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Gaulish language

Index Gaulish language

Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire. [1]

191 relations: Ablative case, Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Alveolar consonant, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Animacy, Antecedent (grammar), Apollo, Appendix Vergiliana, Approximant consonant, Aquitaine, Aquitanian language, Artio, Arverni, Attic Greek, Aulus Gellius, Ausonius, Autun, Auvergne, Back vowel, Balkans, Bear, Belgae, Bern zinc tablet, Biel/Bienne, Bilabial consonant, Bordeaux, Breton language, Brittonic languages, Bronze Age, Cassius Dio, Celtiberian language, Celtic coinage, Celtic languages, Central vowel, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chamalières tablet, Cisalpine Gaul, Cisalpine Gaulish, Clitic, Close vowel, Coligny calendar, Coligny, Ain, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Continental Celtic languages, Curse tablet, Cyril of Scythopolis, Dative case, Declension, ..., Dental consonant, Dialect continuum, Disjunctive pronoun, Dislocation (syntax), Druid, Eluveitie, Epigraphy, Epistle to the Galatians, Etruscan language, Ferdinand Lot, First-person narrative, Fortis and lenis, France, French language, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Furnace, Galatia, Galatian language, Galatians (people), Gallia Narbonensis, Gallic Wars, Garonne, Gaul, Gaulish language, Gauls, Genitive case, Germanic languages, Gobannus, Goidelic languages, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Grannus, Great Britain, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, Gregory of Tours, Helvetii, Historical linguistics, History of the Greek alphabet, Iberian Peninsula, Incantation, Infix, Instrumental case, Insular Celtic languages, Irenaeus, Irish language, Isogloss, Italic languages, Italo-Celtic, Italy, Jerome, John T. Koch, Joseph Vendryes, Julius Caesar, L'Hospitalet-du-Larzac, La Graufesenque, La Tène culture, Labialization, Labialized velar consonant, Languages of France, Larzac tablet, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Lepontic language, Leuci, Lezoux Plate, Limoges, Lingones, Liquid consonant, List of English words of Gaulish origin, List of French words of Gaulish origin, Locative case, Loire, Lucian, Lugano, Lunisolar calendar, Lyon, Mantua, Manx language, Marne, Mars (mythology), Metalsmith, Mid vowel, Morphology (linguistics), Muri bei Bern, Nasal consonant, Nominative case, Noric language, Northern Italy, Occlusive, Old Irish, Old Italic script, On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, Open vowel, Osco-Umbrian languages, Palatal consonant, Pannonia, Phi, Port, Switzerland, Primitive Irish, Proto-Indo-European language, Psi (letter), Rhône, Roman cursive, Roman Empire, Roman Gaul, Romance languages, Scottish Gaelic, Seine, Sidonius Apollinaris, Sigma, Southern France, Spindle whorl, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Switzerland, Symphorian and Timotheus, Toponymy, Treveri, V2 word order, Velar consonant, Verb–subject–object, Villards-d'Héria, Vocative case, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless velar stop, Voicelessness, Vulgar Latin, 180, 1st millennium, 2nd century, 3rd century BC, 400, 450, 526, 5th century, 6th century, 9th century. Expand index (141 more) »

Ablative case

The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.

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Antecedent (grammar)

In grammar, an antecedent is an expression (word, phrase, clause, sentence, etc.) that gives its meaning to a proform (pronoun, pro-verb, pro-adverb, etc.). A proform takes its meaning from its antecedent, e.g. "Ava arrived late because traffic held her up".

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Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.

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Appendix Vergiliana

The Appendix Vergiliana is a collection of poems traditionally ascribed as juvenilia of Virgil, although it is likely that all the pieces are in fact spurious Régine Chambert "" in "Vergil, Philodemus, and the Augustans" 2003: "Vergil's authorship of at least some of the poems in the Appendix is nowadays no longer contested.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.

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Aquitanian language

The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.

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Artio (Dea Artio in the Gallo-Roman religion) was a Celtic bear goddess.

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The Arverni were a Celtic tribe.

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Attic Greek

Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.

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Aulus Gellius

Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome.

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Decimus or Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.

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Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department, France.

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Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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The Belgae were a large Gallic-Germanic confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC.

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Bern zinc tablet

The Bern zinc tablet or Gobannus tablet is a metal sheet found in 1984 in Bern, Switzerland.

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Biel/Bienne (official bilingual wording;;; Bienna, Bienna, Belna) is a town and a municipality in the Biel/Bienne administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

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Breton language

Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Celtiberian language

Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Douro, Tagus, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.

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Celtic coinage

Celtic coinage was minted by the Celts from the late 4th century BC to the late 1st century BC.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Centre national de la recherche scientifique

The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.

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Chamalières tablet

The Chamalières tablet (French: Plomb de Chamalières) is a lead tablet, six by four centimeters, that was discovered in 1971 in Chamalières, France, at the Source des Roches excavation.

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Cisalpine Gaul

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.

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Cisalpine Gaulish

The Celtic Cisalpine Gaulish inscriptions are frequently combined with the Lepontic inscriptions under the term Celtic language remains in northern Italy.

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A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Coligny calendar

The Coligny calendar is a Gaulish peg calendar or ''parapegma'' made in Roman Gaul in the 2nd century, giving a five-year cycle of a lunisolar calendar with intercalary months.

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Coligny, Ain

Coligny (Colignê) is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France.

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Commentarii de Bello Gallico

Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (italic), also Bellum Gallicum (italic), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative.

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Continental Celtic languages

The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.

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Curse tablet

A curse tablet (tabella defixionis, defixio; κατάδεσμος katadesmos) is a small tablet with a curse written on it from the Greco-Roman world.

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Cyril of Scythopolis

Cyril of Scythopolis (ca. 525–559 CE), also known as Cyrillus Scythopolitanus (Greek: Κύριλλος ὁ Σκυθοπολίτης, Kyrillos ho Skythopolitēs), was a Christian monk, priest and Greek hagiographer or historian of monastic life in Palestine in the early years of Christianity (6th century CE).

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Disjunctive pronoun

A disjunctive pronoun is a stressed form of a personal pronoun reserved for use in isolation or in certain syntactic contexts.

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Dislocation (syntax)

In syntax, dislocation is a sentence structure in which a constituent, which could otherwise be either an argument or an adjunct of the clause, occurs outside the clause boundaries either to its left or to its right.

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A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.

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Eluveitie is a Swiss folk metal band from Winterthur, Zurich, founded in 2002 by Chrigel Glanzmann.

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Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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Epistle to the Galatians

The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.

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Etruscan language

The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.

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Ferdinand Lot

Ferdinand Victor Henri Lot (Le Plessis Piquet, 20 September 1866 – Fontenay-aux-Roses, 20 July 1952) was a French historian and medievalist.

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First-person narrative

A first-person narrative is a mode of storytelling in which a narrator relays events from their own point of view using the first person It may be narrated by a first person protagonist (or other focal character), first person re-teller, first person witness, or first person peripheral (also called a peripheral narrator).

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Fortis and lenis

In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.

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Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.

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Galatian language

Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken by the Galatians in Galatia mainly in north central lands of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BCE up to at least the 4th century CE, although ancient sources suggest it was still spoken in the 6th century.

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Galatians (people)

The Galatians (Latin: Gallograeci; Greek: Γαλάται) were a Gallic people of the Hellenistic period that dwelt mainly in the north central regions of Asia Minor or Anatolia, in what was known as Galatia, in today's Turkey.

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Gallia Narbonensis

Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.

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Gallic Wars

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.

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The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gaulish language

Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Europe as late as the Roman Empire.

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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Gobannus (or Gobannos, the Gaulish form, sometimes Cobannus) was a Gallo-Roman god, whose name, denoting "the smith", is normally taken to identify him as patron of smiths.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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In the Celtic polytheism of classical antiquity, Grannus (also Granus, Mogounus, and Amarcolitanus) was a deity associated with spas, healing thermal and mineral springs, and the sun.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul

The Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul have a significant history of settlement, trade, cultural influence, and armed conflict in the Celtic territory of Gaul (modern France), starting from the 6th century BC during the Greek Archaic period.

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Gregory of Tours

Saint Gregory of Tours (30 November c. 538 – 17 November 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area that had been previously referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and later added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather. He is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum (Ten Books of Histories), better known as the Historia Francorum (History of the Franks), a title that later chroniclers gave to it, but he is also known for his accounts of the miracles of saints, especially four books of the miracles of St. Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, and St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this highly organized devotion.

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The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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History of the Greek alphabet

The history of the Greek alphabet starts with the adoption of Phoenician letter forms and continues to the present day.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.

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An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.

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An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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Irenaeus (Ειρηναίος Eirēnaíos) (died about 202) was a Greek cleric noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combatting heresy and defining orthodoxy.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.

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John T. Koch

John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.

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Joseph Vendryes

Joseph Vendryes (13 January 1875, Paris – 30 January 1960) was a French Celtic linguist.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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L'Hospitalet-du-Larzac is a commune in the Aveyron department in southern France, part of the southern Massif central, incorporating part of the Larzac plateau.

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La Graufesenque

La Graufesenque is an archaeological site 2 km from Millau, Aveyron, France, at the confluence of the rivers Tarn and Dourbie.

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La Tène culture

The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.

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Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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Labialized velar consonant

A labialized velar or labiovelar is a velar consonant that is labialized, with a /w/-like secondary articulation.

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Languages of France

Of the languages of France, the national language, French, is the only official language according to the second article of the French Constitution, and its standardized variant is by far the most widely spoken.

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Larzac tablet

The Larzac tablet is a lead curse tablet found in 1983 the commune of L'Hospitalet-du-Larzac, Aveyron, southern France.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Lepontic language

Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC.

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The Leuci were a Gallic tribe, recorded to have lived in the southern part of what is now Lorraine.

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Lezoux Plate

The Lezoux plate is a ceramic plate discovered in 1970 at Lezoux (Puy-de-Dôme), which contains one of the longer texts in the Gaulish language (in a Gallo-Latin cursive script) which has yet been found.

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Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.

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The Lingones were a Celtic tribe that originally lived in Gaul in the area of the headwaters of the Seine and Marne rivers.

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Liquid consonant

In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.

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List of English words of Gaulish origin

A list of English Language words derived from the Celtic Gaulish language, entering English via Old Frankish or Vulgar Latin and Old French; ambassador: from Old French embassadeur, from Latin ambactus, from Gaulish *ambactos, "servant", "henchman", "one who goes about".

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List of French words of Gaulish origin

The Gaulish language, and presumably its many dialects and closely allied sister languages, left a few hundred words in French and many more in nearby Romance languages, i.e. Franco-Provençal (Eastern France and Western Switzerland), Occitan (Southern France), Catalan, Romansch, Gallo-Italian (Northern Italy), and many of the regional languages of northern France and Belgium collectively known as langues d'oïl (e.g. Walloon, Norman, Gallo, Picard, Bourguignon, and Poitevin).

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Locative case

Locative (abbreviated) is a grammatical case which indicates a location.

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The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.

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Lucian of Samosata (125 AD – after 180 AD) was a Hellenized Syrian satirist and rhetorician who is best known for his characteristic tongue-in-cheek style, with which he frequently ridiculed superstition, religious practices, and belief in the paranormal.

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Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy.

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Lunisolar calendar

A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.

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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Manx language

No description.

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Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne (Matrona in Roman times) which flows through the department.

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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

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A metalsmith or simply smith is a craftsman fashioning useful items (for example, tools, kitchenware, tableware, jewellery, and weapons) out of various metals.

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Mid vowel

A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

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Muri bei Bern

Muri bei Bern is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Noric language

The Noric language, or Eastern Celtic, is an unclassified Continental Celtic language.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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In phonetics, an occlusive, sometimes known as a stop, is a consonant sound produced by blocking (occluding) airflow in the vocal tract, but not necessarily in the nasal tract.

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Old Irish

Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.

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Old Italic script

Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.

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On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis

On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis (Ancient Greek: Ἔλεγχος καὶ ἀνατροπὴ τῆς ψευδωνύμου γνώσεως), sometimes called Adversus Haereses, is a work of Christian theology written in Greek about the year 180 by Irenaeus, the bishop of Lugdunum (now Lyon in France).

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Osco-Umbrian languages

The Osco-Umbrian, Sabellic or Sabellian languages are a group of Italic languages, the Indo-European languages that were spoken in Central and Southern Italy by the Osco-Umbrians before Latin replaced them, as the power of Ancient Rome expanded.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.

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Phi (uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; ϕεῖ pheî; φι fi) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Port, Switzerland

Port is a municipality in the canton of Bern in Switzerland, located in the Biel/Bienne administrative district.

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Primitive Irish

Primitive Irish or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa) is the oldest known form of the Goidelic languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Psi (letter)

Psi (uppercase Ψ, lowercase ψ; psi) is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 700.

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The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.

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Roman cursive

Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Gaul

Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Sidonius Apollinaris

Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.

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Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Southern France

Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.

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Spindle whorl

A spindle whorl is a disc or spherical object fitted onto the spindle to increase and maintain the speed of the spin.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Symphorian and Timotheus

Symphorian (Symphorianus, Symphorien), Timotheus (Timothy), and Hippolytus of Rome are three Christian martyrs who though they were unrelated and were killed in different places and at different times, shared a common feast day in the General Roman Calendar from at least the 1568 Tridentine Calendar to the Mysterii Paschalis.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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The Treveri or Treviri were a Belgic tribe who inhabited the lower valley of the Moselle from around 150 BCE, if not earlier, until their displacement by the Franks.

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V2 word order

In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).

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Villards-d'Héria is a commune in the Jura department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiceless velar stop

The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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Year 180 (CLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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1st millennium

The first millennium was a period of time that began on January 1, AD 1, and ended on December 31, AD 1000, of the Julian calendar.

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2nd century

The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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3rd century BC

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC.

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Year 400 (CD) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Year 450 (CDL) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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Year 526 (DXXVI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

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5th century

The 5th century is the time period from 401 to 500 Anno Domini (AD) or Common Era (CE) in the Julian calendar.

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6th century

The 6th century is the period from 501 to 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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9th century

The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

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Redirects here:

Gallic language, Gaulish, Gaulish inscriptions, Gaulish languages, ISO 639:xtg, Recueil des Inscriptions Gauloises, Recueil des inscriptions gauloises, Transalpine Gaulish, Transalpine Gaulish language.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaulish_language

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