257 relations: Abdominal x-ray, Adventitia, Amphibian, Anal canal, Ananova, Anatomical terms of location, Angiodysplasia, Animal, Antibody, Antigen, Antiporter, Anus, Appendicitis, Appendix (anatomy), Ascending colon, ATPase, Autocrine signalling, Autoimmunity, Autonomic nervous system, Autopsy, Bacteria, Basal electrical rhythm, Bendir, Bicarbonate, Bilateria, Bile, Bile acid, Biopsy, Bird, Blood in stool, Bracket clock, Brunner's glands, Buccal space, Butyrate, Calf, Calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase, Cancer, Capnophile, Capsule endoscopy, Carcinoma, Cat, Catgut, Cattle, Cecum, Celiac artery, Chitterlings, Cholecystokinin, Cholera, Chronic functional abdominal pain, Chronic gastritis, ..., Chyme, Circular folds, Cloaca, Clostridia, Coeliac disease, Colic flexures, Colitis, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Colorectal polyp, Concave polygon, Condom, Connective tissue, Constipation, Crohn's disease, Crop (anatomy), CYP3A4, Descending colon, Diarrhea, Digestion, Digestive enzyme, Digestive system surgery, Dissection, Diverticular disease, Diverticulitis, Diverticulosis, Drug metabolism, Duodenal bulb, Duodenal cancer, Duodenum, Dysplasia, Embryo, Embryology, Emulsion, Endoderm, Endometriosis, Endoscopy, Enteric duplication cyst, Enteric nervous system, Enterovirus, Enzyme, Esophageal cancer, Esophagus, Evolution, Feces, Fetus, Flatulence, Foodborne illness, Foregut, FOXP3, Functional gastrointestinal disorder, Fusee (horology), Gallbladder, Gastric chief cell, Gastrin, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal cancer, Gastrointestinal physiology, Gastrointestinal tract, Ghrelin, Giardiasis, Gizzard, Goldbeater's skin, Gram-negative bacteria, Grandfather clock, Gross anatomy, Gut flora, Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, Haggis, Helicobacter pylori, Hematemesis, Hematochezia, Hindgut, Hirschsprung's disease, Histology, Histone H3, Hormone, Host–pathogen interaction, Human anus, Human body, Human digestive system, Human microbiota, Human mouth, Human skin, Hypothalamus, Ileitis, Ileum, Ileus, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Infarction, Infection, Inferior mesenteric artery, Inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intelectin-1, Interstitial cell of Cajal, Intestinal epithelium, Intestinal mucosal barrier, Intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Intestinal villus, Intracrine, Intrinsic factor, Intussusception (medical disorder), Irritable bowel syndrome, Jejunum, Kokoretsi, Lamina propria, Large intestine, Lipase, Liver, Livestock, Lower gastrointestinal series, Lumen (anatomy), Malabsorption, MALT lymphoma, Maurice Gibb, Meckel's diverticulum, Melena, Mesentery, Mesoderm, Metaplasia, Micelle, Microaerophile, Microenvironment (biology), Microorganism, Midgut, Milk, Monotreme, Mouth, Mucin, Mucin 6, Mucous membrane, Mucus, Muscle tone, Muscular layer, Muscularis mucosae, Myenteric plexus, Neuroendocrinology, North Africa, Nylon, Oral cancer, Organ (anatomy), Pancreatic juice, Pancreatitis, Parietal cell, Pathogen, Pepsin, Peptic ulcer disease, Peristalsis, PH, Pharynx, Pig, Polyp (medicine), Propionate, Pylorus, Racket (sports equipment), Radiodensity, Rectum, Regulatory T cell, Regurgitation (digestion), Rennet, Reptile, Retroperitoneal space, Saliva, Sausage, Sausage casing, Secretin, Serous membrane, Sheep, Short-chain fatty acid, Sigmoid colon, Sigmoidoscopy, Silk, Slinky, Small intestine, Smooth muscle tissue, Snare drum, Sodium, Spleen, Steel, Stomach, Stomach cancer, String (music), Submucosa, Submucous plexus, Superior mesenteric artery, Suspensory muscle of duodenum, Symbiosis, T cell, Tennis, Third Dynasty of Egypt, Thoracic diaphragm, Torcinello, Toxic megacolon, Transpyloric plane, Transverse colon, Tropism, Ulcerative colitis, Upper gastrointestinal series, Vitamin B12, Vitelline duct, Volvulus, Vomiting, Xenobiotic, Yellow fever, Yolk sac. Expand index (207 more) » « Shrink index
An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
Adventitia is the outermost connective tissue covering of an organ, vessel, or other structure.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The anal canal is the terminal part of the large intestine.
Ananova was a Web-oriented news service that originally featured a computer-simulated newscaster as an embodied agent named Ananova programmed to read newscasts to users 24 hours a day.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
In medicine (gastroenterology), angiodysplasia is a small vascular malformation of the gut.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is a cotransporter and integral membrane protein involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix.
The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.
The ascending colon is the part of the colon located between the cecum and the transverse colon.
ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The basal or basic electrical rhythm (BER) or electrical control activity (ECA) is the spontaneous depolarization and repolarization of pacemaker cells in the smooth muscle of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
The bendir (بندير; plural banadir, بنادير) is a wooden-framed frame drum of North Africa and Southwest Asia.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
When referring to human feces, blood in stool looks different depending on how early it enters the digestive tract—and thus how much digestive action it has been exposed to—and how much there is.
A bracket clock is a style of antique portable table clock made in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Brunner's glands (or duodenal glands) are compound tubular submucosal glands found in that portion of the duodenum which is above the hepatopancreatic sphincter (a.k.a. sphincter of Oddi).
The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial tissue spaces or tissue spaces).
Butyrate (also known as butanoate) is the traditional name for the conjugate base of butyric acid (also known as butanoic acid).
A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle.
Calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP/CIP) is a type of alkaline phosphatase that catalyzes the removal of phosphate groups from the 5' end of DNA strands.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Capnophiles are microorganisms that thrive in the presence of high concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Capsule endoscopy is a procedure used to record internal images of the gastrointestinal tract for use in medical diagnosis.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Catgut is a type of cord that is prepared from the natural fibre found in the walls of animal intestines.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.
Chitterlings (or; sometimes spelled/pronounced chitlins or chittlins) are a prepared food usually made from the small intestines of a pig, although the intestines of cattle and other animals are sometimes used.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chronic functional abdominal pain (CFAP) or functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is the ongoing presence of abdominal pain for which there is no known medical explanation.
Chronic gastritis is a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
The circular folds (valves of Kerckring) (also, plicae circulares / valvulae conniventes) are large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the small intestine.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
The Clostridia are a highly polyphyletic class of Firmicutes, including Clostridium and other similar genera.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
There are two colic flexures, or curvatures in the transverse colon.
Colitis is an inflammation of the colon.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.
A simple polygon that is not convex is called concave, non-convex or reentrant.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
The descending colon is the part of the large intestine from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
Digestive system surgery, or gastrointestinal surgery, can be divided into upper GI surgery and lower GI surgery.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Diverticular disease is when problems occur due to diverticulosis, a condition defined by the presence of pouches in the wall of the large intestine (diverticula).
Diverticulitis, specifically colonic diverticulitis, is a gastrointestinal disease characterized by inflammation of abnormal pouches - diverticuli - which can develop in the wall of the large intestine.
Diverticulosis is the condition of having multiple pouches (diverticula) in the colon that are not inflamed.
Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.
The duodenal bulb is the portion of the duodenum which is closest to the stomach.
Duodenal cancer is a cancer in the beginning section of the small intestine.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrium, the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
Enteric duplication cysts, sometimes simply called duplication cysts, are rare congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Enteroviruses are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Esophageal cancer is cancer arising from the esophagus—the food pipe that runs between the throat and the stomach.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.
FOXP3 (forkhead box P3), also known as scurfin, is a protein involved in immune system responses.
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), also known as disorders of gut-brain interaction include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility.
Used in antique spring-powered mechanical watches and clocks, a fusee is a cone-shaped pulley with a helical groove around it, wound with a cord or chain which is attached to the mainspring barrel.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastrointestinal cancer refers to malignant conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and accessory organs of digestion, including the esophagus, stomach, biliary system, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia.
The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (pterosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans.
Goldbeater's skin is the processed outer membrane of the intestine of an animal, typically an ox, valued for its strength against tearing.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
A grandfather clock (also a longcase clock, tall-case clock, or floor clock) is a tall, freestanding, weight-driven pendulum clock with the pendulum held inside the tower or waist of the case.
Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy) is the study of anatomy at the visible (macroscopic) level.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is a component of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which works in the immune system to protect the body from invasion in the gut.
Haggis is a savoury pudding containing sheep's pluck (heart, liver, and lungs); minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, traditionally encased in the animal's stomach though now often in an artificial casing instead.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of blood.
Hematochezia is the passage of fresh blood through the anus, usually in or with stools (contrast with melena).
The hindgut (or epigaster) is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal.
Hirschsprung's disease (HD or HSCR) is a birth defect in which nerves are missing from parts of the intestine.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Histone H3 is one of the five main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
The human anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is the external opening of the rectum.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.
The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Ileitis is an inflammation of the ileum, a portion of the small intestine.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Intelectin-1, also known as omentin or intestinal lactoferrin receptor, is an intelectin encoded in humans by the ITLN1 gene.
The interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) is a type of interstitial cell found in the gastrointestinal tract.
The intestinal epithelium is the layer of cells that forms the luminal surface or lining of both the small and large intestine (colon) of the gastrointestinal tract.
The intestinal mucosal barrier, also referred to as intestinal barrier, refers to the property of the intestinal mucosa that ensures adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients.
Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a clinical syndrome caused by severe impairment in the ability of the intestines to push food through.
Intestinal villi (singular: villus) are small, finger-like projections that extend into the lumen of the small intestine.
Intracrine refers to a hormone that acts inside a cell, regulating intracellular events.
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section next to it.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
The jejunum is the second part of the small intestine in humans and most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Kokoretsi (Greek: κοκορέτσι), kokoreç (Turkish) is a dish of the Balkans, Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan and Turkey consisting of lamb or goat intestines wrapped around seasoned offal, including sweetbreads, hearts, lungs, or kidneys, and typically grilled; a variant consists of chopped innards cooked on a griddle.
The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue that forms part of the moist linings known as mucous membranes or mucosa, which line various tubes in the body, such as the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and the urogenital tract.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
A lower gastrointestinal series is a medical procedure used to examine and diagnose problems with the human colon (large intestine).
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
MALT lymphoma (MALToma) is a form of lymphoma involving the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), frequently of the stomach, but virtually any mucosal site can be afflicted.
Maurice Ernest Gibb (22 December 1949 – 12 January 2003) was a British singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and record producer, who achieved fame as a member of the pop group the Bee Gees.
A Meckel's diverticulum, a true congenital diverticulum, is a slight bulge in the small intestine present at birth and a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct (also called the vitelline duct or yolk stalk).
Melena or melæna refers to the dark black, tarry feces that are associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Metaplasia ("change in form") is the reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type.
A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.
A microaerophile is a microorganism that requires oxygen to survive, but requires environments containing lower levels of oxygen than are present in the atmosphere (i.e. 2; typically 2–10% O2).
Microenvironment in biology is defined as the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that surround and feed a particular cellular area.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Mucins are a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals.
Mucin 6, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming, also known as MUC6, is a human gene.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state.
The muscular layer (muscular coat, muscular fibers, muscularis propria, muscularis externa) is a region of muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the submucosa.
The lamina muscularis mucosae (or muscularis mucosae) is a thin layer (lamina) of muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, located outside the lamina propria and separating it from the submucosa.
The myenteric plexus (or Auerbach's plexus) provides motor innervation to both layers of the muscular layer of the gut, having both parasympathetic and sympathetic input (although present ganglionar cell bodies belong to parasympathetic innervation, fibers from sympathetic innervation also reach the plexus), whereas the submucous plexus has only parasympathetic fibers and provides secretomotor innervation to the mucosa nearest the lumen of the gut.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Pancreatic juice is a liquid secreted by the pancreas, which contains a variety of enzymes, including trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases and amylase.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.
The propionate, or propanoate ion, is C2H5COO− (the conjugate base of propionic acid).
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
A racket or racquet is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of strings or catgut is stretched tightly.
Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and prevent autoimmune disease.
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx, or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood.
Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) is the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) in the abdominal cavity behind (retro) the peritoneum.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin.
Casing, sausage casing, or sausage skin is the material that encloses the filling of a sausage.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
Sigmoidoscopy (from the Greek term for letter "s/ς" + "eidos" + "scopy": namely, to look inside an "s"/"ς"-like object) is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the nearest part of the colon, the sigmoid colon.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
A Slinky is a toy precompressed helical spring invented by Richard James in the early 1940s.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.
A string is the vibrating element that produces sound in string instruments such as the guitar, harp, piano (piano wire), and members of the violin family.
The submucosa (or tela submucosa) is a thin layer of tissue in various organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.
The submucous plexus (Meissner's plexus, plexus of the submucosa, plexus submucosus) lies in the submucosa of the intestinal wall.
In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.
The suspensory muscle of duodenum is a thin muscle connecting the junction between the duodenum, jejunum, and duodenojejunal flexure to connective tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric artery and coeliac artery.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
Torcinello (turcenélle in the Apulian and Molise dialects, mboti, turcinieddi, or turcinieddhri in the Salento dialect) is an Italian dish from Apulia and Molise consisting of lamb intestines wrapped around lamb liver or offal, typically testicles.
Toxic megacolon (megacolon toxicum) is an acute form of colonic distension.
The Transpyloric plane, also known as Addison's Plane, is an imaginary horizontal plane, located halfway between the suprasternal notch of the manubrium and the upper border of the symphysis pubis at the level of the first lumbar vertebrae, L1.
The transverse colon is the longest and most movable part of the colon.
A tropism (from Greek τρόπος, tropos, "a turning") is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
In the human embryo, the vitelline duct, also known as the omphalomesenteric duct, is a long narrow tube that joins the yolk sac to the midgut lumen of the developing fetus.
A volvulus is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
The yolk sac is a membranous sac attached to an embryo, formed by cells of the hypoblast adjacent to the embryonic disk.
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