33 relations: American Gem Society, Asian Institute of Gemological Sciences, Canadian Gemmological Association, Canadian Institute of Gemmology, Crystal structure, Cubic zirconia, Earth science, Exogeny, Fluid inclusions, GCI Universal Gemological Laboratories, Gemmological Association of Australia, Gemmological Association of Great Britain, Gemmological Institute of India, Gemological Institute of America, Gems & Gemology, Gemstone, Glass, Inclusion (mineral), International Gemological Institute, Jewellery, Laboratoire français de gemmologie, Mineralogy, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Optical spectrometer, Pleochroism, Prism, Refractive index, Refractometer, Ruby, Science, Specific gravity, Swiss Gemmological Institute, Total internal reflection.
The American Gem Society (AGS) is a trade association of retail jewelers, independent appraisers, suppliers, and selective industry members, which was founded in 1934 by Robert M. Shipley.
The Asian Institute of Gemological Sciences (AIGS) is a private gemological school and gemological laboratory based in Bangkok, Thailand.
The Canadian Gemmological Association (CGA) is a Canada-wide professional organization which sets standards in the practice of gemology.
The Canadian Institute of Gemmology (C.I.G.) is a non-profit, post-secondary gemmological educational institution in Canada.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
Trapped in a time capsule the same size as the diameter of a human hair, the ore-forming liquid in this inclusion was so hot and contained so much dissolved solids that when it cooled, crystals of halite, sylvite, gypsum, and hematite formed. As the samples cooled, the fluid shrank more than the surrounding mineral, and created a vapor bubble. Source: USGS Fluid inclusions are microscopic bubbles of liquid and gas that are trapped within crystals.
Universal Gemological Laboratories (GCI) is a modern gemological laboratory and a college for educational services.
The inaugural meeting of The Gemmological Association of Australia (GAA) was held in the School of Arts Building, Pitt Street, Sydney on 29 October 1945.
The Gemmological Association of Great Britain (Gem-A) is an international gemmology education and qualifications body based in the United Kingdom.
Gemmological Institute of India is a gemmology training school in Mumbai, India.
The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts.
Gems & Gemology is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Gemological Institute of America.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
International Gemological Institute (IGI) is a diamond, colored stone and jewelry certification organization.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
The Laboratoire français de gemmologie (gemological laboratory of France) is the oldest gemological laboratory in the world, having been founded in 1929 by a customs official.
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
An optical spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials.
Pleochroism (from Greek πλέων, pléōn, "more" and χρῶμα, khrôma, "color") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry).
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
The Swiss Gemmological Institute SSEF is a gemmology laboratory located in Basel, Switzerland.
Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.