Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Gauge theory

Index Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations. [1]

220 relations: A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Abdus Salam, Abelian group, Action (physics), Affine representation, Aharonov–Bohm effect, Anomaly (physics), Ansatz, Associated bundle, Asymptotic freedom, Atomic nucleus, BF model, Born–Infeld model, Boson, Boundary (topology), BRST quantization, Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, Canonical quantization, Chaos theory, Chen-Ning Yang, Chern–Simons theory, Chiral anomaly, Circle group, Classical electromagnetism, Classical field theory, Color charge, Compact space, Complex number, Condensed matter physics, Conformal anomaly, Connection form, Continuum mechanics, Convolution, Coordinate system, Coriolis force, Correlation function, Coupling constant, Covariant derivative, Crystallography, Curvature, Curvature form, David Hilbert, Degrees of freedom, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Derivative, Diffeomorphism, Differentiable manifold, Differential form, Differential geometry, Differential structure, ..., Dirac equation, Dynamics (mechanics), E (mathematical constant), Edward Witten, Ehresmann connection, Einstein field equations, Einstein notation, Electric charge, Electric potential, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic four-potential, Electromagnetic tensor, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electrostatics, Electroweak interaction, Elementary particle, Energy, Euclidean space, Euclidean vector, Exotic R4, Exterior algebra, Exterior derivative, Faddeev–Popov ghost, Fiber bundle, Field (physics), Field strength, Four-vector, Fritz London, Fundamental interaction, G-structure on a manifold, Galilean transformation, Gauge anomaly, Gauge boson, Gauge covariant derivative, Gauge fixing, Gauge gravitation theory, Gauge group (mathematics), Gauge principle, Gauge theory, Gauge theory gravity, General covariance, General relativity, Generating set of a group, Global symmetry, Gluon, Gluon field, Gluon field strength tensor, Gradient, Graviton, Gravity, Group (mathematics), Group representation, Gupta–Bleuler formalism, Hermann Weyl, Hodge star operator, Homeomorphism, Homotopy, Inertial frame of reference, Infinitesimal, Instanton, Interaction, Invariant (physics), Isospin, James Clerk Maxwell, Jet bundle, Kaluza–Klein theory, Lagrangian (field theory), Lanczos tensor, Landau pole, Lattice gauge theory, Lepton, Level of measurement, Lie algebra, Lie group, Local symmetry, Lorenz gauge condition, Low-dimensional topology, Magnetic potential, Manifold, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Matrix (mathematics), Maxwell's equations, Metric connection, Michael Atiyah, Michael Freedman, Minimal coupling, Module (mathematics), Nathan Seiberg, Neutron, Newtonian dynamics, Noether's theorem, Non-abelian group, Non-linear sigma model, Nonlinear optics, Nonlinear realization, Nuclear physics, Nucleon, Orthogonal group, Oxford University Press, Partial derivative, Particle physics, Perturbation theory, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Phase (waves), Photon, Physical Review, Physics, Pion, Point (geometry), Principal bundle, Principal homogeneous space, Principle of least action, Probability amplitude, Proton, Quantization (physics), Quantum, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum gauge theory, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Relativistic quantum mechanics, Renormalization, Robert Mills (physicist), Scalar (mathematics), Scalar (physics), Section (fiber bundle), Seiberg–Witten invariants, Simon Donaldson, Smoothness, Solid-state physics, Space, Spacetime, Spinor, Springer Science+Business Media, Standard Model, String theory, Strong CP problem, Strong interaction, Structure constants, Supercomputer, Supersymmetry, Symmetry (physics), Symmetry breaking, Symmetry group, Symmetry in quantum mechanics, Topology, Turbulence, Unitary group, University of Chicago Press, Up to, Vacuum state, Vector bundle, Vector calculus, Vector field, Vector potential, Vladimir Fock, W and Z bosons, Ward–Takahashi identity, Wave function, Weak interaction, Wiley-VCH, Wilson loop, Wolfgang Pauli, Yang–Mills existence and mass gap, Yang–Mills theory, 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers. Expand index (170 more) »

A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" is a paper by James Clerk Maxwell on electromagnetism, published in 1865.

New!!: Gauge theory and A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field · See more »

Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

New!!: Gauge theory and Abdus Salam · See more »

Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.

New!!: Gauge theory and Abelian group · See more »

Action (physics)

In physics, action is an attribute of the dynamics of a physical system from which the equations of motion of the system can be derived.

New!!: Gauge theory and Action (physics) · See more »

Affine representation

An affine representation of a topological (Lie) group G on an affine space A is a continuous (smooth) group homomorphism from G to the automorphism group of A, the affine group Aff(A).

New!!: Gauge theory and Affine representation · See more »

Aharonov–Bohm effect

The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is affected by an electromagnetic potential (V, A), despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero.

New!!: Gauge theory and Aharonov–Bohm effect · See more »

Anomaly (physics)

In quantum physics an anomaly or quantum anomaly is the failure of a symmetry of a theory's classical action to be a symmetry of any regularization of the full quantum theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Anomaly (physics) · See more »


In physics and mathematics, an ansatz (meaning: "initial placement of a tool at a work piece", plural ansätze; or ansatzes) is an educated guessIn his book on "The Nature of Mathematical Modelling", Neil Gershenfeld introduces ansatz, with interpretation "a trial answer", to be an important technique for solving differential equations.

New!!: Gauge theory and Ansatz · See more »

Associated bundle

In mathematics, the theory of fiber bundles with a structure group G (a topological group) allows an operation of creating an associated bundle, in which the typical fiber of a bundle changes from F_1 to F_2, which are both topological spaces with a group action of G. For a fibre bundle F with structure group G, the transition functions of the fibre (i.e., the cocycle) in an overlap of two coordinate systems Uα and Uβ are given as a G-valued function gαβ on Uα∩Uβ.

New!!: Gauge theory and Associated bundle · See more »

Asymptotic freedom

In particle physics, asymptotic freedom is a property of some gauge theories that causes interactions between particles to become asymptotically weaker as the energy scale increases and the corresponding length scale decreases.

New!!: Gauge theory and Asymptotic freedom · See more »

Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

New!!: Gauge theory and Atomic nucleus · See more »

BF model

The BF model is a topological field, which when quantized, becomes a topological quantum field theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and BF model · See more »

Born–Infeld model

In theoretical physics, the Born–Infeld model is a particular example of what is usually known as a nonlinear electrodynamics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Born–Infeld model · See more »


In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Boson · See more »

Boundary (topology)

In topology and mathematics in general, the boundary of a subset S of a topological space X is the set of points which can be approached both from S and from the outside of S. More precisely, it is the set of points in the closure of S not belonging to the interior of S. An element of the boundary of S is called a boundary point of S. The term boundary operation refers to finding or taking the boundary of a set.

New!!: Gauge theory and Boundary (topology) · See more »

BRST quantization

In theoretical physics, the BRST formalism, or BRST quantization (where the BRST refers to Becchi, Rouet, Stora and Tyutin) denotes a relatively rigorous mathematical approach to quantizing a field theory with a gauge symmetry.

New!!: Gauge theory and BRST quantization · See more »

Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society

The Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society is a quarterly mathematical journal published by the American Mathematical Society.

New!!: Gauge theory and Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society · See more »

Canonical quantization

In physics, canonical quantization is a procedure for quantizing a classical theory, while attempting to preserve the formal structure, such as symmetries, of the classical theory, to the greatest extent possible.

New!!: Gauge theory and Canonical quantization · See more »

Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Chaos theory · See more »

Chen-Ning Yang

Chen-Ning Yang or Yang Zhenning (born October 1, 1922) is a Chinese physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Chen-Ning Yang · See more »

Chern–Simons theory

The Chern–Simons theory, named after Shiing-Shen Chern and James Harris Simons, is a 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory of Schwarz type, developed by Edward Witten.

New!!: Gauge theory and Chern–Simons theory · See more »

Chiral anomaly

In physics, a chiral anomaly is the anomalous nonconservation of a chiral current.

New!!: Gauge theory and Chiral anomaly · See more »

Circle group

In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, that is, the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C×, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.

New!!: Gauge theory and Circle group · See more »

Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

New!!: Gauge theory and Classical electromagnetism · See more »

Classical field theory

A classical field theory is a physical theory that predicts how one or more physical fields interact with matter through field equations.

New!!: Gauge theory and Classical field theory · See more »

Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

New!!: Gauge theory and Color charge · See more »

Compact space

In mathematics, and more specifically in general topology, compactness is a property that generalizes the notion of a subset of Euclidean space being closed (that is, containing all its limit points) and bounded (that is, having all its points lie within some fixed distance of each other).

New!!: Gauge theory and Compact space · See more »

Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Complex number · See more »

Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

New!!: Gauge theory and Condensed matter physics · See more »

Conformal anomaly

A conformal anomaly, scale anomaly, or Weyl anomaly is an anomaly, i.e. a quantum phenomenon that breaks the conformal symmetry of the classical theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Conformal anomaly · See more »

Connection form

In mathematics, and specifically differential geometry, a connection form is a manner of organizing the data of a connection using the language of moving frames and differential forms.

New!!: Gauge theory and Connection form · See more »

Continuum mechanics

Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.

New!!: Gauge theory and Continuum mechanics · See more »


In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.

New!!: Gauge theory and Convolution · See more »

Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

New!!: Gauge theory and Coordinate system · See more »

Coriolis force

In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

New!!: Gauge theory and Coriolis force · See more »

Correlation function

A correlation function is a function that gives the statistical correlation between random variables, contingent on the spatial or temporal distance between those variables.

New!!: Gauge theory and Correlation function · See more »

Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

New!!: Gauge theory and Coupling constant · See more »

Covariant derivative

In mathematics, the covariant derivative is a way of specifying a derivative along tangent vectors of a manifold.

New!!: Gauge theory and Covariant derivative · See more »


Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

New!!: Gauge theory and Crystallography · See more »


In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

New!!: Gauge theory and Curvature · See more »

Curvature form

In differential geometry, the curvature form describes the curvature of a connection on a principal bundle.

New!!: Gauge theory and Curvature form · See more »

David Hilbert

David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.

New!!: Gauge theory and David Hilbert · See more »

Degrees of freedom

In many scientific fields, the degrees of freedom of a system is the number of parameters of the system that may vary independently.

New!!: Gauge theory and Degrees of freedom · See more »

Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)

In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.

New!!: Gauge theory and Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry) · See more »


The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

New!!: Gauge theory and Derivative · See more »


In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds.

New!!: Gauge theory and Diffeomorphism · See more »

Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

New!!: Gauge theory and Differentiable manifold · See more »

Differential form

In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, differential forms are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates.

New!!: Gauge theory and Differential form · See more »

Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

New!!: Gauge theory and Differential geometry · See more »

Differential structure

In mathematics, an n-dimensional differential structure (or differentiable structure) on a set M makes M into an n-dimensional differential manifold, which is a topological manifold with some additional structure that allows for differential calculus on the manifold.

New!!: Gauge theory and Differential structure · See more »

Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

New!!: Gauge theory and Dirac equation · See more »

Dynamics (mechanics)

Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.

New!!: Gauge theory and Dynamics (mechanics) · See more »

E (mathematical constant)

The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.

New!!: Gauge theory and E (mathematical constant) · See more »

Edward Witten

Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

New!!: Gauge theory and Edward Witten · See more »

Ehresmann connection

In differential geometry, an Ehresmann connection (after the French mathematician Charles Ehresmann who first formalized this concept) is a version of the notion of a connection, which makes sense on any smooth fiber bundle.

New!!: Gauge theory and Ehresmann connection · See more »

Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.

New!!: Gauge theory and Einstein field equations · See more »

Einstein notation

In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention that implies summation over a set of indexed terms in a formula, thus achieving notational brevity.

New!!: Gauge theory and Einstein notation · See more »

Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electric charge · See more »

Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electric potential · See more »

Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electromagnetic field · See more »

Electromagnetic four-potential

An electromagnetic four-potential is a relativistic vector function from which the electromagnetic field can be derived.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electromagnetic four-potential · See more »

Electromagnetic tensor

In electromagnetism, the electromagnetic tensor or electromagnetic field tensor (sometimes called the field strength tensor, Faraday tensor or Maxwell bivector) is a mathematical object that describes the electromagnetic field in spacetime.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electromagnetic tensor · See more »


Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electromagnetism · See more »


The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electron · See more »


Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electrostatics · See more »

Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

New!!: Gauge theory and Electroweak interaction · See more »

Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

New!!: Gauge theory and Elementary particle · See more »


In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

New!!: Gauge theory and Energy · See more »

Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

New!!: Gauge theory and Euclidean space · See more »

Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

New!!: Gauge theory and Euclidean vector · See more »

Exotic R4

In mathematics, an exotic R4 is a differentiable manifold that is homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to the Euclidean space R4.

New!!: Gauge theory and Exotic R4 · See more »

Exterior algebra

In mathematics, the exterior product or wedge product of vectors is an algebraic construction used in geometry to study areas, volumes, and their higher-dimensional analogs.

New!!: Gauge theory and Exterior algebra · See more »

Exterior derivative

On a differentiable manifold, the exterior derivative extends the concept of the differential of a function to differential forms of higher degree.

New!!: Gauge theory and Exterior derivative · See more »

Faddeev–Popov ghost

In physics, Faddeev–Popov ghosts (also called Faddeev–Popov gauge ghosts or Faddeev–Popov ghost fields) are extraneous fields which are introduced into gauge quantum field theories to maintain the consistency of the path integral formulation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Faddeev–Popov ghost · See more »

Fiber bundle

In mathematics, and particularly topology, a fiber bundle (or, in British English, fibre bundle) is a space that is locally a product space, but globally may have a different topological structure.

New!!: Gauge theory and Fiber bundle · See more »

Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

New!!: Gauge theory and Field (physics) · See more »

Field strength

In physics, field strength means the magnitude of a vector-valued field (e.g., in volts per meter, V/m, for an electric field E).

New!!: Gauge theory and Field strength · See more »


In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Four-vector · See more »

Fritz London

Fritz Wolfgang London (March 7, 1900 – March 30, 1954) was a Jewish-German physicist and professor at Duke University.

New!!: Gauge theory and Fritz London · See more »

Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Fundamental interaction · See more »

G-structure on a manifold

In differential geometry, a G-structure on an n-manifold M, for a given structure group G, is a G-subbundle of the tangent frame bundle FM (or GL(M)) of M. The notion of G-structures includes various classical structures that can be defined on manifolds, which in some cases are tensor fields.

New!!: Gauge theory and G-structure on a manifold · See more »

Galilean transformation

In physics, a Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Galilean transformation · See more »

Gauge anomaly

In theoretical physics, a gauge anomaly is an example of an anomaly: it is a feature of quantum mechanics—usually a one-loop diagram—that invalidates the gauge symmetry of a quantum field theory; i.e. of a gauge theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge anomaly · See more »

Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge boson · See more »

Gauge covariant derivative

The gauge covariant derivative is a variation of the covariant derivative used in general relativity.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge covariant derivative · See more »

Gauge fixing

In the physics of gauge theories, gauge fixing (also called choosing a gauge) denotes a mathematical procedure for coping with redundant degrees of freedom in field variables.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge fixing · See more »

Gauge gravitation theory

In quantum field theory, gauge gravitation theory is the effort to extend Yang–Mills theory, which provides a universal description of the fundamental interactions, to describe gravity.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge gravitation theory · See more »

Gauge group (mathematics)

A gauge group is a group of gauge symmetries of the Yang – Mills gauge theory of principal connections on a principal bundle.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge group (mathematics) · See more »

Gauge principle

In physics, a gauge principle specifies a procedure for obtaining an interaction term from a free Lagrangian which is symmetric with respect to a continuous symmetry—the results of localizing (or gauging) the global symmetry group must be accompanied by the inclusion of additional fields (such as the electromagnetic field), with appropriate kinetic and interaction terms in the action, in such a way that the extended Lagrangian is covariant with respect to a new extended group of local transformations.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge principle · See more »

Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge theory · See more »

Gauge theory gravity

Gauge theory gravity (GTG) is a theory of gravitation cast in the mathematical language of geometric algebra.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gauge theory gravity · See more »

General covariance

In theoretical physics, general covariance, also known as diffeomorphism covariance or general invariance, consists of the invariance of the form of physical laws under arbitrary differentiable coordinate transformations.

New!!: Gauge theory and General covariance · See more »

General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and General relativity · See more »

Generating set of a group

In abstract algebra, a generating set of a group is a subset such that every element of the group can be expressed as the combination (under the group operation) of finitely many elements of the subset and their inverses.

New!!: Gauge theory and Generating set of a group · See more »

Global symmetry

In physics, a global symmetry is a symmetry that holds at all points in the spacetime under consideration, as opposed to a local symmetry which varies from point to point.

New!!: Gauge theory and Global symmetry · See more »


A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gluon · See more »

Gluon field

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field is a four vector field characterizing the propagation of gluons in the strong interaction between quarks.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gluon field · See more »

Gluon field strength tensor

In theoretical particle physics, the gluon field strength tensor is a second order tensor field characterizing the gluon interaction between quarks.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gluon field strength tensor · See more »


In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gradient · See more »


In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

New!!: Gauge theory and Graviton · See more »


Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gravity · See more »

Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

New!!: Gauge theory and Group (mathematics) · See more »

Group representation

In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of linear transformations of vector spaces; in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication.

New!!: Gauge theory and Group representation · See more »

Gupta–Bleuler formalism

In quantum field theory, the Gupta–Bleuler formalism is a way of quantizing the electromagnetic field.

New!!: Gauge theory and Gupta–Bleuler formalism · See more »

Hermann Weyl

Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.

New!!: Gauge theory and Hermann Weyl · See more »

Hodge star operator

In mathematics, the Hodge isomorphism or Hodge star operator is an important linear map introduced in general by W. V. D. Hodge.

New!!: Gauge theory and Hodge star operator · See more »


In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bi continuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function.

New!!: Gauge theory and Homeomorphism · See more »


In topology, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from Greek ὁμός homós "same, similar" and τόπος tópos "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy between the two functions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Homotopy · See more »

Inertial frame of reference

An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.

New!!: Gauge theory and Inertial frame of reference · See more »


In mathematics, infinitesimals are things so small that there is no way to measure them.

New!!: Gauge theory and Infinitesimal · See more »


An instanton (or pseudoparticle) is a notion appearing in theoretical and mathematical physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Instanton · See more »


Interaction is a kind of action that occur as two or more objects have an effect upon one another.

New!!: Gauge theory and Interaction · See more »

Invariant (physics)

In mathematics and theoretical physics, an invariant is a property of a system which remains unchanged under some transformation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Invariant (physics) · See more »


In nuclear physics and particle physics, isospin is a quantum number related to the strong interaction.

New!!: Gauge theory and Isospin · See more »

James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and James Clerk Maxwell · See more »

Jet bundle

In differential topology, the jet bundle is a certain construction that makes a new smooth fiber bundle out of a given smooth fiber bundle.

New!!: Gauge theory and Jet bundle · See more »

Kaluza–Klein theory

In physics, Kaluza–Klein theory (KK theory) is a classical unified field theory of gravitation and electromagnetism built around the idea of a fifth dimension beyond the usual four of space and time and considered an important precursor to string theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Kaluza–Klein theory · See more »

Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lagrangian (field theory) · See more »

Lanczos tensor

The Lanczos tensor or Lanczos potential is a rank 3 tensor in general relativity that generates the Weyl tensor.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lanczos tensor · See more »

Landau pole

In physics, the Landau pole (or the Moscow zero, or the Landau ghost) is the momentum (or energy) scale at which the coupling constant (interaction strength) of a quantum field theory becomes infinite.

New!!: Gauge theory and Landau pole · See more »

Lattice gauge theory

In physics, lattice gauge theory is the study of gauge theories on a spacetime that has been discretized into a lattice.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lattice gauge theory · See more »


In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lepton · See more »

Level of measurement

Level of measurement or scale of measure is a classification that describes the nature of information within the values assigned to variables.

New!!: Gauge theory and Level of measurement · See more »

Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lie algebra · See more »

Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lie group · See more »

Local symmetry

In physics, a local symmetry is symmetry of some physical quantity, which smoothly depends on the point of the base manifold.

New!!: Gauge theory and Local symmetry · See more »

Lorenz gauge condition

In electromagnetism, the Lorenz gauge condition or Lorenz gauge is a partial gauge fixing of the electromagnetic vector potential.

New!!: Gauge theory and Lorenz gauge condition · See more »

Low-dimensional topology

In mathematics, low-dimensional topology is the branch of topology that studies manifolds, or more generally topological spaces, of four or fewer dimensions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Low-dimensional topology · See more »

Magnetic potential

The term magnetic potential can be used for either of two quantities in classical electromagnetism: the magnetic vector potential, or simply vector potential, A; and the magnetic scalar potential ψ. Both quantities can be used in certain circumstances to calculate the magnetic field B. The more frequently used magnetic vector potential is defined so that its curl is equal to the magnetic field: curl A.

New!!: Gauge theory and Magnetic potential · See more »


In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

New!!: Gauge theory and Manifold · See more »

Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

New!!: Gauge theory and Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model · See more »

Matrix (mathematics)

In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.

New!!: Gauge theory and Matrix (mathematics) · See more »

Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

New!!: Gauge theory and Maxwell's equations · See more »

Metric connection

In mathematics, a metric connection is a connection in a vector bundle E equipped with a bundle metric; that is, a metric for which the inner product of any two vectors will remain the same when those vectors are parallel transported along any curve.

New!!: Gauge theory and Metric connection · See more »

Michael Atiyah

Sir Michael Francis Atiyah (born 22 April 1929) is an English mathematician specialising in geometry.

New!!: Gauge theory and Michael Atiyah · See more »

Michael Freedman

Michael Hartley Freedman (born 21 April 1951) is an American mathematician, at Microsoft Station Q, a research group at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

New!!: Gauge theory and Michael Freedman · See more »

Minimal coupling

In analytical mechanics and quantum field theory, minimal coupling refers to a coupling between fields which involves only the charge distribution and not higher multipole moments of the charge distribution.

New!!: Gauge theory and Minimal coupling · See more »

Module (mathematics)

In mathematics, a module is one of the fundamental algebraic structures used in abstract algebra.

New!!: Gauge theory and Module (mathematics) · See more »

Nathan Seiberg

Nathan "Nati" Seiberg (born September 22, 1956) is an Israeli American theoretical physicist who works on string theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Nathan Seiberg · See more »


| magnetic_moment.

New!!: Gauge theory and Neutron · See more »

Newtonian dynamics

In physics, the Newtonian dynamics is understood as the dynamics of a particle or a small body according to Newton's laws of motion.

New!!: Gauge theory and Newtonian dynamics · See more »

Noether's theorem

Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.

New!!: Gauge theory and Noether's theorem · See more »

Non-abelian group

In mathematics, and specifically in group theory, a non-abelian group, sometimes called a non-commutative group, is a group (G, ∗) in which there exists at least one pair of elements a and b of G, such that a ∗ b ≠ b ∗ a.

New!!: Gauge theory and Non-abelian group · See more »

Non-linear sigma model

In quantum field theory, a nonlinear σ model describes a scalar field which takes on values in a nonlinear manifold called the target manifold T.

New!!: Gauge theory and Non-linear sigma model · See more »

Nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.

New!!: Gauge theory and Nonlinear optics · See more »

Nonlinear realization

In mathematical physics, nonlinear realization of a Lie group G possessing a Cartan subgroup H is a particular induced representation of G. In fact, it is a representation of a Lie algebra \mathfrak g of G in a neighborhood of its origin.

New!!: Gauge theory and Nonlinear realization · See more »

Nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Nuclear physics · See more »


In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.

New!!: Gauge theory and Nucleon · See more »

Orthogonal group

In mathematics, the orthogonal group in dimension, denoted, is the group of distance-preserving transformations of a Euclidean space of dimension that preserve a fixed point, where the group operation is given by composing transformations.

New!!: Gauge theory and Orthogonal group · See more »

Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

New!!: Gauge theory and Oxford University Press · See more »

Partial derivative

In mathematics, a partial derivative of a function of several variables is its derivative with respect to one of those variables, with the others held constant (as opposed to the total derivative, in which all variables are allowed to vary).

New!!: Gauge theory and Partial derivative · See more »

Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Particle physics · See more »

Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

New!!: Gauge theory and Perturbation theory · See more »

Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

New!!: Gauge theory and Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics) · See more »

Phase (waves)

Phase is the position of a point in time (an instant) on a waveform cycle.

New!!: Gauge theory and Phase (waves) · See more »


The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

New!!: Gauge theory and Photon · See more »

Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

New!!: Gauge theory and Physical Review · See more »


Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

New!!: Gauge theory and Physics · See more »


In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.

New!!: Gauge theory and Pion · See more »

Point (geometry)

In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.

New!!: Gauge theory and Point (geometry) · See more »

Principal bundle

In mathematics, a principal bundle is a mathematical object that formalizes some of the essential features of the Cartesian product of a space with a group.

New!!: Gauge theory and Principal bundle · See more »

Principal homogeneous space

In mathematics, a principal homogeneous space, or torsor, for a group G is a homogeneous space X for G in which the stabilizer subgroup of every point is trivial.

New!!: Gauge theory and Principal homogeneous space · See more »

Principle of least action

The principle of least action – or, more accurately, the principle of stationary action – is a variational principle that, when applied to the action of a mechanical system, can be used to obtain the equations of motion for that system.

New!!: Gauge theory and Principle of least action · See more »

Probability amplitude

In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.

New!!: Gauge theory and Probability amplitude · See more »


| magnetic_moment.

New!!: Gauge theory and Proton · See more »

Quantization (physics)

In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantization (physics) · See more »


In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum · See more »

Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum chromodynamics · See more »

Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum electrodynamics · See more »

Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum field theory · See more »

Quantum gauge theory

In quantum physics, in order to quantize a gauge theory, for example the Yang–Mills theory, Chern–Simons theory or the BF model, one method is to perform gauge fixing.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum gauge theory · See more »

Quantum gravity

Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum gravity · See more »

Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quantum mechanics · See more »


A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

New!!: Gauge theory and Quark · See more »

Relativistic quantum mechanics

In physics, relativistic quantum mechanics (RQM) is any Poincaré covariant formulation of quantum mechanics (QM).

New!!: Gauge theory and Relativistic quantum mechanics · See more »


Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

New!!: Gauge theory and Renormalization · See more »

Robert Mills (physicist)

Robert Laurence Mills (April 15, 1927 – October 27, 1999) was a physicist, specializing in quantum field theory, the theory of alloys, and many-body theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Robert Mills (physicist) · See more »

Scalar (mathematics)

A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.

New!!: Gauge theory and Scalar (mathematics) · See more »

Scalar (physics)

A scalar or scalar quantity in physics is a physical quantity that can be described by a single element of a number field such as a real number, often accompanied by units of measurement.

New!!: Gauge theory and Scalar (physics) · See more »

Section (fiber bundle)

In the mathematical field of topology, a section (or cross section) of a fiber bundle E is a continuous right inverse of the projection function \pi.

New!!: Gauge theory and Section (fiber bundle) · See more »

Seiberg–Witten invariants

In mathematics, Seiberg–Witten invariants are invariants of compact smooth 4-manifolds introduced by, using the Seiberg–Witten theory studied by during their investigations of Seiberg–Witten gauge theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Seiberg–Witten invariants · See more »

Simon Donaldson

Sir Simon Kirwan Donaldson FRS (born 20 August 1957), is an English mathematician known for his work on the topology of smooth (differentiable) four-dimensional manifolds and Donaldson–Thomas theory.

New!!: Gauge theory and Simon Donaldson · See more »


In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of derivatives it has that are continuous.

New!!: Gauge theory and Smoothness · See more »

Solid-state physics

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.

New!!: Gauge theory and Solid-state physics · See more »


Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

New!!: Gauge theory and Space · See more »


In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

New!!: Gauge theory and Spacetime · See more »


In geometry and physics, spinors are elements of a (complex) vector space that can be associated with Euclidean space.

New!!: Gauge theory and Spinor · See more »

Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

New!!: Gauge theory and Springer Science+Business Media · See more »

Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

New!!: Gauge theory and Standard Model · See more »

String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

New!!: Gauge theory and String theory · See more »

Strong CP problem

In particle physics, the strong CP problem is the puzzling question of why quantum chromodynamics (QCD) does not seem to break CP-symmetry.

New!!: Gauge theory and Strong CP problem · See more »

Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Strong interaction · See more »

Structure constants

In mathematics, the structure constants or structure coefficients of an algebra over a field are used to explicitly specify the product of two basis vectors in the algebra as a linear combination.

New!!: Gauge theory and Structure constants · See more »


A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

New!!: Gauge theory and Supercomputer · See more »


In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.

New!!: Gauge theory and Supersymmetry · See more »

Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Symmetry (physics) · See more »

Symmetry breaking

In physics, symmetry breaking is a phenomenon in which (infinitesimally) small fluctuations acting on a system crossing a critical point decide the system's fate, by determining which branch of a bifurcation is taken.

New!!: Gauge theory and Symmetry breaking · See more »

Symmetry group

In group theory, the symmetry group of an object (image, signal, etc.) is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation.

New!!: Gauge theory and Symmetry group · See more »

Symmetry in quantum mechanics

Symmetries in quantum mechanics describe features of spacetime and particles which are unchanged under some transformation, in the context of quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, and with applications in the mathematical formulation of the standard model and condensed matter physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Symmetry in quantum mechanics · See more »


In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

New!!: Gauge theory and Topology · See more »


In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

New!!: Gauge theory and Turbulence · See more »

Unitary group

In mathematics, the unitary group of degree n, denoted U(n), is the group of unitary matrices, with the group operation of matrix multiplication.

New!!: Gauge theory and Unitary group · See more »

University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

New!!: Gauge theory and University of Chicago Press · See more »

Up to

In mathematics, the phrase up to appears in discussions about the elements of a set (say S), and the conditions under which subsets of those elements may be considered equivalent.

New!!: Gauge theory and Up to · See more »

Vacuum state

In quantum field theory, the quantum vacuum state (also called the quantum vacuum or vacuum state) is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy.

New!!: Gauge theory and Vacuum state · See more »

Vector bundle

In mathematics, a vector bundle is a topological construction that makes precise the idea of a family of vector spaces parameterized by another space X (for example X could be a topological space, a manifold, or an algebraic variety): to every point x of the space X we associate (or "attach") a vector space V(x) in such a way that these vector spaces fit together to form another space of the same kind as X (e.g. a topological space, manifold, or algebraic variety), which is then called a vector bundle over X.

New!!: Gauge theory and Vector bundle · See more »

Vector calculus

Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3.

New!!: Gauge theory and Vector calculus · See more »

Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

New!!: Gauge theory and Vector field · See more »

Vector potential

In vector calculus, a vector potential is a vector field whose curl is a given vector field.

New!!: Gauge theory and Vector potential · See more »

Vladimir Fock

Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock (or Fok; Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Фок) (December 22, 1898 – December 27, 1974) was a Soviet physicist, who did foundational work on quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Vladimir Fock · See more »

W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.

New!!: Gauge theory and W and Z bosons · See more »

Ward–Takahashi identity

In quantum field theory, a Ward–Takahashi identity is an identity between correlation functions that follows from the global or gauge symmetries of the theory, and which remains valid after renormalization.

New!!: Gauge theory and Ward–Takahashi identity · See more »

Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

New!!: Gauge theory and Wave function · See more »

Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

New!!: Gauge theory and Weak interaction · See more »


Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.

New!!: Gauge theory and Wiley-VCH · See more »

Wilson loop

In gauge theory, a Wilson loop (named after Kenneth G. Wilson) is a gauge-invariant observable obtained from the holonomy of the gauge connection around a given loop.

New!!: Gauge theory and Wilson loop · See more »

Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

New!!: Gauge theory and Wolfgang Pauli · See more »

Yang–Mills existence and mass gap

In mathematical physics, the Yang–Mills existence and mass gap problem is an unsolved problem and one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems defined by the Clay Mathematics Institute, which has offered a prize of US$1,000,000 to the one who solves it.

New!!: Gauge theory and Yang–Mills existence and mass gap · See more »

Yang–Mills theory

Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, reductive Lie algebra.

New!!: Gauge theory and Yang–Mills theory · See more »

1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers

The 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers were written by three teams who proposed related but different approaches to explain how mass could arise in local gauge theories.

New!!: Gauge theory and 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers · See more »

Redirects here:

Abelian gauge theory, Gauge Invariance, Gauge Theory, Gauge Transformation, Gauge connection, Gauge curvature, Gauge field, Gauge field theories, Gauge field theory, Gauge group, Gauge group action, Gauge invariance, Gauge invariant, Gauge potential, Gauge symmetry, Gauge theories, Gauge transformation, Gauge-invariant, History of gauge theory, Local gauge invariance, Local gauge symmetry, Mathematical formalism of gauge theory, Non-abelian gauge theories, Pure gauge, Velo-Zwanziger problem, Velo–Zwanziger problem.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_theory

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »