104 relations: Abrasive, Absorption spectroscopy, Aluminium oxide, Amber, American Gem Society, Amethyst, Ametrine, Ancient Greece, Andalusite, Antwerp World Diamond Centre, Archaeology, Art history, Assembled gem, Asterism (gemology), Axinite, Beryl, Birefringence, Boric acid, Cabochon, Carbon, Cassiterite, Chambersite, Chemical composition, Chromium, Chrysoberyl, Cleavage (crystal), Clinohumite, Corundum, Crystal, Crystal habit, Crystal system, Cubic crystal system, Cubic zirconia, Diamantaire, Diamond, Diamond cut, Diamond simulant, Dispersion (optics), Emerald, Engraved gem, Facet, Faceting machine, First water, Fracture, Garnet, Gemcutter, Gemological Institute of America, Gemology, Grandidierite, Hardstone, ..., Hardstone carving, Hexagonal crystal family, Hibonite, Impurity, Inclusion (mineral), International Gemological Institute, Irradiation, Jade, Jargon, Jeremejevite, Jet (lignite), Jewellery, Lapidary, Lapis lazuli, List of gemstones by species, List of individual gemstones, Luminescence, Lustre (mineralogy), Manganese, Mnemonic, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Moissanite, Monoclinic crystal system, Musgravite, Octahedron, Opal, Optical phenomena, Optics, Organic chemistry, Painite, Pearl, Peridot, Peter Carl Fabergé, Pleochroism, Poudretteite, Quartz, Random House, Refractive index, Rock (geology), Ruby, Sapphire, Serendibite, Specific gravity, Swiss Gemmological Institute, Synthetic diamond, Taaffeite, Tanzanite, Topaz, Transparency and translucency, Tsavorite, Turquoise, Variscite, Zektzerite, Zirconium. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Gem Society (AGS) is a trade association of retail jewelers, independent appraisers, suppliers, and selective industry members, which was founded in 1934 by Robert M. Shipley.
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry.
Ametrine, also known as trystine or by its trade name as bolivianite, is a naturally occurring variety of quartz.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andalusite is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.
The Antwerp World Diamond Centre (AWDC) is a public/private corporation, officially representing and coordinating the Antwerp diamond sector.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
An assembled gem (also called a composite gem) is a gemstone made up of other smaller gems.
Asterism (from ἀστήρ star), the property of a star stone (asteria), is the phenomenon of gemstones exhibiting a star-like concentration of reflected or refracted light when cut en cabochon (shaped and polished rather than faceted).
Axinite is a brown to violet-brown, or reddish-brown bladed group of minerals composed of calcium aluminium boro-silicate, (Ca,Fe,Mn)3Al2BO3Si4O12OH.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
A cabochon, from the Middle French word caboche (meaning "head"), is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished as opposed to faceted.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.
Chambersite is a manganese borate mineral with formula: Mn3B7O13Cl.
Chemical composition refers to the identity and relative number of the chemical elements that make up any particular compound.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.
Clinohumite is an uncommon member of the humite group, a magnesium silicate according to the chemical formula (Mg, Fe)9(SiO4)4(F,OH)2.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.
In crystallography, the terms crystal system, crystal family and lattice system each refer to one of several classes of space groups, lattices, point groups or crystals.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).
A diamantaire (French origin) is a gem-quality diamond manufacturer or producer, master diamond cutter, and graduate gemologist specialized in diamonds.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A diamond cut is a style or design guide used when shaping a diamond for polishing such as the brilliant cut.
A diamond simulant, diamond imitation or imitation diamond is an object or material with gemological characteristics similar to those of a diamond.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
An engraved gem, frequently referred to as an intaglio, is a small and usually semi-precious gemstone that has been carved, in the Western tradition normally with images or inscriptions only on one face.
Facets are flat faces on geometric shapes.
A faceting machine is broadly defined as any device that allows the user to place and polish facets onto a mineral specimen.
First water means "highest quality" and is a term which originates from the gemstone trade.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
A gemcutter is a person who cuts, shapes, and polishes natural and synthetic gemstones.
The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts.
Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.
Grandidierite is an extremely rare mineral and gem that was first discovered in 1902 in southern Madagascar.
Hardstone is an unscientific term, mostly encountered in the decorative arts or archaeology, that has a similar meaning to semi-precious stones, or gemstones.
Hardstone carving is a general term in art history and archaeology for the artistic carving of predominantly semi-precious stones (but also of gemstones), such as jade, rock crystal (clear quartz), agate, onyx, jasper, serpentine, or carnelian, and for an object made in this way.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Hibonite ((Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19) is a brownish black mineral with a hardness of 7.5–8.0 and a hexagonal crystal structure.
Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
International Gemological Institute (IGI) is a diamond, colored stone and jewelry certification organization.
Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.
Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Jeremejevite is a rare aluminium borate mineral with variable fluoride and hydroxide ions.
Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
A lapidary (lapidarist, lapidarius) is an artist or artisan who forms stone, minerals, or gemstones into decorative items such as cabochons, engraved gems (including cameos), and faceted designs.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
This is a list of gemstones, organized by species and type.
A number of gemstones have gained fame, either because of their size and beauty or because of the people who owned or wore them.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A mnemonic (the first "m" is silent) device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval (remembering) in the human memory.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Moissanite is naturally occurring silicon carbide and its various crystalline polymorphs.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Musgravite or magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3S (chemical formula of Be(Mg, Fe, Zn)2Al6O12), is a rare oxide mineral.
In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
Optical phenomena are any observable events that result from the interaction of light and matter.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Painite is a very rare borate mineral.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
Peridot is gem-quality olivine, which is a silicate mineral with the formula of (Mg, Fe)2SiO4.
Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as Karl Gustavovich Fabergé (Карл Гу́ставович Фаберже́, Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe; 30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller best known for the famous Fabergé eggs made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.
Pleochroism (from Greek πλέων, pléōn, "more" and χρῶμα, khrôma, "color") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.
Poudretteite is an extremely rare mineral and gemstone that was first discovered as minute crystals in Mont St. Hilaire, Quebec, Canada, during the 1960s.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Serendibite is an extremely rare mineral that was first discovered in 1902 in Sri Lanka by Dunil Palitha Gunasekera and named after Serendib, the old Arabic name for Sri Lanka.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
The Swiss Gemmological Institute SSEF is a gemmology laboratory located in Basel, Switzerland.
A synthetic diamond (also known as an artificial diamond, cultured diamond, or cultivated diamond) is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes.
Taaffeite (BeMgAl4O8) is a mineral, named after its discoverer Richard Taaffe (1898–1967) who found the first sample, a cut and polished gem, in October 1945 in a jeweler's shop in Dublin, Ireland.
Tanzanite is the blue and violet variety of the mineral zoisite (a calcium aluminium hydroxyl sorosilicate) belonging to the epidote group.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Tsavorite or tsavolite is a variety of the garnet group species grossular, a calcium-aluminium garnet with the formula Ca3Al2Si3O12.
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O.
Variscite is a hydrated aluminium phosphate mineral (·2H2O).
The mineral zektzerite is a member of the tuhualite group and was first found in 1966 by Seattle mineralogist Benjamin Bartlett "Bart" Cannon.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
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