335 relations: A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Andrea Dworkin, Androcentrism, Androdioecy, Androgen, Androgyny, Anglo-Norman language, Ann Oakley, Anne Fausto-Sterling, Anthropology, Antiandrogen, Antonin Scalia, Aristotle, Asexual reproduction, Asia Pacific Forum, Association for Progressive Communications, Australia, Australian Aboriginal languages, Avoidance speech, Basque language, Behavioralism, Biochemistry, Biological determinism, Biological life cycle, Biology and sexual orientation, Blacktip shark, Body hair, Brain mapping, Breast, Bugis, Butterfly, C. D. Darlington, California, Canada, Cell (biology), Christianity, Chromosome, Climate change, Climate change adaptation, Clothing, Colonialism, Coloniality of gender, Color blindness, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Correlation and dependence, Culture, David Haig, Developmental psychology, Dihydrotestosterone, Disability, ..., Discipline (academia), Discover (magazine), Discrimination, DNA, Dover Publications, Dravidian languages, Dyirbal language, Education, Education For All, Egg cell, Enzyme, Epicenity, Ester Boserup, Estradiol, Estriol, Estrogen, Ethnic group, Eunuch, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Existentialism, Female, Femininity, Feminism, Feminist theory, Feminization of poverty, Fertilisation, Film studies, Flatworm, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Drug Administration, Fraxinus lanuginosa, French language, Fungi imperfecti, Gamete, Gender & Development, Gender and Judaism, Gender bender, Gender Development Index, Gender differences in spoken Japanese, Gender dysphoria, Gender empowerment, Gender Empowerment Measure, Gender equality, Gender evaluation methodology, Gender identity, Gender in Bugis society, Gender inequality, Gender Inequality Index, Gender mainstreaming, Gender neutrality in English, Gender neutrality in genderless languages, Gender of God, Gender paradox, Gender polarization, Gender role, Gender sensitization, Gender studies, Gender systems, Gender taxonomy, Gender variance, Genderqueer, Gene, Gene expression, General strain theory, Genetics, Genre, German language, Germany, Girardia tigrina, God, God the Father, God the Son, Gonad, Gonadal dysgenesis, Grammatical gender, Greek language, Grey matter, Gynocentrism, Gynodioecy, Hard and soft science, Hegemony, Henry Watson Fowler, Heterosexuality, Hijra (South Asia), Hinduism, History, Hittite language, Holy Spirit, Home economics, Homosexuality, Homosexuality and religion, Hormone, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Human rights activists, Human sexuality, Humanities, Hungarian language, Hybrid (biology), Image of God, India, Indiana University, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indonesia, Intelligence, Interdisciplinarity, International development, Intersectionality, Intersex, Irish language, Irish Sign Language, J.E.B. v. Alabama ex rel. T.B., Janet Shibley Hyde, Jewish principles of faith, Jewish religious movements, Joan Roughgarden, Joan Wallach Scott, John Money, Judaism, Judith Butler, Julia Kristeva, Julius Pokorny, Kabbalah, Kate Bornstein, Klinefelter syndrome, Lakota people, Latin, Lexicon, Lineage (evolution), List of human hormones, Loanword, Location, Luce Irigaray, Male, Man, Mary Hawkesworth, Masculinity, Media studies, Men's studies, Michel Foucault, Middle English, Middle French, Millennium Development Goals, Misandry, Misogyny, Modern Library, Mosaic (genetics), Multiple sex partners, Muxe, Narcissism, Nationality, Natural science, Navajo, Navajo language, Nádleehi, Neologism, Neuroscience, New Testament, Noun, Noun class, Nursing, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Ojibwe, Ojibwe language, Ordination of women, Oregon, Outline of academic disciplines, Ovary, Overseas Development Institute, Ovotestis, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxygen, Pakistan, Participation (decision making), Parvati, Pennsylvania State University, Performative utterance, Persian language, Personal Attributes Questionnaire, Phenotypic trait, Physics, Platypus, Pogonomyrmex, Political science, Polymerase chain reaction, Postgenderism, Progestogen, Protagoras, Proto-Indo-European language, Pseudohermaphroditism, Puberty, Quantitative research, Queer studies, Race (human categorization), Radical feminism, Real-time computing, Religion, Religious fanaticism, Representation (politics), Richard J. Haier, Role, Root (linguistics), Same-sex marriage, Sandra Harding, Self-pollination, Semantic change, Sex, Sex and gender distinction, Sex assignment, Sex differences in humans, Sex linkage, Sex organ, Sex segregation, Sex steroid, Sex-determination system, Sex-limited genes, Sexism, Sexology, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual orientation, Sexual reproduction, Shekhinah, Shiva, Sign language, Simone de Beauvoir, Slate (magazine), Social construction of gender, Social constructionism, Social exclusion, Social identity theory, Social norm, Social science, Social structure, Social vulnerability, Society for International Development, Sociology, Sociology of gender, South Asia, Spanish language, Species, Spermatozoon, Steroid hormone, Sulawesi, Sumerian language, Taoism, Territorial collectivity, Testicle, Testosterone, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Times of India, Theology, Third gender, Tissue (biology), Trait theory, Transcription (biology), Transgender, Transgender rights, Transposable element, Transsexual, Trinity, Triple X syndrome, True hermaphroditism, Turner syndrome, Two-spirit, United Nations, United Nations Millennium Declaration, United States, University of California Press, University of California, Irvine, University of Chicago, University of New Mexico, Vulnerability, Washington, D.C., White matter, Woman, Women in development, Women's studies, World Health Organization, X chromosome, X-linked recessive inheritance, XXYY syndrome, XY sex-determination system, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome, Yin and yang, Yoruba people. Expand index (285 more) » « Shrink index
A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.
Andrea Rita Dworkin (September 26, 1946 – April 9, 2005) was an American radical feminist and writer best known for her criticism of pornography, which she argued was linked to rape and other forms of violence against women.
Androcentrism (ancient Greek, ἀνήρ, "man, male") is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing a masculine point of view at the center of one's world view, culture, and history, thereby culturally marginalizing femininity.
Androdioecy is a reproductive system characterized by the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Androgyny is the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Ann Rosamund Oakley (née Titmuss; born 17 January 1944), is a distinguished British sociologist, feminist, and writer.
Anne Fausto-Sterling (born July 30, 1944) is the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Biology and Gender Studies at Brown University.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Antiandrogens, also known as androgen antagonists or testosterone blockers, are a class of drugs that prevent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from mediating their biological effects in the body.
Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
The Asia Pacific Forum (APF) is one of four regional networks of national human rights institutions (NHRIs) within the International Co-ordinating Committee of NHRIs.
The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) is an international network of organizations that was founded in 1990 to provide communication infrastructure, including Internet-based applications, to groups and individuals who work for peace, human rights, protection of the environment, and sustainability.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Avoidance speech is a group of sociolinguistic phenomena in which a special restricted speech style must be used in the presence of or in reference to certain relatives.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Behavioralism (or behaviouralism in British English) is an approach in political science, which emerged in the 1930s in the United States.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biological determinism, also known as genetic determinism or genetic reductionism, is the belief that human behaviour is controlled by an individual's genes or some component of their physiology, generally at the expense of the role of the environment, whether in embryonic development or in learning.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
The relationship between biology and sexual orientation is a subject of research.
The blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus) is a species of requiem shark, and part of the family Carcharhinidae.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
The Buginese people are an ethnic group—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
Cyril Dean Darlington FRS (19 December 1903 – 26 March 1981) was an English biologist, geneticist and eugenicist, who discovered the mechanics of chromosomal crossover, its role in inheritance, and therefore its importance to evolution.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The coloniality of gender is a concept developed by feminist philosopher María Lugones, which she defines as "the analysis of racialized, capitalist, gender oppression", while the process of potentially overcoming this practice can be defined as "decolonial feminism".
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David Haig Collum Ward, MBE (born 20 September 1955) is an Olivier Award-winning English actor and FIPA Award-winning writer.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), also known as androstanolone or stanolone, is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
An academic discipline or academic field is a branch of knowledge.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Dyirbal (also Djirubal) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in northeast Queensland by about 29 speakers of the Dyirbal tribe.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epicenity is the lack of gender distinction, often specifically the loss of masculinity.
Ester Boserup (18 May 1910 – 24 September 1999) was a Danish and French economist.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
Feminization of poverty refers to the high and rising share of and among the world's poor.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Film studies is an academic discipline that deals with various theoretical, historical, and critical approaches to films.
The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fraxinus lanuginosa (Japanese ash; Japanese: アオダモ Aodamo) is a species of ash native to Japan and to the Primorye region of eastern Russia.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gender & Development is a peer-reviewed journal published triannualy by Taylor and Francis and Oxfam to provide "promote, inspire, and support development policy and practice." The editor-in-chief is Caroline Sweetman (Oxfam, GB).
Gender and Judaism is a radical, emerging subfield at the intersection of gender studies and Jewish studies.
A gender bender (LGBT slang: one who genderfucks) is a person who disrupts, or "bends", expected gender roles.
The Gender Development Index (GDI) is an index designed to measure of gender equality.
The Japanese language has some words and some grammatical constructions that are associated with men or boys, while others are associated with women or girls.
Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.
Gender empowerment is the empowerment of people of any gender.
The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is an index designed to measure of gender equality.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
The Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM) is an evaluation methodology that integrates a gender analysis into evaluations of initiatives that use information and communications technologies (ICTs) for social change.
Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.
The Bugis people are the most numerous of the three major ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is an index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report 20th anniversary edition by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Gender mainstreaming is the public policy concept of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes, in all areas and levels.
Gender-neutral language is language that minimizes assumptions about the social gender or biological sex of people referred to in speech or writing.
Gender neutrality in genderless language is the use of wording in those languages that avoids referring specifically to the male or female gender.
The gender of God can be viewed as a literal or as an allegorical aspect of a deity.
The gender paradox is a sociolinguistic phenomenon first observed by William Labov, in which "Women conform more closely than men to sociolinguistic norms that are overtly prescribed, but conform less than men when they are not." Specifically, the "paradox" arises from sociolinguistic data showing that women are more likely to use prestige forms and avoid stigmatized variants than men for a majority of linguistic variables, but that they are also more likely to lead language change by using innovative forms of variables.
Gender polarization is a concept in sociology by American psychologist Sandra Bem which states that societies tend to define femininity and masculinity as polar opposite genders, such that male-acceptable behaviors and attitudes are not seen as appropriate for women, and vice versa.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender sensitization precides over gender sensitivity which refers to the modification of behavior by raising awareness of gender equality concerns.
Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
Gender systems are systems of gender roles in societies.
The gender taxonomy is a classification of the range of different levels at which humans vary in sexual characteristics.
Gender variance, or gender nonconformity, is behavior or gender expression by an individual that does not match masculine and feminine gender norms.
Genderqueer, also known as non-binary, is a catch-all category for gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminineidentities which are outside the gender binary and cisnormativity.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
General strain theory (GST) is a theory of criminology developed by Robert Agnew.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Girardia tigrina is a species of dugesiid native to the Americas.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
Gonadal dysgenesis is classified as any congenital developmental disorder of the reproductive system in the male or female.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.
Gynocentrism refers to a dominant or exclusive focus on women in theory or practice; or to the advocacy of this.
Gynodioecy is a rare breeding system that is found in certain flowering plant species in which female and hermaphroditic plants coexist within a population.
Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms used to compare scientific fields on the basis of perceived methodological rigor, exactitude, and objectivity.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language.
Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.
Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people in South Asia.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
Hittite (natively " of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, is an Indo-European-language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with home and economics.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Human rights defenders or human rights activists are people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
The Image of God is a concept and theological doctrine in Judaism, Christianity, and Sufism of Islam, which asserts that human beings are created in the image and likeness of God.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
Intersectionality is an analytic framework which attempts to identify how interlocking systems of power impact those who are most marginalized in society.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish Sign Language (ISL, Teanga Chomharthaíochta na hÉireann) is the sign language of Ireland, used primarily in the Republic of Ireland.
Janet Shibley Hyde is the Helen Thompson Woolley Professor of Psychology and Women's Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
There is no established formulation of principles of faith that are recognized by all branches of Judaism.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Joan Roughgarden (born Jonathan Roughgarden on 13 March 1946) is an American ecologist and evolutionary biologist.
Joan Wallach Scott (born December 18, 1941), is an American historian of France with contributions in gender history and intellectual history.
John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Julia Kristeva (Юлия Кръстева; born 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, psychoanalyst, feminist, and, most recently, novelist, who has lived in France since the mid-1960s.
Julius Pokorny (12 June 1887 – 8 April 1970) was an Austrian-Czech linguist and scholar of the Celtic languages, particularly Irish, and a supporter of Irish nationalism.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
Katherine Vandam "Kate" Bornstein (born March 15, 1948) is an American author, playwright, performance artist, and gender theorist.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.
The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The terms location and place in geography are used to identify a point or an area on the Earth's surface or elsewhere.
Luce Irigaray (born 3 May 1930) is a Belgian-born French feminist, philosopher, linguist, psycholinguist, psychoanalyst and cultural theorist.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
A man is a male human.
Mary Hawkesworth (born June 26, 1952) is a Distinguished Professor of Political Science and Women’s and Gender Studies at Rutgers University in New Jersey.
Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
Media studies is a discipline and field of study that deals with the content, history, and effects of various media; in particular, the mass media.
Men's studies, often called men and masculinities in academic settings, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, masculinity, feminism, gender, and politics.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Middle French (le moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the early 17th centuries.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Misandry is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against men or boys.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
The Modern Library is an American publishing company.
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
Multiple sex partners (MSP) is the measure and incidence of engaging in sexual activities with two or more people within a specific time period.
In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), a muxe (also spelled muxhe) is an assigned male at birth individual who dresses and behaves in ways otherwise associated with the female gender; they may be seen as a third gender.
Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of one's own attributes.
Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
The Navajo (British English: Navaho, Diné or Naabeehó) are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
Nádleehi refers to the Two-spirit identity in Diné (Navajo) culture.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, or Chippewa are an Anishinaabeg group of Indigenous Peoples in North America, which is referred to by many of its Indigenous peoples as Turtle Island.
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, or Otchipwe,R.
The ordination of women to ministerial or priestly office is an increasingly common practice among some major religious groups of the present time, as it was of several pagan religions of antiquity and, some scholars argue, in early Christian practice.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
An ovotestis is a gonad with both testicular and ovarian aspects.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Participation in social science refers to different mechanisms for the public to express opinions – and ideally exert influence – regarding political, economic, management or other social decisions.
Parvati (Sanskrit: पार्वती, IAST: Pārvatī) or Uma (IAST: Umā) is the Hindu goddess of fertility, love and devotion; as well as of divine strength and power.
The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.
In the philosophy of language and speech acts theory, performative utterances are sentences which are not only describing a given reality, but also changing the social reality they are describing.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) is a personality test measuring two scales "instrumentality" and "expressivity", commonly taken to be masculinity and femininity, respectively.
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
Pogonomyrmex is a genus of harvester ants, occurring primarily in the deserts of North, Central, and South America, with a single endemic species from Haiti.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Postgenderism is a social, political and cultural movement which arose from the eroding of the cultural, biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory.
Progestogens, also sometimes spelled progestagens or gestagens, are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the progesterone receptor (PR).
Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pseudohermaphroditism, or pseudo-hermaphroditism, is an old clinical term for an organism that is born with primary sex characteristics of one sex but develops the secondary sex characteristics that are different from what would be expected on the basis of the gonadal tissue (ovary or testis).
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.
Queer studies, sexual diversity studies, or LGBT studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity usually focusing on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersex people and cultures.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reordering of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religious fanaticism is uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm related to one's own, or one's group's, devotion to a religion – a form of human fanaticism which could otherwise be expressed in one's other involvements and participation, including employment, role, and partisan affinities.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.
Richard J. Haier is an American psychologist best known for his work on the neural basis of human intelligence psychometrics, general intelligence, and sex and intelligence.
A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Sandra G. Harding (born 1935) is an American philosopher of feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, research methodology, and philosophy of science.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity).
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex segregation is the physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes of sexually reproducing species but are expressed in only one sex and remain 'turned off' in the other.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The Shekhina(h) (also spelled Shekina(h), Schechina(h), or Shechina(h); שכינה) is the English transliteration of a Hebrew word meaning "dwelling" or "settling" and denotes the dwelling or settling of the divine presence of God.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The social construction of gender is a belief in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies.
Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social identity is the portion of an individual's self-concept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
In its broadest sense, social vulnerability is one dimension of vulnerability to multiple stressors and shocks, including abuse, social exclusion and natural hazards.
The Society for International Development (SID), founded in Washington, D.C., United States, in 1957, is committed to stimulating dialogue and cooperation on global development issues, enhancing skills, knowledge and understanding among development practitioners, and providing a network for individuals and organizations working in various sectors of international development.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A territorial collectivity (or territorial authority, collectivité territoriale, previously collectivité locale) is a chartered subdivision of France, with recognized governing authority.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
In psychology, trait theory (also called dispositional theory) is an approach to the study of human personality.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
A person may be considered to be a transgender person if their gender identity is inconsistent or not culturally associated with the sex they were assigned at birth, and consequently also with the gender role and social status that is typically associated with that sex.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female.
True hermaphroditism, clinically known as ovotesticular disorder of sex development, is a medical term for an intersex condition in which an individual is born with ovarian and testicular tissue.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
Two-Spirit (also two spirit or, occasionally, twospirited) is a modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some indigenous North Americans to describe certain people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third-gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial role in their cultures.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
On 8 September 2000, following a three-day Millennium Summit of world leaders at the headquarters of the United Nations, the General Assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration (Resolution 55/2).
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, Orange County, California, United States, and one of the 10 campuses in the University of California (UC) system.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of New Mexico (also referred to as UNM) is a public research university in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.
A woman is an adult female human being.
Women in development is an approach of development projects that emerged in the 1969s, calling for treatment of women's issues in development projects.
Women's studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and oppression; and the relationships between power and gender as they intersect with other identities and social locations such as race, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, and disability.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
X-linked recessive inheritance is a mode of inheritance in which a mutation in a gene on the X chromosome causes the phenotype to be expressed in males (who are necessarily hemizygous for the gene mutation because they have one X and one Y chromosome) and in females who are homozygous for the gene mutation, see zygosity.
XXYY syndrome is a sex chromosome anomaly in which males have an extra X and Y chromosome.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
Female gender, Gender issue, Gender issues, Gender list, Gender presentation, Gendered, Gendering, Genders, List of gender, List of genders, Male female, Male gender, Masculinity vs femininity, Multiplicity of genders, Social gender, The sexes.