326 relations: ABC News, Abu Dis, Agreement on Movement and Access, Airspace, Al-Bustan resort, Al-Quds University, Alan Johnston, Alcatraz Island, Alexander Jannaeus, Alexander the Great, All-Palestine Government, Allies of World War I, Amnesty International, Ancient Egypt, Anemia, Arab Christians, Arab League, Arab Spring, Arabic, Arable land, Arabs, Army of Islam (Gaza Strip), As-Sadaka, Asymmetric digital subscriber line, August 2013 Rabaa massacre, Ayyubid dynasty, B'Tselem, Battle of Gaza (2007), BBC News, Bedouin, Beef, Beit Hanoun, Beit Lahia, Bible, Biosalinity, Birzeit University, Blockade of the Gaza Strip, Border, Brainstorming, British Empire, British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), Bronze Age, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, CARE (relief agency), Cellcom (Israel), Citrus, Collective punishment, Condoleezza Rice, Covenant of the League of Nations, ..., Crusades, Dairy product, David Cameron, David Rose (journalist), David Shoebridge, Deir al-Balah, Desertification, Diesel fuel, Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, Dune, Egypt, Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, Egyptian Army, Ehud Barak, Embassy of Israel, London, Enclave and exclave, Erez Crossing, European Union, European Union Border Assistance Mission to Rafah, Fatah, Fatah–Hamas Doha Agreement, First Intifada, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, François Hollande, Free-to-air, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gaza City, Gaza flotilla raid, Gaza Museum of Archaeology, Gaza Seaport plans, Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels, Gaza War (2008–09), Gaza–Israel conflict, Gaza–Jericho Agreement, General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon, Geoffrey Aronson, Giorgio Agamben, Governance of the Gaza Strip, Greenhouse, Gross domestic product, Gross national product, Gush Dan, Gush Katif, Gush Katif Airport, Haaretz, HaBesor Stream, Halal, Hamas, Hamas government of June 2007, Hamastan, Hani Talab al-Qawasmi, Hasmonean dynasty, Hijab, Hilles clan, Hosni Mubarak, Hulagu Khan, Human Poverty Index, Human rights in the State of Palestine, Human Rights Watch, Iain Scobbie, International Business Times, International Committee of the Red Cross, International humanitarian law, International recognition of the State of Palestine, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Internet service provider, Iraq, Islam and clothing, Islamic extremism, Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Ismail Haniyeh, Israel, Israel Broadcasting Authority, Israel Defense Forces, Israel Electric Corporation, Israel Law Review, Israel–Gaza barrier, Israeli Air Force, Israeli disengagement from Gaza, Israeli new shekel, Israeli pound, Israeli settlement, Israeli-occupied territories, Jabalia, James Wolfensohn, Jericho, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Jewish Agency for Israel, John Dugard, John Holmes (British diplomat), Johns Hopkins University, Jonathan Cook, Jordan, Journal of Palestine Studies, Judea (Roman province), Karni crossing, Kerem Shalom border crossing, Kfar Darom, Khan Yunis, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Knesset, Knights Templar, Laila Shawa, Lauren Booth, Lawrence Weschler, Le Monde diplomatique, League of Nations, Lebanon, Levi Eshkol, List of countries by population growth rate, List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2008, List of sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate, Ma'an News Agency, Mahmoud Abbas, Mahmoud al-Zahar, Malnutrition, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mandatory Palestine, Mediterranean Sea, Meron Benvenisti, Middle East Monitor, Military equipment of Israel, Military occupation, Ministry of Defense (Israel), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), Mondoweiss, Mongols, Morrison–Grady Plan, Mortality rate, Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook, Nacre, Natural gas, Neve Gordon, Next Palestinian general election, Noam Chomsky, Nur Masalha, Old Israeli shekel, Olive, Olympic-size swimming pool, Oslo Accords, Oslo I Accord, Oslo II Accord, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Oxfam, Palaestina Prima, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestine pound, Palestine Summer Time, Palestinian Authority Governments of June–July 2007, Palestinian bedouin, Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation, Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Palestinian Centre for Human Rights, Palestinian Declaration of Independence, Palestinian legislative election, 2006, Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian National Security Forces, Palestinian National Unity Government of March 2007, Palestinian Presidential Guard, Palestinian Preventive Security, Palestinian refugees, Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, Palestinian territories, Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014, Palestinians, Per capita income, Personal computer, Philadelphi Route, Philip Slater, Philistia, Philistines, Polygamy, Port of Gaza, President of the Palestinian National Authority, Ptolemaic dynasty, Puppet state, Qassam rocket, Rafah, Rafah Border Crossing, Rafah, Egypt, Rami Hamdallah, RAND Corporation, Rashidun Caliphate, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Richard A. 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ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Abu Dis or Abu Deis (أبو ديس) is a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority bordering Jerusalem.
The Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) is an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA), signed on 15 November 2005.
Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere.
Al-Bustan (eng.: The Garden) is a beach resort in Gaza with restaurants, cafes and swimming pools.
Al-Quds University (جامعة القدس) is a Palestinian university with campuses in Jerusalem, Abu Dis, and al-Bireh.
Alan Graham Johnston (born 17 May 1962) is a British journalist working for the BBC.
Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay, offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.
Alexander Jannaeus (also known as Alexander Jannai/Yannai; יהונתן "ינאי" אלכסנדר, born Jonathan Alexander) was the second Hasmonean king of Judaea from 103 to 76 BC.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The All-Palestine Government (حكومة عموم فلسطين) was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. Pp. 177–78 The Prime Minister of the Gaza-seated administration was Ahmed Hilmi Pasha, and the President was Hajj Amin al-Husseini, former chairman of the Arab Higher Committee. Shortly thereafter the Jericho Conference named King Abdullah I of Transjordan "King of Arab Palestine". The Congress called for the union of Arab Palestine and Transjordan and Abdullah announced his intention to annex the West Bank. The other Arab League member states opposed Abdullah's plan. The All-Palestine Government is regarded by some as the first attempt to establish an independent Palestinian state. It was under official Egyptian protection, but it had no executive role. The government had mostly political and symbolic implications. Its importance gradually declined, especially after the relocation of its seat of government from Gaza to Cairo following the Israeli invasion in late 1948. Though the Gaza Strip remained under Egyptian control through the war the All-Palestine Government remained in exile in Cairo, managing Gazan affairs from outside. In 1959, the All-Palestine Government was officially merged into the United Arab Republic, coming under formal Egyptian military administration, who appointed Egyptian military administrators in Gaza. Egypt, however, both formally and informally renounced any and all territorial claims to Palestinian territory (in contrast to the government of Transjordan, which declared its annexation of the Palestinian West Bank). The All-Palestine Government's credentials as a bona fide sovereign state were questioned by many mainly due to the government's effective reliance upon not only Egyptian military support but also Egyptian political and economic power.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Army of Islam (جَيش الإسلام Jaysh al-Islām) is the name used by the Doghmush Hamula (clan) for their Islamic militant activities.
The As-Sadaka is a 50m swimming pool in the Gaza strip.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
On 14 August 2013, Egyptian security forces and army under the command of general Abdel Fattah el-Sisi raided two camps of protesters in Cairo: one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Square.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
B'Tselem (בצלם,, "in the image of ") is a Jerusalem-based non-profit organization whose stated goals are to document human rights violations in the Israeli-occupied territories, combat denial of the existence of such violations, and help to create a human rights culture in Israel.
The Battle of Gaza, also referred to as Hamas' takeover of Gaza, was a military conflict between Fatah and Hamas, that took place in the Gaza Strip between the June 10 and 15, 2007.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Beit Hanoun or Beit Hanun (بيت حانون) is a city on the northeast edge of the Gaza Strip.
Beit Lahia (بيت لاهيا) is a city located in the Gaza Strip north of Jabalia, near Beit Hanoun and the 1949 Armistice Line with Israel.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Biosalinity is the study and practice of using saline (salty) water for irrigating agricultural crops.
Birzeit University (جامعة بيرزيت), often abbreviated as BZU, is a public university located in Birzeit, West Bank, near Ramallah.
The blockade of the Gaza Strip is the ongoing land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip imposed by Israel and Egypt since 2007.
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.
Brainstorming is a group creativity technique by which efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list of ideas spontaneously contributed by its members.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
CARE (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, formerly Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) is a major international humanitarian agency delivering emergency relief and long-term international development projects.
Cellcom (סלקום) is an Israeli telecommunications company.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
David Rose (born 21 July 1959) is a British author and investigative journalist.
David Martin Shoebridge is an Australian politician, environmental and social justice activist and former industrial law barrister.
Deir al-Balah or Dayr al-Balah (دير البلح translated Monastery of the Date Palm) is a Palestinian city in the central Gaza Strip and the administrative capital of the Deir el-Balah Governorate.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
The period of the defeat and end of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era with the Young Turk Revolution.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-'Isrā'īlīyah; הסכם השלום בין ישראל למצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed in Washington, D.C., United States on 26 March 1979, following the 1978 Camp David Accords.
The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces.
Ehud Barak (Ehud_barak.ogg, born Ehud Brog; 12 February 1942) is an Israeli politician who served as the tenth Prime Minister from 1999 to 2001.
The Embassy of Israel in London is the diplomatic mission of Israel in the United Kingdom.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Erez Crossing (מעבר ארז, معبر بيت حانون) is a border crossing on the Israel–Gaza barrier.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The European Union Border Assistance Mission at the Rafah Crossing Point (EU BAM Rafah) was, after the European Union Police Mission for the Gaza Strip (EU COPPS), the EU's second Civilian Crisis Management Mission in the occupied Palestinian territory.
Fataḥ (فتح), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement, is a Palestinian nationalist political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).
The Fatah–Hamas Doha Agreement was a reconciliation attempt between Fatah and Hamas, signed on 7 February 2012.
The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six civilian ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Gaza Museum of Archaeology (المتحف, Al Mat'haf, "The Museum") called in English the AlMath'af, Recreational Cultural House opened to the public in fall 2008 in Gaza.
Gaza Seaport is a planned seaport in the Gaza Strip.
The Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels are passages that have been dug under the Philadelphi Corridor, a narrow strip of land, 14 km (8.699 miles) in length, situated along the border between Gaza Strip and Egypt.
The Gaza War, also known as Operation Cast Lead, also known as the Gaza Massacre and the Battle of al-Furqan by Hamas, Secondary source, Abdul-Hameed al-Kayyali, Studies on the Israeli Aggression on Gaza Strip: Cast Lead Operation / Al-Furqan Battle, 2009 was a three-week armed conflict between Palestinians in the Gaza Strip and Israel that began on 27 December 2008 and ended on 18 January 2009 in a unilateral ceasefire.
The Gaza–Israel conflict is a part of the wider Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
The Gaza–Jericho Agreement, officially called Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, was a follow-up treaty to the Oslo I Accord in which details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded.
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a single-engine supersonic multirole fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) for the United States Air Force (USAF).
Geoffrey Aronson is a writer and analyst, specializing in Middle East affairs.
Giorgio Agamben (born 22 April 1942) is an Italian philosopher best known for his work investigating the concepts of the state of exception, form-of-life (borrowed from Ludwig Wittgenstein) and homo sacer.
The governance of the Gaza Strip is carried out by the Hamas administration, led by Ismail Haniyeh, from 2007, until 2014 and again from 2016.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the goods and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Gush Dan (גּוּשׁ דָּן; غوش دان) is a conurbation, including areas from both the Tel Aviv and the Central Districts of Israel, or sometimes the whole of Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area (מֶטְרוֹפּוֹלִין תֵּל אָבִיב), which in current official designations includes a small part of the Southern District (Israel) as well.
Gush Katif (גוש קטיף, lit. Harvest Bloc) was a bloc of 17 Israeli settlements in the southern Gaza strip.
Gush Katif Airport was a small airfield in the Gaza Strip approximately north of the town of Khan Yunis, and adjacent to the UNRWA Khan Younis refugee camp.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Besor (נחל הבשור, Nahal HaBesor) is a wadi in southern Israel.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
The Palestinian government of June 2007 by Ismail Haniyye was formed in the Gaza Strip, following an intensive inter-factional Palestinian warfare in the Gaza Strip, in which Fatah was ousted by Hamas party.
Hamastan (חמאסטן) is a pejorative neologism, merging 'Hamas', a Palestinian militant organization and political party, and '-stan', a suffix of Persian origin meaning "home of/place of".
Hani Talab al-Qawasmi is a Palestinian politician.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
The Helles clan is a Palestinian extended family that became known in 2008 for its violent conflict with the de facto Hamas military government in the Gaza Strip.
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
The Human Poverty Index (HPI) was an indication of the standard of living in a country, developed by the United Nations (UN) to complement the Human Development Index (HDI) and was first reported as part of the Human Development Report in 1997.
Human rights in the Palestinian Territories refers to the human rights record in the West Bank and Gaza.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Iain Girvan Mann Scobbie is a British expert in international law who is the Chair of International Law at the University of Manchester, where he lectures on public international law, international courts and tribunals, and the use of force.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Islam says that the believing women should lower their gaze, guard their modesty, not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, Foster brother, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.
Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.
The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين, Harakat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn) known in the West as simply Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), is a Palestinian Islamist terrorist organization formed in 1981 whose objective is the destruction of the State of Israel and the establishment of a sovereign, Islamic Palestinian state.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Ismail Abdel Salam Ahmed Haniyeh (إسماعيل عبد السلام أحمد هنية,; sometimes transliterated as Haniya, Haniyah or Hanieh;; born 29 January 1962) is a senior political leader of Hamas and formerly one of two disputed Prime Ministers of the Palestinian National Authority.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was Israel's state broadcasting organization from 1948 until May 2017.
The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. "The Army of Defense for Israel"; جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal, are the military forces of the State of Israel.
Israel Electric Corporation (חברת החשמל לישראל, abbreviation: IEC) is the largest supplier of electrical power in Israel.
The Israel Law Review is the oldest Israeli law journal published in English.
The Israel−Gaza security barrier is a border barrier first constructed by Israel in 1994 between the Gaza Strip and Israel.
The Israeli Air Force (IAF; זְרוֹעַ הָאֲוִיר וְהֶחָלָל, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תוכנית ההתנתקות,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside the Gaza Strip, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.
The Israeli new shekel (שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ; شيقل جديد; sign: ₪; code: ILS), also known as simply the Israeli shekel and formerly known as the New Israeli Sheqel (NIS), is the currency of Israel and is also used as a legal tender in the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
The Israeli pound (לירה ישראלית Lira Yisr'elit, ليرة إسرائيلية) or Israeli lira was the currency of the State of Israel from 9 June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980, which was again replaced with the New Shekel in 1985.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories occupied by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967.
Jabalia also Jabalya (جباليا) is a Palestinian city located north of Gaza City.
James David Wolfensohn, KBE, AO (born 1 December 1933) is an Australian American lawyer, investment banker and economist who served as the ninth president of the World Bank Group.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA) is an Israeli research institute specializing in public diplomacy and foreign policy founded in 1976.
The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.
Christopher John Robert Dugard (born 23 August 1936 in Fort Beaufort), known as John Dugard, is a South African professor of international law.
Sir John Holmes (born 29 April 1951) is a British former diplomat who is the current Chair of the Electoral Commission.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
Jonathan Cook (born 1965) is a British writer and a freelance journalist based in Nazareth, Israel, who writes about the Middle East, and more specifically, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Journal of Palestine Studies is an academic journal established in 1971.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
The Karni Crossing (معبر كارني or معبر المنطار, מעבר קרני) was a cargo terminal on the Israel-Gaza Strip barrier.
Kerem Shalom border crossing (מעבר כרם שלום, معبر كرم أبو سالم) is a border crossing on the Gaza Strip-Israel border managed by the Israel Airports Authority.
Kfar Darom (כְּפַר דָּרוֹם, lit. South Village), was a kibbutz and an Israeli settlement within the Gush Katif bloc in the Gaza Strip.
Khan Yunis (خان يونس, also spelled Khan Younis or Khan Yunus; translation: Caravansary Jonah) is a city in the southern Gaza Strip.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon's Temple, the Knights Templar or simply as Templars, were a Catholic military order recognised in 1139 by papal bull Omne Datum Optimum of the Holy See.
Laila Shawa (Arabic: ليلى الشوا; born Gaza, 1940) is a Palestinian artist whose work has been described as a personal reflection concerning the politics of her country, particularly highlighting perceived injustices and persecution.
Lauren Booth (born Sarah Jane Booth; 22 July 1967) is an English broadcaster, journalist and activist.
Lawrence Weschler (born 1952) is an author of works of creative nonfiction.
Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Levi Eshkol (לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל;, born Levi Yitzhak Shkolnik (לוי יצחק שקולניק)‎ 25 October 1895 – 26 February 1969) was an Israeli statesman who served as the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death from a heart attack in 1969.
This article includes a table of countries and self-governing dependent territories by annual population growth rate.
This is a list of 2008 rocket and mortar attacks on Israel, by Hamas and Palestinian militants from the Gaza Strip.
This is a list of all sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.
Ma'an News Agency (MNA; وكالة معا الإخبارية) is a large wire service created in 2005 in the Palestinian territories.
Mahmoud Abbas (مَحْمُود عَبَّاس,; born 15 November 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (أَبُو مَازِن), is the President of the State of Palestine and Palestinian National Authority. He has been the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since 11 November 2004, and Palestinian president since 15 January 2005 (Palestinian National Authority since 15 January 2005, and State of Palestine since 8 May 2005). Abbas is a member of the Fatah party and was elected Chairman of Fatah in 2009. Abbas was elected on 9 January 2005 to serve as President of the Palestinian National Authority until 15 January 2009, but extended his term until the next election in 2010, citing the PLO constitution, and on December 16, 2009 was voted into office indefinitely by the PLO Central Council. As a result, Fatah's main rival, Hamas, initially announced that it would not recognize the extension or view Abbas as the rightful president. The Jerusalem Post (9 January 2009) Yet, Abbas is internationally recognized and Hamas and Fatah conducted numerous negotiations in the following years, leading to an agreement in April 2014 over a Unity Government, which lasted until October 2016, and therefore to the recognition of his office by Hamas. Abbas was also chosen as the President of the State of Palestine by the Palestine Liberation Organization's Central Council on 23 November 2008, a position he had held unofficially since 8 May 2005. Abbas served as the first Prime Minister of the Palestinian Authority from March to September 2003. Before being named prime minister, Abbas led the PLO Negotiations Affairs Department.
Mahmoud al-Zahar (محمود الزهار) (born 1945) is a Palestinian politician.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Meron Benvenisti (מירון בנבנשתי, born April 21, 1934) is an Israeli political scientist who was Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem under Teddy Kollek from 1971 to 1978, during which he administered East Jerusalem and served as Jerusalem's Chief Planning Officer.
The Middle East Monitor (MEMO) is a not-for-profit press monitoring organisation, founded on 1 July 2009.
The military equipment of Israel includes a wide array of arms, armored vehicles, artillery, missiles, planes, helicopters, and warships.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
The Ministry of Defense (מִשְׂרַד הַבִּטָּחוֹן, Misrad HaBitahon) of the government of Israel, is the governmental department responsible for defending the State of Israel from internal and external military threats.
The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. Misrad HaHutz; وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government.
Mondoweiss is a news website that is co-edited by journalists Philip Weiss and Adam Horowitz.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Morrison–Grady Plan, also known as the Morrison Plan or the Provincial Autonomy Plan was a joint Anglo-American plan for the creation of a unitary federal trusteeship in Mandatory Palestine, announced on 31 July 1946.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook (موسى محمد أبو مرزوق; born 9 January 1951) is a Palestinian senior member of Hamas.
Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Neve Gordon (ניב גורדון; born 15 June 1965) is a Professor of Politics and Government at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, who writes on issues relating to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and human rights.
General elections were scheduled to be held in the State of Palestine between April and October 2014 in accordance with the Fatah–Hamas Gaza Agreement of April 2014.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Nur-eldeen (Nur) Masalha (نور مصالحة; born 4 January 1957 in Galilee, Israel) is a Palestinian writer and academic.
The old Shekel, known at the time as the Shekel (שקל, formally Sheqel,. שקלים, Sheqalim; شيقل, šīqal) was the currency of the State of Israel between 24 February 1980 and 31 December 1985.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
An Olympic-size swimming pool conforms to regulated dimensions, large enough for international competition.
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.
The Oslo I Accord or Oslo I, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or short Declaration of Principles (DOP), was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip commonly known as Oslo II or Oslo 2, was a key and complex agreement in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine province from 390, until the 7th century.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palestine pound (جُنَيْه فِلَسْطَينِيّ, junyah filastini; פֿוּנְט פַּלֶשְׂתִינָאִי א"י)), funt palestina'i (eretz-yisra'eli), also לירה א"י)) lira eretz-yisra'elit) was the currency of the British Mandate of Palestine from 1927 to May 14, 1948, and of the State of Israel between May 15, 1948, and June 23, 1952, when it was replaced with the Israeli lira.
Palestine Summer Time is the practice in the State of Palestine by which clocks are advanced by one hour.
The Palestinian Authority Governments of June–July 2007 were a series of Palestinian Authority (PA) emergency cabinets led by Salam Fayyad established by Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas by presidential decree.
Palestinian bedouins are a people that have historically roamed with livestock and other domesticated animals in the regions that roughly corresponds with areas to the west of the Jordan river.
The Palestinian Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) (هيئة الإذاعة والتلفزيون الفلسطينية) was established on 1 July 1994 and is within the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority.
The Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS; الجهاز المركزي للإحصاء الفلسطيني) is the official statistical institution of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian Centre for Human Rights (PCHR, المركز الفلسطيني لحقوق الإنسان) is an independent Palestinian human rights organization based in Gaza City, founded and directed by Raji Sourani.
The Palestinian Declaration of Independence is a statement written by the Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish and proclaimed by Yasser Arafat on 15 November 1988 (5 Rabi' al-Thani 1409).
Elections for the second Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), were held on 25 January 2006.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
The Palestinian National Security Forces (NSF; قوات الأمن الوطني الفلسطيني) are the paramilitary security forces of the Palestinian National Authority.
The Palestinian National Unity Government of March 2007 (المجلس الفلسطيني لآذار 17 2007) was a Palestinian Authority unity government from March to June 2007, headed by Ismail Haniyeh, the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority.
The Palestinian Presidential Guard (PPG) (الحرس الرئاسي الفلسطيني.) is a branch of the Palestinian Security Services under the direct control of the President of the State of Palestine.
The Palestinian Preventive Security (PPS) (Arabic: الأمن الوقائي; Al-'amn al-wiqa'i), also known as Preventive Security Force (PSF), Preventive Security Service (PSS) is one of the security apparatus of the State of Palestine.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
Since 2001, Palestinian militants have launched thousands of rocket and mortar attacks on Israel from the Gaza Strip as part of the continuing Arab–Israeli conflict.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
The Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014 was a national unity government of the Palestinian National Authority under Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas formed on 2 June 2014 following the Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation Agreement that had been signed on 23 April 2014.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
The Philadelphi Route, also called Philadelphia Corridor, refers to a narrow strip of land, 14 km (8.699 miles) in length, situated along the border between Gaza Strip and Egypt.
Philip Elliot Slater (May 15, 1927 – June 20, 2013) was an American sociologist and writer.
Philistia (Pleshet) refers to the land of the Five Lords of the Philistines, described in and, comprising Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, in the south-western Levant.
The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
The Port of Gaza is a small port near the Rimal district of Gaza City.
The President of the Palestinian National Authority (رئيس السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA).
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qassam rocket (صاروخ القسام Ṣārūkh al-Qassām; also Kassam) is a simple, steel artillery rocket developed and deployed by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the military arm of Hamas.
Rafah (رفح) is a Palestinian city and refugee camp in the southern Gaza Strip.
The Rafah Border Crossing (معبر رفح Ma`bar Rafaḥ, מעבר רפיח) or Rafah Crossing Point is the sole crossing point between Egypt and Gaza Strip.
Rafah (رفح) or Egyptian Rafah is an important city in North Sinai and Egypt's eastern border with the Gaza Strip.
Rami Hamdallah (رامي حمدالله; born 10 August 1958) is a Palestinian politician and academic.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
Richard Anderson Falk (born November 13, 1930) is an American professor emeritus of international law at Princeton University.
Robert Solomon Wistrich (April 7, 1945 – May 19, 2015) was the Erich Neuberger Professor of European and Jewish history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the head of the University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Antisemitism.
Roger Cohen (born 2 August 1955) is a journalist and author.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Salah al-Din Road (also known as the Salah ad-Deen Highway) is the main highway of the Gaza Strip and extends over 45 kilometers, spanning the entire length of the territory from the Rafah Crossing in the south to the Erez Crossing in the north.
The San Remo conference was an international meeting of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council as an outgrowth of the Paris Peace Conference, held at Villa Devachan in Sanremo, Italy, from 19 to 26 April 1920.
Sara M. Roy is an American political economist and scholar.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
The Second Intifada, also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (انتفاضة الأقصى; אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה Intifādat El-Aqtzah), was the second Palestinian uprising against Israel – a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence.
The Security Cabinet (הקבינט המדיני-ביטחוני, HaKabinet HaMedini-Bithoni) or Ministerial Committee on National Security Affairs (ועדת השרים לענייני ביטחון, Va'adat HaSarim Le'Inyanei Bitahon) is a narrow forum of "Inner Cabinet" within the Israeli Cabinet, headed by the Prime Minister of Israel, with the purpose of outlining a foreign and defense policy and implementing it.
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
The Israel Security Agency (ISA, שירות הביטחון הכללי Sherut ha-Bitaẖon haKlali "General Security Service"; جهاز الأمن العام), better known by the acronym Shabak (שב״כ,, شاباك) or the Shin Bet (a two-letter Hebrew abbreviation of the name), is Israel's internal security service.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
Smuggling tunnels are secret passages used for the smuggling of goods and people.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
The Southern District (מחוז הדרום, Meḥoz HaDarom; لواء الجنوب) is one of Israel's six administrative districts, the largest in terms of land area but the most sparsely populated.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syria Palaestina was a Roman province between 135 AD and about 390.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
Tall al-Ajjul or Tell el-'Ajul is an archaeological mound or tell in the Gaza Strip.
Tanya Reinhart (טניה ריינהרט; July 1943 – March 17, 2007) was an Israeli linguist who wrote frequently on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Telephone numbers in the State of Palestine The Country Code +970 is reserved for Palestine.
Tel El Sakan was an important ancient Canaanite/Egyptian maritime settlement during the early Bronze Age, situated at the mouth of wadi Ghazzeh.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Second Authority for Television and Radio (הרשות השניה לטלויזיה ורדיו, HaRashut HaShniya Le'Televizya VeRadio) is an Israeli commercial television and radio authority, established in the wake of a law passed by the Knesset in 1990.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries in the Near East.
Time in Palestine is represented by Palestine Standard Time.
Tit for tat is an English saying meaning "equivalent retaliation".
Tom Segev (תום שגב; born March 1, 1945) is an Israeli historian, author and journalist.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Truthdig is a news website that provides a mix of long-form articles, blog items, curated links, interviews, arts criticism and commentary on current events delivered from a politically progressive, left-leaning point of view.
Tziporah Malka "Tzipi" Livni (ציפורה מלכה "ציפי" לבני; born 8 July 1958) is a prominent Israeli politician and former Foreign Minister of Israel.
The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict was a team established in August 2014 by the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) during the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict as an independent international fact-finding mission to investigate alleged violations of international human rights law and international humanitarian law in the Palestinian territories, particularly the Gaza Strip, in connection with the conflict.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
"Foreign Terrorist Organization" (FTO) is a designation for non-United States-based organizations deemed by the United States Secretary of State, in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (INA), to be involved in what US authorities define as terrorist activities.
University College of Applied Sciences (UCAS) is a technical college in Gaza founded in 1998.
An unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), also known as a combat drone or simply a drone, is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that usually carries aircraft ordnance such as missiles and is used for drone strikes.
Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
Violent extremism refers to the beliefs and actions of people who support or use ideologically motivated violence to achieve radical ideological, religious or political views.
The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European statesthe Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of the European Union (EU)for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU.
Vittorio Arrigoni (4 February 1975 – 15 April 2011) was an Italian reporter, writer, pacifist and activist.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The Wye River Memorandum was an agreement negotiated between Israel and the Palestinian Authority at a summit in Wye River, Maryland, U.S., held from 15–23 October 1998.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa (محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات; 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar (أبو عمار), was a Palestinian political leader.
Yasser Arafat International Airport (مطار ياسر عرفات الدولي Maṭār Yāsir 'Arafāt ad-Dawli), formerly Gaza International Airport and Dahaniya International Airport, is located in the Gaza Strip, in between Rafah and Dahaniya, close to the Egyptian border.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.
Yoram Dinstein is a scholar and Professor Emeritus at Tel Aviv University.
Yuval Diskin (יובל דיסקין; born June 11, 1956) was the 12th Director of the Israeli Internal Security Service Shabak (frequently referred to in English as the "Shin Bet") from 2005 to 2011.
11 points in the Negev (11 הנקודות, 11 HaNekudot) refers to a Jewish Agency plan for establishing eleven settlements in the Negev in 1946, prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of armistice agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 Lebanon, UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949 Jordan, UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949 and Syria UN Doc S/1353 20 July 1949 to formally end the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and establish armistice lines between Israeli forces and Jordanian-Iraqi forces, also known as the Green Line. The United Nations established supervising and reporting agencies to monitor the established armistice lines.
The 2006–07 economic sanctions against the Palestinian National Authority were economic sanctions imposed and other measures taken by Israel, the United States and other countries against the Palestinian National Authority (PA) and the Palestinian territories, including the suspension of international aid to Palestinians following the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) election on 25 January 2006 that resulted in a decisive victory for Hamas.
The 2008 breach of the Gaza–Egypt border began on 23 January after Hamas militants in the Gaza Strip set off an explosion near the Rafah border crossing, destroying part of the 2003 wall.
On 3 July 2013, Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi led a coalition to remove the President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution.
The 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict also known as Operation Protective Edge (מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit. "Operation Strong Cliff") and sometimes referred to as the 2014 Gaza war, was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip.
'Azzah Strip, Aza Strip, Azza Strip, Azzah Strip, Communications in the Gaza Strip, District of Gaza, Economy of the Gaza Strip, Gaza Area, Gaza Strip/Communications, Gaza Strip/Economy, Gaza Strip/Geography, Gaza Strip/History, Gaza Strip/Military, Gaza Strip/People, Gaza Strip/Transnational issues, Gaza Strip/Transportation, Gaza strip, Gaza, Palestine, Geography of Gaza Strip, Geography of the Gaza Strip, Geography of the gaza strip, Ghazzah Strip, Healthcare in the Gaza Strip, History of the Gaza Strip, Katif Strip, Military of the Gaza Strip, Political status of the Gaza Strip, Qit?a' Gazzah, Qita Ghazzah, Qita' Ghazzah, Qitˁɑ' Ġazzah, Qiṭɑʿ Ġazza, Rail transport in the Gaza Strip, Religion in the Gaza Strip, Retzu'at 'Azza, Tel el Hesi, Tel el Murre, Tel el Nejile, The Gaza Strip, Transportation in the Gaza Strip, רצועת עזה, قطاع غزة.