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Gel electrophoresis

Index Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge. [1]

119 relations: Acrylamide, Affinity electrophoresis, Agar, Agarose, Base (chemistry), Base pair, Binding constant, Biochemistry, Biomolecular structure, Capillary electrophoresis, Cathode, Cell (biology), Cloning, Coomassie Brilliant Blue, Cross-link, De novo peptide sequencing, Denaturation (biochemistry), Detergent, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Disulfide, Dithiothreitol, DNA, DNA profiling, DNA sequencing, Electric field, Electroblotting, Electrolytic cell, Electromotive force, Electrophoresis, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, Enterobacteria phage T4, Ethidium bromide, Fast parallel proteolysis, Fluorescence, Forensic chemistry, Formamide, Galvanic cell, Gel, Gel doc, Gel electrophoresis, Gel electrophoresis of proteins, Gel extraction, Genetics, Glycan, Glyoxal, History of electrophoresis, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Immunology, In-gel digestion, ..., Isoelectric focusing, Isotachophoresis, Isotopic labeling, LB buffer, Lectin, Lipid bilayer, Lysis, Macromolecule, Mass spectrometry, Metallome, Methylmercury, Microbiology, Molecular biology, Molecular mass, Molecular-weight size marker, Nanoparticle, Native state, Neurotoxin, Nitrocellulose, Nonlinear frictiophoresis, Northern blot, Nucleic acid, Oligonucleotide, Oliver Smithies, Peptide mass fingerprinting, Phosphate, Photograph, Plasmid, Polyacrylamide, Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Polymer, Polymerase chain reaction, Polymerization, Polysaccharide, Polyvinylidene fluoride, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Protein, Protein isoform, Proteomics, Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, QPNC-PAGE, Radioactive decay, Radius of gyration, Restriction enzyme, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, RNA, Sanger sequencing, SDD-AGE, SDS-PAGE, Seaweed, Silver stain, Single-strand conformation polymorphism, Sodium dodecyl sulfate, Sodium hydroxide, Southern blot, Staining, Starch, Sucrose, Sugar, TAE buffer, TBE buffer, Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Ultraviolet, Urea, Western blot, Zymography, 2-Mercaptoethanol, 2D gel analysis software. Expand index (69 more) »


Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.

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Affinity electrophoresis

Affinity electrophoresis is a general name for many analytical methods used in biochemistry and biotechnology.

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Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.

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Agarose is a polysaccharide, generally extracted from certain red seaweed.

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Binding constant

The binding constant, or association constant, is a special case of the equilibrium constant K, and is the inverse of the dissociation constant.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Capillary electrophoresis

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a family of electrokinetic separation methods performed in submillimeter diameter capillaries and in micro- and nanofluidic channels.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Coomassie Brilliant Blue

Coomassie Brilliant Blue is the name of two similar triphenylmethane dyes that were developed for use in the textile industry but are now commonly used for staining proteins in analytical biochemistry.

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A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

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De novo peptide sequencing

In mass spectrometry, de novo peptide sequencing is the method in which a peptide amino acid sequence is determined from tandem mass spectrometry.

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Denaturation (biochemistry)

Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.

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A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.

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Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Dithiothreitol (DTT) is the common name for a small-molecule redox reagent also known as Cleland's reagent.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electroblotting is a method in molecular biology/biochemistry/immunogenetics to transfer proteins or nucleic acids onto a membrane by using PVDF or nitrocellulose, after gel electrophoresis.

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Electrolytic cell

An electrolytic cell is an electrochemical cell that drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction through the application of electrical energy.

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Electromotive force

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.

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Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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Electrophoretic mobility shift assay

An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) or mobility shift electrophoresis, also referred as a gel shift assay, gel mobility shift assay, band shift assay, or gel retardation assay, is a common affinity electrophoresis technique used to study protein–DNA or protein–RNA interactions.

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Enterobacteria phage T4

Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.

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Ethidium bromide

Ethidium bromide is an intercalating agent commonly used as a fluorescent tag (nucleic acid stain) in molecular biology laboratories for techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis.

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Fast parallel proteolysis

Fast parallel proteolysis (FASTpp) is a method to determine the thermostability of proteins by measuring which fraction of protein resists rapid proteolytic digestion.

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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Forensic chemistry

Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting.

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Formamide, also known as methanamide, is an amide derived from formic acid.

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Galvanic cell

A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.

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A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.

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Gel doc

A gel doc, also known as a gel documentation system, gel image system or gel imager, refers to equipment widely used in molecular biology laboratories for the imaging and documentation of nucleic acid and protein suspended within polyacrylamide or agarose gels.

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

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Gel electrophoresis of proteins

Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract.

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Gel extraction

In molecular biology, gel extraction or gel isolation is a technique used to isolate a desired fragment of intact DNA from an agarose gel following agarose gel electrophoresis.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".

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Glyoxal is an organic compound with the chemical formula OCHCHO.

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History of electrophoresis

The history of electrophoresis begins in earnest with the work of Arne Tiselius in the 1931, and new separation processes and chemical analysis techniques based on electrophoresis continue to be developed into the 21st century.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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In-gel digestion

The in-gel digestion is part of the sample preparation for the mass spectrometric identification of proteins in course of proteomic analysis.

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Isoelectric focusing

Isoelectric focusing (IEF), also known as electrofocusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by differences in their isoelectric point (pI).

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Professor David Quayartey- Introduction to Medical Biophysics.

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Isotopic labeling

Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.

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LB buffer

LB buffer, also known as lithium borate buffer, is a buffer solution used in agarose electrophoresis, typically for the separation of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.

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Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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In biochemistry, the metallome distribution of free metal ions in every one of cellular compartments.

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Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular mass

Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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Molecular-weight size marker

A molecular-weight size marker, also referred to as a protein ladder, DNA ladder, or RNA ladder, is a set of standards that are used to identify the approximate size of a molecule run on a gel during electrophoresis, using the principle that molecular weight is inversely proportional to migration rate through a gel matrix.

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Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.

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Native state

In biochemistry, the native state of a protein or nucleic acid is its properly folded and/or assembled form, which is operative and functional.

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Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, and flash string) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent.

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Nonlinear frictiophoresis

Nonlinear frictiophoresis is the unidirectional drift of a particle in a medium caused by periodic driving force with zero mean.

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Northern blot

The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.

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Oliver Smithies

Oliver Smithies (23 June 1925 – 10 January 2017) was a British-born American geneticist and physical biochemist.

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Peptide mass fingerprinting

Peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) (also known as protein fingerprinting) is an analytical technique for protein identification in which the unknown protein of interest is first cleaved into smaller peptides, whose absolute masses can be accurately measured with a mass spectrometer such as MALDI-TOF or ESI-TOF.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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A photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.

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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Polyacrylamide (IUPAC poly(2-propenamide) or poly(1-carbamoylethylene), abbreviated as PAM) is a polymer (-CH2CHCONH2-) formed from acrylamide subunits.

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Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is a technique widely used in biochemistry, forensic chemistry, genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology to separate biological macromolecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, according to their electrophoretic mobility.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Polyvinylidene fluoride

Polyvinylidene fluoride or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) is a highly non-reactive thermoplastic fluoropolymer produced by the polymerization of vinylidene difluoride.

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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein isoform

A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.

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Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.

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Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

Pulsed field gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of large deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules by applying to a gel matrix an electric field that periodically changes direction.

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QPNC-PAGE, or quantitative preparative native continuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a bioanalytical, high-resolution and highly accurate technique applied in biochemistry and bioinorganic chemistry to separate proteins quantitatively by isoelectric point.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radius of gyration

Radius of gyration or gyradius of a body about an axis of rotation is defined as the radial distance of a point from the axis of rotation at which, if whole mass of the body is assumed to be concentrated, its moment of inertia about the given axis would be the same as with its actual distribution of mass.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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Restriction fragment length polymorphism

In molecular biology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Sanger sequencing

Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing first commercialized by Applied Biosystems, based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication.

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SDD-AGE is short for Semi-Denaturating Detergent Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.

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SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) is a variant of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, an analytical method in biochemistry for the separation of charged molecules in mixtures by their molecular masses in an electric field.

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Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.

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Silver stain

Silver staining is the use of silver to selectively alter the appearance of a target in microscopy of histological sections; in temperature gradient gel electrophoresis; and in polyacrylamide gels.

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Single-strand conformation polymorphism

Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), or single-strand chain polymorphism, is defined as a conformational difference of single-stranded nucleotide sequences of identical length as induced by differences in the sequences under certain experimental conditions.

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Sodium dodecyl sulfate

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), synonymously sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), or sodium laurilsulfate, is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3(CH2)11SO4 Na.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Southern blot

A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.

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Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

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Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

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Sucrose is common table sugar.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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TAE buffer

TAE buffer is a buffer solution containing a mixture of Tris base, acetic acid and EDTA.

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TBE buffer

TBE or Tris/Borate/EDTA, is a buffer solution containing a mixture of Tris base, boric acid and EDTA.

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Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) are forms of electrophoresis which use either a temperature or chemical gradient to denature the sample as it moves across an acrylamide gel.

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Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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Zymography is an electrophoretic technique for the detection of hydrolytic enzymes, based on the substrate repertoire of the enzyme.

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2-Mercaptoethanol (also β-mercaptoethanol, BME, 2BME, 2-ME or β-met) is the chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CH2SH.

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2D gel analysis software

2D gel analysis software is used in gel electrophoresis to analyze bio-markers by quantifying individual proteins, to show the separation between one or more protein "spots" on a scanned image of a 2-DE gel, and to match spots between gels of similar samples to show, for example, proteomic differences between early and advanced stages of an illness.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gel_electrophoresis

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