111 relations: Alginic acid, Allergy, Anatomical terms of location, Anemia, Angina, Angle of His, Antacid, Antidepressant, Antihistamine, Asher Winkelstein, Asthma, Baclofen, Bad breath, Barrett's esophagus, Bile, Biopsy, Blinded experiment, Blood in stool, Body mass index, Burping, Calcium channel blocker, Carcinoma, Cardiovascular disease, Chest pain, Child, Cough, Duodenum, Dysphagia, Dysplasia, Ear pain, Endoscopy, Eosinophil, Eosinophilic esophagitis, Esophageal cancer, Esophageal motility disorder, Esophageal motility study, Esophageal pH monitoring, Esophageal spasm, Esophageal stricture, Esophagitis, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Esophagus, Food and Drug Administration, Gallstone, Gastric acid, Gastrin, Gastritis, Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology (journal), Gastroenterostomy, ..., Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, H2 antagonist, Heartburn, Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, Hiatal hernia, Hypercalcaemia, Hypersalivation, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Infant, Iron(II) oxide, Laryngitis, Laryngopharyngeal reflux, Larynx, Magnetic resonance imaging, Metaplasia, Metoclopramide, Mosapride, Nausea, Nickel, Nissen fundoplication, Number needed to treat, Obesity, Odynophagia, Omeprazole, Over-the-counter drug, Peptic ulcer disease, Prednisolone, Pregnancy, Prokinetic agent, Proton-pump inhibitor, Pulmonary fibrosis, Pyloroplasty, Radiocontrast agent, Ranitidine, Regurgitation (digestion), Respiratory system, Scleroderma, Sinusitis, Sleep apnea, Smoking, Sore throat, Stainless steel, Stomach, Stretta procedure, Sucralfate, Systemic scleroderma, The American Journal of Gastroenterology, The New England Journal of Medicine, Titanium, Tobacco smoking, Tooth, Transoral incisionless fundoplication, Upper gastrointestinal series, Vagotomy, Vagus nerve, Visceroptosis, Vomiting, Weight loss, X-ray, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
Alginic acid, also called algin or alginate, is a polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
The angle of His is the acute angle created between the cardia at the entrance to the stomach, and the esophagus.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Asher Winkelstein was an American gastroenterologist who first described gastroesophageal reflux disease in 1935.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Baclofen, sold under the brand name Lioresal among others, is a medication used to treat spasticity.
Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.
Barrett's esophagus refers to an (abnormal) change in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus. It is characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (which are usually found lower in the gastrointestinal tract). The medical significance of Barrett's esophagus is its strong association (0.1 per 1 cm Prague C>M> total segment length per patient-year) with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a very often deadly cancer, because of which it is considered to be a premalignant condition. The main cause of Barrett's esophagus is thought to be an adaptation to chronic acid exposure from reflux esophagitis The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased substantially in the Western world in recent years. The condition is found in 5–15% of patients who seek medical care for heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux disease), although a large subgroup of patients with Barrett's esophagus do not have symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy (more specifically, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a procedure in which a fibreoptic cable is inserted through the mouth to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum) and biopsy. The cells of Barrett's esophagus, after biopsy, are classified into four general categories: nondysplastic, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and frank carcinoma. High-grade dysplasia and early stages of adenocarcinoma can be treated by endoscopic resection and new endoscopic therapies such as radiofrequency ablation, whereas advanced stages (submucosal) are generally advised to undergo surgical treatment. Nondysplastic and low-grade patients are generally advised to undergo annual observation with endoscopy, with radiofrequency ablation as a therapeutic option. In high-grade dysplasia, the risk of developing cancer might be at 10% per patient-year or greater. The condition is named after the Australian-born British thoracic surgeon Norman Barrett (1903–1979), who described it in 1950. Those with the eating disorder bulimia are more likely to develop Barrett’s esophagus because bulimia can cause severe acid reflux, and because purging also floods the esophagus with acid.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.
When referring to human feces, blood in stool looks different depending on how early it enters the digestive tract—and thus how much digestive action it has been exposed to—and how much there is.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Burping (also known as belching, ructus, eruptus or eructation) is the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth.
Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.
Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).
Ear pain, also known as earache or otalgia, is pain in the ear.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE, also spelled eosinophilic oesophagitis), also known as allergic oesophagitis, is an allergic inflammatory condition of the esophagus that involves eosinophils, a type of white blood cell.
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
An esophageal motility disorder (EMD) is any medical disorder causing difficulty in swallowing, regurgitation of food and a spasm-type pain which can be brought on by an allergic reaction to certain foods.
An esophageal motility study (EMS) or esophageal manometry is a test to assess motor function of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body and lower esophageal sphincter (LES).
Esophageal pH monitoring is the current gold standard for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Esophageal spasm or oesophageal spasm is a disorder of esophageal motility.
A benign esophageal stricture, or peptic stricture, is a narrowing or tightening of the esophagus that causes swallowing difficulties.
Esophagitis (or oesophagitis) is an inflammation of the esophagus.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, (EGD) also called by various other names, is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract down to the duodenum.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gastritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
Gastroenterology is the official medical journal of the American Gastroenterological Association.
A gastroenterostomy is the surgical creation of a connection between the stomach and the jejunum.
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering gastroenterology, especially as relating to endoscopy.
H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
Helicobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria possessing a characteristic helical shape.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
A hiatal hernia is a type of hernia in which abdominal organs (typically the stomach) slip through the diaphragm into the middle compartment of the chest.
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.
Hypersalivation (also called ptyalism or sialorrhea) is excessive production of saliva.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of chronic lung disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in lung function.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
Laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx (voice box).
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), also known as extraesophageal reflux disease (EERD), silent reflux, and supra-esophageal reflux, is the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the larynx, oropharynx and/or the nasopharynx.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Metaplasia ("change in form") is the reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type.
Metoclopramide is a medication used mostly for stomach and esophageal problems.
Mosapride is a gastroprokinetic agent that acts as a selective 5HT4 agonist.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
A Nissen fundoplication, or laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication when performed via laparoscopic surgery, is a surgical procedure to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia.
The number needed to treat (NNT) is an epidemiological measure used in communicating the effectiveness of a health-care intervention, typically a treatment with medication.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Odynophagia (from - "pain" and "to eat") is pain when swallowing.
Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A gastroprokinetic agent, gastrokinetic, or prokinetic, is a type of drug which enhances gastrointestinal motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.
Pyloroplasty is a surgery performed to widen the opening at the lower part of the stomach, also known as the pylorus.
Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (contrast CT), projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy.
Ranitidine, sold under the trade name Zantac among others, is a medication which decreases stomach acid production.
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune diseases that may result in changes to the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stretta is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that delivers radiofrequency energy in the form of electromagnetic waves through electrodes at the end of a catheter to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and the gastric cardia - the region of the stomach just below the LES.
Sucralfate is a medication primarily taken to treat active duodenal ulcers. Sucralfate is also used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and stress ulcers. Sucralfate is a sucrose sulfate-aluminium complex that binds to the ulcer, creating a physical barrier that protects the gastrointestinal tract from stomach acid and prevents the degradation of mucus. It also promotes bicarbonate production and acts like an acid buffer with cytoprotective properties.
Systemic scleroderma, also called diffuse scleroderma or systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune disease of the connective tissue.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published for the American College of Gastroenterology by the Nature Publishing Group.
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a weekly medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) is an endoscope treatment designed to relieve symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities.
A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing part of the vagus nerve.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
Visceroptosis (or enteroptosis) is a prolapse or a sinking of the abdominal viscera (internal organs) below their natural position.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a disease in which tumors cause the stomach to produce too much acid, resulting in peptic ulcers.
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