167 relations: Allobroges, Ambiorix, Ancient Greece, Anglesey, Animism, Aquila (Roman), Aquitani, Archaeogenetics, Archaeological culture, Archaeology of Northern Europe, Armorica, Arverni, Asterix, Austria, Autun, Avaricum, Battle of Alesia, Battle of Soissons (486), Belgae, Belgium, Bibracte, Bituitus, Bog body, Bohemia, Bourges, Braccae, Brittany, Brittonic languages, Bronze Age Europe, Cabinet des Médailles, Celts, Cenabum, Chartres, Cimbri, Cisalpine Gaul, Civitas, Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Continental Celtic languages, Crisis of the Third Century, Dīs Pater, Denarius, Dichotomy, Diodorus Siculus, Druid, Early Middle Ages, Elbe, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., English language, ..., Etruscan civilization, False etymology, France, Frankish language, Franks, French Revolution, Gaels, Galatia, Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica, Gallia Celtica, Gallia Narbonensis, Gallic Empire, Gallic Wars, Gallo-Roman culture, Gaulish language, Gauls, Germania, Germany, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 122 BC), Greeks, Gregory of Tours, Hallstatt culture, Headhunting, Helvetii, Hispania, Hispania Baetica, History of the Welsh language, House of Capet, Hungary, Invasion, Irish language, Iron Age, Iron Age Europe, Italy, Julius Caesar, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Soissons, La Jaille-Yvon, La Tène culture, Lake Geneva, Late antiquity, Latin, Ligures, Liguria, List of Ancien Régime dioceses of France, List of French monarchs, Loire, Lugdunum, Luxembourg, Marseille, Mercury (mythology), Merovingian dynasty, Middle Rhine, Middle Welsh, Modern Greek, Moravia, Netherlands, New Latin, Noricum, Normans, Northern Germany, Northern Italy, Occitania, Old Irish, Oppidum, Orléans, Pannonia, Parisii (Gaul), Phoenicia, Pierre-Yves Lambert, Posidonius, Proto-Germanic language, Pyrenees, Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, Raetia, Res publica, Rhône, Rhine, Roman Britain, Roman Empire, Roman Gaul, Roman Republic, Roman villa, Roman villas in northwestern Gaul, Rump state, Saint-Mars-la-Jaille, Salyes, Scandinavia, Seine, Septimania, Sicily, Silva Carbonaria, Slavery, Slavery in ancient Rome, Slovakia, Somme (river), Strabo, Switzerland, Teutons, The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Timaeus (historian), Timagenes, Tours, Toutatis, Urnfield culture, Vascones, Vercingetorix, Vikings, Visigoths, Volcae, Wales, Walhaz, Wallachia, Welsh language, Western Europe, Wild boar. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
The Allobroges (Άλλόβριγες, Άλλόβρυγες, Άλλόβρoγες) were a Gallic tribe of ancient Gaul, located between the Rhône River and Lake Geneva in what later became Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais.
Ambiorix (Gaulish "king in all directions") was, together with Cativolcus, prince of the Eburones, leader of a Belgic tribe of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica), where modern Belgium is located.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
An aquila, or eagle, was a prominent symbol used in ancient Rome, especially as the standard of a Roman legion.
The Aquitanians (Latin: Aquitani) were a people living in what is now southern Aquitaine and southwestern Midi-Pyrénées, France, called Gallia Aquitania by the Romans in the region between the Pyrenees, the Atlantic ocean, and the Garonne, present-day southwestern France.
Archaeogenetics is the study of ancient DNA using various molecular genetic methods and DNA resources.
An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society.
The archaeology of Northern Europe studies the prehistory of Scandinavia and the adjacent North European Plain, roughly corresponding to the territories of modern Sweden, Norway, Denmark, northern Germany, Poland and the Netherlands.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
The Arverni were a Celtic tribe.
Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix (Astérix or Astérix le Gaulois) is a series of French comics.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France.
Avaricum was an oppidum in ancient Gaul, near what is now the city of Bourges.
The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars that took place in September, 52 BC, around the Gallic oppidum (fortified settlement) of Alesia, a major centre of the Mandubii tribe.
The Battle of Soissons was fought in 486 between Frankish forces under Clovis I and the Gallo-Roman domain of Soissons under Syagrius.
The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bibracte, a Gaulish oppidum or fortified city, was the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important hillforts in Gaul.
Bituitus (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a king of the Arverni, a Gaulish tribe living in what is now the Auvergne region of France.
A bog body is a human cadaver that has been naturally mummified in a peat bog.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
Braccae is the Latin term for trousers, and in this context is today used to refer to a style of trousers, made from wool.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
The European Bronze Age is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements.
The Cabinet des Médailles,The patriotic Cabinet de France, less redolent of Bourbons, was affected during republican phases of the 19th century and as late as World War I. more formally known as Département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, is a department of the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Cenabum, Cenabaum or Genabum was the name of an oppidum of the Carnutes tribe, situated on the site of what is now Orléans.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib ("The War of the Irish with the Foreigners") is a medieval Irish text that tells of the depredations of the Vikings and Uí Ímair dynasty in Ireland and the Irish king Brian Boru's great war against them, beginning with the Battle of Sulcoit in 967 and culminating in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014, in which Brian was slain but his forces were victorious.
Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.
The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Dīs Pater was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades (Hades was Greek).
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
A false etymology (popular etymology, etymythology, pseudo-etymology, or par(a)etymology), sometimes called folk etymology – although the last term is also a technical term in linguistics - is a popularly held but false belief about the origin or derivation of a specific word.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Gallia Aquitania, also known as Aquitaine or Aquitaine Gaul, was a province of the Roman Empire.
Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Gallia Celtica, meaning "Celtic Gaul" in Latin, was a cultural region of Gaul inhabited by Celts, located in what is now Switzerland, France, Luxembourg and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
"Gallic Empire" (Imperium Galliarum) or Gallic Roman Empire are two names for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
"Germania" was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (died 104 BC) was consul of Rome in 122 BC.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Headhunting is the practice of taking and preserving a person's head after killing the person.
The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh.
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
In Europe, the Iron Age may be defined as including the last stages of the prehistoric period and the first of the proto-historic periods.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
In historiography, the Kingdom or Domain of Soissons refers to a rump state of the Western Roman Empire in northern Gaul, between the Somme and the Seine, that lasted for some twenty-five years during Late Antiquity.
La Jaille-Yvon is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France.
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
French Ancien Régime Roman Catholic dioceses and ecclesiastical provinces were heirs of Late Roman civitates (themselves created out of Gaulish tribes) and provinces.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Mercury (Latin: Mercurius) is a major god in Roman religion and mythology, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Between Bingen and Bonn, Germany, the river Rhine flows as the Middle Rhine (Mittelrhein) through the Rhine Gorge, a formation created by erosion, which happened at about the same rate as an uplift in the region, leaving the river at about its original level, and the surrounding lands raised.
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
Noricum is the Latin name for a Celtic kingdom, or federation of tribes, that included most of modern Austria and part of Slovenia.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
Occitania (Occitània,,,, or) is the historical region and a nation, in southern Europe where Occitan was historically the main language spoken, and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Parisii were Celtic Iron Age people who lived on the banks of the river Seine (in Latin, Sequana) in Gaul from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until the Roman era.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pierre-Yves Lambert, former student of the École Normale Supérieure, is a French teacher and linguist.
Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, was a Roman statesman and general who was elected consul in 121 BC.
Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
Roman villas in northwestern Gaul (modern France) functioned as colonial economic centers.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Saint-Mars-la-Jaille is a former commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France.
The Salyes (Greek: Σάλυες) or Salluvii in ancient geography, were a Gallic confederation that occupied the plain of the Druentia (Durance) in southern Gaul between the Rhône River and the Alps.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Septimania (Septimanie,; Septimània,; Septimània) was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigoths in 462, when Septimania was ceded to their king, Theodoric II.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Silva Carbonaria, the "charcoal forest", was the dense old-growth forest of beech and oak that formed a natural boundary during the Late Iron Age through Roman times into the Early Middle Ages across what is now western Wallonia.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Teutons (Latin: Teutones, Teutoni, Greek: "Τεύτονες") were an ancient tribe mentioned by Roman authors.
The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is an etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press.
Timaeus (Τιμαῖος; c. 345 BC – c. 250 BC) was an ancient Greek historian.
Timagenes (Τιμαγένης) was a Greek writer, historian and teacher of rhetoric.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
Toutatis or Teutates was a Celtic god worshipped in ancient Gaul and Britain.
The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.
The Vascones (singular Vasco, in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia. from Latin gens Vasconum) were a pre-Roman tribe who, on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century, inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees, a region that coincides with present-day Navarre, western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja, in the Iberian Peninsula.
Vercingetorix (– 46 BC) was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedonia c. 270 BC and fought the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BC.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.