velar fricative, Volcanic gas, Volume (thermodynamics), Wind, Xenon. Expand index (84 more) » « Shrink index
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.
Amedeo Carlo Avogadro, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 17769 July 1856), was an Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro's law, which states that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
An ideal Bose gas is a quantum-mechanical phase of matter, analogous to a classical ideal gas.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.
The compressibility factor (Z), also known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factor, is a correction factor which describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behavior.
Compressible flow (gas dynamics) is the branch of fluid mechanics that deals with flows having significant changes in fluid density.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.
The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Dutch, especially any of its dialects spoken in historical Flanders, known collectively as Flemish Dutch.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of specific heats or Poisson constant, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Homonuclear molecules, or homonuclear species, are molecules composed of only one type of element.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric flow) refers to a flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parcel—an infinitesimal volume that moves with the flow velocity.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist.
Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
In physics, length scale is a particular length or distance determined with the precision of one order of magnitude.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
This is a list of gases at standard conditions This means the substance boils at or below 25°C at 1 atmosphere pressure and is reasonably stable.
Many materials have a well-characterized refractive index, but these indexes depend strongly upon the frequency of light.
Classically, states of matter are distinguished by changes in specific heat capacity, pressure, and temperature.
Leonhard Euler (1707–1783)In mathematics and physics, there are a large number of topics named in honor of Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707–1783), who made many important discoveries and innovations.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
In physics and engineering, mass flow rate is the mass of a substance which passes per unit of time.
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both.
In statistical mechanics, a microstate is a specific microscopic configuration of a thermodynamic system that the system may occupy with a certain probability in the course of its thermal fluctuations.
In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are mixed.
The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
Redoubt Volcano, or Mount Redoubt, is an active stratovolcano in the largely volcanic Aleutian Range of the U.S. state of Alaska.
In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.
In mathematics, the multiplicity of a member of a multiset is the number of times it appears in the multiset.
Multivariable calculus (also known as multivariate calculus) is the extension of calculus in one variable to calculus with functions of several variables: the differentiation and integration of functions involving multiple variables, rather than just one.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
In physics, the Navier–Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of viscous fluid substances.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with physical systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium but can be described in terms of variables (non-equilibrium state variables) that represent an extrapolation of the variables used to specify the system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
In geometry, a normal is an object such as a line or vector that is perpendicular to a given object.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
The particle number (or number of particles) of a thermodynamic system, conventionally indicated with the letter N, is the number of constituent particles in that system.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
In physics, a perfect gas is a theoretical gas that differs from real gases in a way that makes certain calculations easier to handle.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Pneumatic chemistry is a term most-closely identified with an area of scientific research of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pressure measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface.
In mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied.
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Real gases are non-hypothetical gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they adhere to gas laws.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.
Schlieren photography (from German; singular "Schliere", meaning "streak") is a visual process that is used to photograph the flow of fluids of varying density.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.
A state variable is one of the set of variables that are used to describe the mathematical "state" of a dynamical system.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
In mathematics, given a vector at a point on a curve, that vector can be decomposed uniquely as a sum of two vectors, one tangent to the curve, called the tangential component of the vector, and another one perpendicular to the curve, called the normal component of the vector.
A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top and closed at the bottom.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
Classical thermodynamics considers three main kinds of thermodynamic process: change in a system, cycles in a system, and flow processes.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Volcanic gases are gases given off by active (or, at times, by dormant) volcanoes.
In thermodynamics, the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.