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'Amr ibn al-'As (عمرو بن العاص; 6 January 664) was an Arab military commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640.
The A. M. Qattan Foundation is a not-for-profit developmental organisation based in Ramallah.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ablaq (أبلق; particolored; literally 'piebald') is an architectural style involving alternating or fluctuating rows of light and dark stone.
Aelia Eudocia Augusta (Late Greek: Αιλία Ευδοκία Αυγούστα; 401–460 AD), also called Saint Eudocia, was a Greek Eastern Roman Empress by marriage to Byzantine emperor Theodosius II (r. 408–450), and a prominent historical figure in understanding the rise of Christianity.
Aeneas of Gaza (d. c. 518) was a Neo-Platonic philosopher, a convert to Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the fifth century.
Ahmad ibn Ridwan (أحمد بن رضوان) (died 1607), better known as Ahmad Pasha, was the governor of the Damascus Eyalet in the early 17th century.
The Al Deira Hotel (فندق الديرة غزة فلسطين) is a beach hotel located in Gaza.
al-Aqsa University (جامعة الأقصى) is a Palestinian university established in 1991 in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.
Al-Arkam school (مدرسة دار الأرقم) is a school in Gaza City which was established by Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin.
Al-Azhar University – Gaza (جامعة الأزهر بغزة), often abbreviated AUG, is a Palestinian, public, non-profit and independent higher education institution.
Sheikh Shams al-Din al-Ansari al-Dimashqi or simply al-Dimashqi (شمس الدين الأنصاري الدمشقي) (1256–1327) was a medieval Arab geographer, completing his main work in 1300.
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Shams al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (محمد بن أحمد شمس الدين المقدسي), also transliterated as al-Maqdisī or el-Mukaddasi, (c. 945/946 - 991) was a medieval Arab geographer, author of Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-aqālīm (The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Regions), as well as author of the book, Description of Syria (Including Palestine).
Al-Mughraqa (المغراقة, also known as Abu Middein) is a Palestinian town in the Gaza Governorate of the Gaza Strip, located six kilometers southwest of Gaza City.
Al-Quds Open University (جامعة القدس المفتوحة) is an independent public university.
Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī (أبـو عـبـد الله مـحـمـد ابـن إدريـس الـشـافـعيّ) (767-820 CE, 150-204 AH) was an Arab Muslim theologian, writer, and scholar, who was the first contributor of the principles of Islamic jurisprudence (Uṣūl al-fiqh).
Al-Shati (مخيّم الشاطئ), also known as Beach camp, is a Palestinian refugee camp located in the northern Gaza Strip along the Mediterranean Sea coastline in the Gaza Governorate, and more specifically Gaza City.
Al-Shifa Hospital (مستشفى الشفاء Mustashfa al-Shifa), properly known as Dar Al-Shifa Hospital (مستشفى دار الشفاء Mustashfat dar al-Shifa) is the largest medical complex and central hospital in the Gaza Strip, located in the neighbourhood of North Rimal in Gaza City in the Gaza Governorate.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic coffee (qahwah arabiyya) refers to a version of the brewed coffee of Coffea arabica beans.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Baldwin III (1130 – 10 February 1163) was King of Jerusalem from 1143 to 1163.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Battle of Ajnadayn (معركة أجنادين) was fought in July or August 634 (Jumada I or II, 13 AH), in an unknown location close to Beit Guvrin in present-day Israel; it was the first major pitched battle between the Byzantine (Roman) Empire and the army of the Arab Rashidun Caliphate.
The Battle of Gaza, also referred to as Hamas' takeover of Gaza, was a military conflict between Fatah and Hamas, that took place in the Gaza Strip between the June 10 and 15, 2007.
The Battle of Gaza was a battle of the Third war of the Diadochi between Ptolemy and Seleucus against Demetrius (son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus).
A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beit Hanoun or Beit Hanun (بيت حانون) is a city on the northeast edge of the Gaza Strip.
Beit Lahia (بيت لاهيا) is a city located in the Gaza Strip north of Jabalia, near Beit Hanoun and the 1949 Armistice Line with Israel.
Ben Gurion International Airport (נמל התעופה הבינלאומי בן גוריון; مطار بن غوريون الدولي), commonly referred to as Ben Gurion Airport or Natbag (נתב״ג), is the main international airport of Israel and the busiest airport in the country, located to the southeast of Tel Aviv.
The blockade of the Gaza Strip is the ongoing land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip imposed by Israel and Egypt since 2007.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Bureij (البريج) is a Palestinian refugee camp located in the central Gaza Strip east of the Salah al-Din Road in the Deir al-Balah Governorate.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers (caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey.
Cascais is a coastal town and a municipality in Portugal, west of Lisbon.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cáceres is the capital of Cáceres province, in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Building is located at the corner of Main and Market Streets in downtown Poughkeepsie, New York, United States, just across Market Street from the Dutchess County Court House, and north of the Bardavon Theater.
The Church of Saint Porphyrius (or St. Porphyrius Church, كنيسة القديس برفيريوس) is the Orthodox Christian church of Gaza, and the oldest active church in the city.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Clay pot cooking is a process of cooking food in a pot made of unglazed or glazed pottery.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Crocker & Brewster (1818–1876) was a leading publishing house in Boston, Massachusetts, during its 58-year existence.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
Curative care or curative medicine is the health care given for medical conditions where a cure is considered achievable, or even possibly so, and directed to this end.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Al-Daraj or Haraat al-Daraj (حارة الدرج) is the densely populated northwestern quarter of Gaza's Old City.
Deir al-Balah or Dayr al-Balah (دير البلح translated Monastery of the Date Palm) is a Palestinian city in the central Gaza Strip and the administrative capital of the Deir el-Balah Governorate.
Demetrius I (Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian Greek nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC).
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet adopted in 1982.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
Doha (الدوحة, or ad-Dōḥa) is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Edward Robinson (April 10, 1794 – January 27, 1863) was an American biblical scholar.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
The Erez Crossing (מעבר ארז, معبر بيت حانون) is a border crossing on the Israel–Gaza barrier.
The evil eye is a curse or legend believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware.
Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a Palestinian nationalist political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).
The Fatah–Hamas conflict (النزاع بين فتح وحماس an-Nizāʿ bayna Fataḥ wa-Ḥamās), also referred to as the Palestinian Civil War ('''الحرب الأهلية الفلسطينية'''. al-Ḥarb al-ʾAhliyyah al-Filisṭīnīyyah), was a conflict between the two main Palestinian political parties, Fatah and Hamas, resulting in the split of the Palestinian Authority in 2007.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Fellah (فلاح, fallāḥ; plural Fellaheen or Fellahin, فلاحين, fallāḥīn) is a farmer or agricultural laborer in the Middle East and North Africa.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.
Gauze is a thin, translucent fabric with a loose open weave.
The Gaza Governorate (محافظة غزة) is one of the 16 Governorates of Palestine, located in the north central Gaza Strip which is administered by the Palestine aside from its border with Israel, airspace and maritime territory.
The Gaza Mall is a shopping mall that opened in Gaza in July 2010.
The Gaza Museum of Archaeology (المتحف, Al Mat'haf, "The Museum") called in English the AlMath'af, Recreational Cultural House opened to the public in fall 2008 in Gaza.
Gaza Sanjak (Gazze Sancağı) was a sanjak of the Damascus Eyalet, Ottoman Empire.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Gaza Strip Premier League is one of the two top divisions of the Palestinian Football Association that founded in 1984.
The Gaza Subdistrict (قضاء غزة, נפת עזה) was one of the subdistricts of Mandatory Palestine.
The ancient synagogue of Gaza was built in 508 AD during the Byzantine period and was discovered in 1965.
The Gaza War, also known as Operation Cast Lead, also known as the Gaza Massacre and the Battle of al-Furqan by Hamas, Secondary source, Abdul-Hameed al-Kayyali, Studies on the Israeli Aggression on Gaza Strip: Cast Lead Operation / Al-Furqan Battle, 2009 was a three-week armed conflict between Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and Israel that began on 27 December 2008 and ended on 18 January 2009 in a unilateral ceasefire.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
Gerrha (جرهاء) was an ancient city of Eastern Arabia, on the west side of the Persian Gulf.
The Gold Market (سوق الذهب Souk ad-Dahab; also known as the Qissariya Market, سوق القيسارية Souk al-Qissariya) is a narrow covered passageway located in the old quarter of Gaza; it is both a center for trading and buying gold, and location for foreign exchange.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
The governance of the Gaza Strip is carried out by the Hamas administration, led by Ismail Haniyeh, from 2007, until 2014 and again from 2016.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The Great Mosque of Gaza (جامع غزة الكبير, transliteration: Jāmaʿ Ghazza al-Kabīr) also known as the Great Omari Mosque (المسجد العمري الكبير, transliteration: Jāmaʿ al-ʿUmarī al-Kabīr) is the largest and oldest mosque in the Gaza Strip, located in Gaza's old city.
The Eastern Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (Πατριαρχεῖον Ἱεροσολύμων, Patriarcheîon Hierosolýmōn) or Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem (كنيسة الروم الأرثوذكس في القدس Kanisatt Ar-rum al-Urtudoks fi al-Quds, literally Rûm/Roman Orthodox Church of Jerusalem), and officially called simply the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, is an autocephalous Church within the wider communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
The Green Line, or (pre-) 1967 border or 1949 Armistice border, is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Besor (נחל הבשור, Nahal HaBesor) is a wadi in southern Israel.
Hadassah Medical Center (מרכז רפואי הדסה) is an Israeli medical organization established in 1934 that operates two university hospitals at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus in Jerusalem as well as schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacology affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Haidar Abdel-Shafi (Heidar Abdul-Shafi) (حيدر عبد الشافي June 10, 1919 – September 25, 2007), was a Palestinian physician, community leader and political leader who was the head of the Palestinian delegation to the Madrid Conference of 1991.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Hamam al-Sammara (حمام السمرا, also spelled Hamaam as-Sumara; transliteration: "the Bath of the Samaritans" or "the Brown Bath") is the only active Turkish bath remaining in Gaza, located in the Zeitoun Quarter of the Old City.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
Hashim ibn 'Abd Manaf al Mughirah (هاشم بن عبد مناف المغيرة; ca. 464 – 497) was the great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the progenitor of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe in Mecca.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Herod Antipater (Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπατρος, Hērǭdēs Antipatros; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), known by the nickname Antipas, was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea, who bore the title of tetrarch ("ruler of a quarter") and is referred to as both "Herod the Tetrarch" and "King Herod" in the New Testament although he never held the title of king.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
The Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS) was recognised as a human right by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 28 July 2010.
Human rights and development aims converge in many instances and are beneficial only to the government and not the people although there can be conflict between their different approaches.
Husayn Pasha ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Ridwan ibn Mustafa ibn Abd al-Mu'in (حسين باشا بن حسن رضوان) (died 1662/63) was the Ottoman governor of Gaza Sanjak, which extended from Jaffa and Ramla in the north to Bayt Jibrin in the east and Rafah in the south, with Gaza as its capital.
The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
The Ibn Marwan Mosque (جامع ابن مروان, transl: Jami' Ibn Marwan) is a Mamluk-era mosque in Gaza in the midst of a cemetery in the Tuffah neighborhood, relatively isolated from the rest of the city.
The Ibn Uthman Mosque (مسجد ابن عثمان Jami Ibn 'Uthman) is the second largest old mosque in Gaza City.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Institute for Middle East Understanding (IMEU) is a 501(c)(3) pro-Palestinian non-profit organisation, not aligned to any political or government organisation.
The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Islamic University of Gaza (الجامعة الإسلامية بغزة), also known as IUG, IU Gaza and The University of Gaza, is an independent Palestinian university established in 1978 in Gaza City, then within the jurisdiction of Israeli Military rule.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel Electric Corporation (חברת החשמל לישראל, abbreviation: IEC) is the largest supplier of electrical power in Israel.
The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside the Gaza Strip, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jabalia also Jabalya (جباليا) is a Palestinian city located north of Gaza City.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
Katib al-Wilaya Mosque or Welayat Mosque (جامع الولايات) is a small historic mosque located along Omar Mukhtar Street in Gaza City in the Zaytun Quarter of the Old City.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Khan Yunis (خان يونس, also spelled Khan Younis or Khan Yunus; translation: Caravansary Jonah) is a city in the southern Gaza Strip.
Khayr al-Din ibn Ahmad ibn Nur al-Din Ali ibn Zayn al-Din ibn Abd al-Wahab al-Ayubi al-Farooqui (1585–1671), better known as Khayr al-Din al-Ramli (خير الدين الرملي), was a 17th-century Islamic jurist, teacher and writer in then Ottoman-ruled Palestine.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Laila El-Haddad (ليلى الحداد) is an award-winning Palestinian author and public speaker based in the United States.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The following is a list of cities administered by the Palestinian National Authority.
Alexander the Great founded, or substantially re-established, or renamed, several towns or cities.
The following is a list of rulers of Gaza.
Little Gaza is an ethnic enclave in Orange County, California, United States, the center for Orange County's Arab-Americans, who numbered more than 24,000 in 2000.
Lod (לוֹד; اللُّدّ; Latin: Lydda, Diospolis, Ancient Greek: Λύδδα / Διόσπολις - city of Zeus) is a city southeast of Tel Aviv in the Central District of Israel.
Ma'an (معان) is a city in southern Jordan, southwest of the capital Amman.
Ma'an News Agency (MNA; وكالة معا الإخبارية) is a large wire service created in 2005 in the Palestinian territories.
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
The Mahkamah Mosque (also known as Mosque of Birdibak or Madrasa of Amir Bardabak; Arabic transliteration: Jāmi' al-Mahkamah al-Birdibakiyyah) is a congregational mosque and madrasa, built in 1455.
A majordomo is a person who speaks, makes arrangements, or takes charge for another.
Mamluk architecture was a flowering of Islamic art during the reign of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517), which is most visible in medieval Cairo.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mount Hebron (הר חברון, جبل الخليل) is a Mountian ridge and geographic region and geologic formation, comprising the bulk of the central Judean Mountains.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علی پاشا المسعود بن آغا; محمد علي باشا / ALA-LC: Muḥammad ‘Alī Bāshā; Albanian: Mehmet Ali Pasha; Turkish: Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa; 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval.
Mulukhiyah, mloukhiya, molokhia, molokhiya, mulukhiyya, malukhiyah, or moroheiya (ملوخية) is the leaves of Corchorus olitorius commonly known as Jew's mallow, Nalta jute, or tossa jute.
In the territories administrated by the Palestinian Authority, a municipality (هيئة محلية) is an administrative unit of local government similar to a city.
Musa Pasha ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Ridwan ibn Mustafa (موسى باشا بن حسن رضوان) was the Governor of Gaza and Jerusalem during the period of Ottoman rule in Palestine in the second half of the 17th century.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (الأنباط  , compare Ναβαταῖος, Nabataeus), were an Arab people who inhabited northern Arabia and the Southern Levant.
Nasser or Hayy al-Nasr is a district in western Gaza City, located adjacent to Rimal and northwest of al-Daraj.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt occurred between 1948 and October 1956 and again from March 1957 to June 1967.
The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.
Omar Mukhtar Street (شارع عمر المختار) is Gaza City's main street, running from Palestine Square to the Port of Gaza in the Rimal district, separating the Old City's al-Daraj and Zaytoun quarters.
Operation Pillar of Defense (עַמּוּד עָנָן, ʿAmúd ʿAnán, literally: "Pillar of Cloud") was an eight-day Israel Defense Forces (IDF) operation in the Hamas-governed Gaza Strip, which began on 14 November 2012 with the killing of Ahmed Jabari, chief of the Gaza military wing of Hamas by an Israeli airstrike.
An orator, or oratist, is a public speaker, especially one who is eloquent or skilled.
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestine national football team (منتخب فلسطين لكرة القدم) is the national football team of Palestine and represents Palestine in international football.
The Palestine Red Crescent Society was founded in 1968, by Fathi Arafat, Yasser Arafat's brother.
Palestine Stadium (ملعب فلسطين) is located in Gaza City on the Gaza Strip.
The Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA) was founded in Jerusalem in March 1987 by Dr.
Palestinian art is a term used to refer to paintings, posters, installation art and other visual media produced by Palestinian artists.
The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS; الجهاز المركزي للإحصاء الفلسطيني) is the official statistical institution of the State of Palestine.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian Declaration of Independence is a statement written by the Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish and proclaimed by Yasser Arafat on 15 November 1988 (5 Rabi' al-Thani 1409).
The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is the unicameral legislature of the Palestinian Authority, elected by the Palestinian residents of the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Elections for the second Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), were held on 25 January 2006.
Municipal elections were held between December 2004 and December 2005, to elect members of local councils in the Palestinian Territories.
The Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the Palestinian National Authority is the branch of the Palestinian government in charge of managing the education in the Palestinian territories.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
The Palestinian National Council (PNC) (المجلس الوطني الفلسطيني, "'Almajlis Alwataniu Alfilastiniu"') is the legislative body of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and elects the PLO Executive Committee, which assumes leadership of the organization between its sessions.
The Palestinian National Security Forces (NSF; قوات الأمن الوطني الفلسطيني) are the paramilitary security forces of the Palestinian National Authority.
Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Philistia (Pleshet) refers to the land of the Five Lords of the Philistines, described in and, comprising Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, in the south-western Levant.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Saint Porphyry (Porphyrius; Πορφύριος, Porphyrios; Slavonic: Порфирий, Porfiriy; –420) was bishop of Gaza from 395 to 420, known, from the account in his Life, for Christianizing the recalcitrant pagan city of Gaza, and demolishing its temples.
The Port of Gaza is a small port near the Rimal district of Gaza City.
Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness at a time when most people did not have access to private bathing facilities.
Qaqun (قاقون) was a Palestinian Arab village located northwest of the city of Tulkarm at the only entrance to Mount Nablus from the coastal Sharon plain.
Qasr al-Basha (قصر الباشا), also known as Radwan Castle and Napoleon's Fort, was formerly a large palace, and now a two-floored girls' school and museum, situated in the Old City of Gaza.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Between 792–793 and 796 a Qays-Yaman war (also referred to as the War of the WatermelonLevy-Rubin and Kedar 2001, p. 65.Linder 2007, p. 22.) took place in Palestine and Transjordan between the northern Arab tribal federation of Mudhar, also called Nizar or Qays, and the southern tribal confederation of Yaman and the latter's Abbasid allies.
Rafah (رفح) is a Palestinian city and refugee camp in the southern Gaza Strip.
The Rafah Border Crossing (معبر رفح Ma`bar Rafaḥ, מעבר רפיח) or Rafah Crossing Point is the sole crossing point between Egypt and Gaza Strip.
Ramallah (رام الله) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). Ramallah was historically an Arab Christian town. Today Muslims form the majority of the population of nearly 27,092 in 2007, with Christians making up a significant minority.
Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
Rashad al-Shawwa (رشاد الشوا) (1909 - 1988) was the Palestinian mayor of Gaza for eleven years from 1971 to 1982.
The Rashad Shawa Cultural Center is a cultural center that was built in 1985, in Rimal, Gaza, Palestine.
The Rashidun army was the core of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun navy.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
The Ridwan dynasty (also spelled Radwan; RizvanZe'evi, 2012, p.) was the most prominent pasha family in Palestine, ruling the southwestern districts of the Damascus Eyalet ("Province of Damascus") in the 16th and 17th centuries under Ottoman rule.
Rimal or Remal (حي الرمال) (meaning "sands" in Arabic) is an area in Gaza City located from the city center.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman theatres derive from and are part of the overall evolution of earlier Greek theatres.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways.
Roots Club is an upscale restaurant and catering hall in Gaza.
Hajj Sa'id al-Shawwa (الحـاج سعيد الشوا) (1868–October 1930) was a Palestinian Arab politician and the first mayor of Gaza, serving from 1906 to 1917.
Sabra is a neighborhood district in western Gaza.
Safed (צְפַת Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas, Biblical: Ṣ'fath; صفد, Ṣafad) is a city in the Northern District of Israel.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Salah al-Din Road (also known as the Salah ad-Deen Highway) is the main highway of the Gaza Strip and extends over 45 kilometers, spanning the entire length of the territory from the Rafah Crossing in the south to the Erez Crossing in the north.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.
Sanjar ibn Abdullah Alam al-Din Abu Sa'id al-Jawli (also spelled Sangar al-Gawli, Sanjar al-Jawali or Sinjar al-Jawili, 1255–14 January 1345) was a powerful Mamluk emir and the Governor of Gaza and much of Palestine between 1311–20 during the sultanate of an-Nasir Muhammad and then again for a brief time in 1342 during the reign of the latter's son as-Salih Ismail.
The Sayed al-Hashim Mosque (مسجد السيد هاشم Masjid as-Sayed Hāshim) is one of the largest and oldest mosques in Gaza, located in the ad-Darrāj Quarter of the Old City, off of al-Wehda Street.
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sheikh Ijlin (الشيخ عجلين) is a neighborhood in southern Gaza City near the coastal road.
Sheikh Radwan (الشيخ رضوان) is a district of Gaza City located nearly northwest of the city center.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
Shuja'iyya (الشجاعية also Shejaiya, Shijaiyeh, Shujayya, Shuja'ia, Shuja'iya) is a neighborhood district of the Palestinian city of Gaza east of the city center, its nucleus situated on a hill, located across the main Salah al-Din Road that runs north-south throughout the Gaza Strip.
The Siege of Gaza was an incident in the Egyptian campaign of Alexander the Great in 332 BC.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
South Arabia is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Sumaghiyyeh (السماقية) is a Palestinian dish native to Gaza City, prepared traditionally on holidays.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.
Tall al-Ajjul or Tell el-'Ajul is an archaeological mound or tell in the Gaza Strip.
Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.
Tel al-Hawa (تل الهوا, "Hill of the Wind") or Tel al-Islam ("Hill of Islam") is a neighborhood in the southern part of the Palestinian city of Gaza.
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
Tel El Sakan was an important ancient Canaanite/Egyptian maritime settlement during the early Bronze Age, situated at the mouth of wadi Ghazzeh.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
The Third Battle of Gaza was fought on the night of 1/2 November 1917 between British and Ottoman forces during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I, and came after the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) victory at the Battle of Beersheba had ended the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.
Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning "Thoth is born") was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf of September 1191.
Tromsø (Romsa; Tromssa; Tromssa) is a city and municipality in Troms county, Norway.
Tuffah (حي التفاح, translation: "the Apple") is a district of Gaza City, located northeast of the Old City and is divided into eastern and western halves.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
A Turkish bath (hamam, translit) is a type of public bathing associated with the culture of the Ottoman Empire and more widely the Islamic world.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
Tyche (from Τύχη, Túkhē, meaning "luck"; Roman equivalent: Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity who governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
Soldier's Square or Square of the Unknown Soldier (ميدان الجندي المجهول Midan al-Jundi al-Majhool) is a city square in Gaza City, situated along Omar Mukhtar Street in the Rimal district.
Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Via Maris is the modern name for an ancient trade route, dating from the early Bronze Age, linking Egypt with the northern empires of Syria, Anatolia and Mesopotamia — modern day Iran, Iraq, Israel, Turkey and Syria.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) is the science, production, and study of grapes.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
The Wars of the Diadochi (Πόλεμοι των Διαδόχων), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire after his death.
Wehda Street (شارع الوحدة) also spelled Wihda Street is a thoroughfare that runs through central Gaza City, more or less parallel with Omar Mukhtar Street.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Yāqūt ibn-'Abdullah al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) (ياقوت الحموي الرومي) was an Arab biographer and geographer of Greek origin, renowned for his encyclopedic writings on the Muslim world.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yasser Arafat International Airport (مطار ياسر عرفات الدولي Maṭār Yāsir 'Arafāt ad-Dawli), formerly Gaza International Airport and Dahaniya International Airport, is located in the Gaza Strip, in between Rafah and Dahaniya, close to the Egyptian border.
Ynet (Hebrew: וואינט) is an Israeli news and general content website, which is the online outlet for Yedioth Ahronot.
Al-Zaytun (also spelled Zeitoun or Harat az-Zaytoun, Arabic translation: "the Quarter of Olive trees") is the southwestern and largest quarter of Gaza's Old City.
Zeitoun (translit) is a district of Gaza, located in the southern part of the city.
Zeta (uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; ζῆτα, label, classical or zē̂ta; zíta) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
The 1922 census of Palestine was the first census carried out by the authorities of the British Mandate of Palestine, on 23 October 1922.
The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising (ثورة البراق), also known as the 1929 Massacres, (מאורעות תרפ"ט,, lit. Events of 5689 Anno Mundi) refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.