112 relations: Ablation, Aotearoa, Asia, BBC News, Bisexuality, Cambridge University Press, Carl Jung, Chromosome, Cisgender, Cloacal exstrophy, Conversion therapy, Council of Europe, David Reimer, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Divorce, Drag queen, DSM-5, Dysphoria, Electra complex, Electroconvulsive therapy, Eleno de Céspedes, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Experience, Fa'afafine, Female, Femininity, Fixing Sex, Free Association Books, Gay, Gender, Gender binary, Gender dysphoria, Gender dysphoria in children, Gender expression, Gender role, Gender Trouble, Gender variance, Genderqueer, Gonad, Health insurance marketplace, Hijra (South Asia), Homosexuality, Human sexuality spectrum, Identity (social science), Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Interactionism, International human rights law, Intersex, Intersex human rights, Intersex Human Rights Australia, ..., Intersex Society of North America, John Money, Johns Hopkins University, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Judith Butler, Khanith, Language acquisition, Lesbian, LGBT, LGBT rights at the United Nations, List of transgender-related topics, Male, Marriage, Masculinity, Mental disorder, New York (magazine), New Zealand, Oedipus complex, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Oman, Penile agenesis and testicular agenesis, Phallic stage, Polynesians, Prime Minister of Samoa, Prostitution, Psychosexual development, Queer studies, Queer theory, Robert Stoller, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Samoa, Secondary sex characteristic, Sex, Sex and gender distinction, Sex assignment, Sex differences in humans, Sex organ, Sex reassignment surgery, Sex steroid, Sexism, Sexual characteristics, Sexual differentiation in humans, Sexual identity, Sexual orientation, Sigmund Freud, Social construction of gender, Social learning theory, Society, Stockholm, Stuff.co.nz, Textbook, The New York Times, Third gender, Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, Transgender, Transsexual, Transvestism, Ultrasound, Uranian, Wedding, World Health Organization, Yogyakarta Principles. Expand index (62 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
Aotearoa (commonly pronounced by some English speakers as) is the Māori name for New Zealand.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Cisgender (often abbreviated to simply cis) is a term for people whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth.
Cloacal exstrophy (EC) is a severe birth defect wherein much of the abdominal organs (the bladder and intestines) are exposed.
Conversion therapy is the pseudoscientific practice of trying to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual or bisexual to heterosexual using psychological or spiritual interventions.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
David Peter Reimer (1965–2004) was a Canadian man born male but reassigned as a girl and raised female following medical advice and intervention after his penis was accidentally destroyed during a botched circumcision in infancy.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
Divorce, also known as dissolution of marriage, is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country or state.
A drag queen is a person who usually dresses in hyper-feminized or gender non-conforming clothing, and often acts with exaggerated femininity and in feminine gender roles for the purpose of entertainment.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
In Neo-Freudian psychology, the Electra complex, as proposed by Carl Jung, is a girl's psychosexual competition with her mother for possession of her father.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Eleno de Céspedes, also known as Elena de Céspedes was a Spanish surgeon in the 16th century.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Experience is the knowledge or mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it.
Fa'afafine are people who identify themselves as a third-gender in Samoa, American Samoa and the Samoan diaspora.
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.
Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience, a book by Stanford anthropologist and bioethicist Katrina Karkazis, was published in 2008.
Free Association Books is a project started in London in the 1980s.
Gay is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
The gender binary, also referred to as gender binarism (sometimes shortened to just binarism), is the classification of sex and gender into two distinct, opposite and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine.
Gender dysphoria (GD), or gender identity disorder (GID), is the distress a person experiences as a result of the sex and gender they were assigned at birth.
Gender dysphoria in children or gender identity disorder in children (GIDC) is a formal diagnosis used by psychologists and physicians to describe children who experience significant discontent (gender dysphoria) with their biological sex, assigned gender, or both.
Gender expression are the aspects of a person's behaviour, mannerisms, interests, and appearance that are associated with gender in a particular cultural context, specifically with the categories of femininity or masculinity.
A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990; second edition 1999) is a book by the philosopher Judith Butler, in which the author argues that gender is a kind of improvised performance.
Gender variance, or gender nonconformity, is behavior or gender expression by an individual that does not match masculine and feminine gender norms.
Genderqueer, also known as non-binary, is a catch-all category for gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminineidentities which are outside the gender binary and cisnormativity.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
In the United States, health insurance marketplaces, also called health exchanges, are organizations in each state through which people can purchase health insurance.
Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people in South Asia.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
The Sexuality Spectrum is a continuum that accounts for every variation of human sexuality / identity without necessarily labelling or defining all of them.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
In sociology, interactionism is a theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction.
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
Intersex people are born with sex characteristics, such as chromosomes, gonads, or genitals, that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies." Intersex people face stigmatisation and discrimination from birth, particularly when an intersex variation is visible.
Intersex Human Rights Australia (IHRA) is a voluntary organisation for intersex people that promotes the human rights and bodily autonomy of intersex people in Australia, and provides education and information services.
The Intersex Society of North America (ISNA) was a non-profit advocacy group founded in 1993 by Cheryl Chase to end shame, secrecy, and unwanted genital surgeries.
John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
The Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication JCMC is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the interdisciplinary field of computer-mediated communication.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Khanith or Khaneeth (خنيث; khanīth) is a vernacular Arabic term used in Oman and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula and denotes the gender role ascribed to males who function sexually, and in some ways socially, as women.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
A lesbian is a homosexual woman.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
Discussions of LGBT rights at the United Nations have included resolutions and joint statements in the United Nations General Assembly and the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), attention by the expert led human rights mechanisms, such as the United Nations Treaty Bodies and Special Procedures, as well as by the UN Agencies.
The term transgender is multi-faceted and complex, especially where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached.
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).
Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
New York is an American biweekly magazine concerned with life, culture, politics, and style generally, and with a particular emphasis on New York City.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Oedipus complex is a concept of psychoanalytic theory.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Penile agenesis is a birth defect in humans, occurring about once in 5–6 million male births, in which a male child is born without a penis.
In Freudian psychoanalysis, the phallic stage is the third stage of psychosexual development, spanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the infant's libido (desire) centers upon his or her genitalia as the erogenous zone.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
The Prime Minister of Samoa is the head of government of the Independent State of Samoa, a sovereign country located in the Pacific Ocean.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
Queer studies, sexual diversity studies, or LGBT studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity usually focusing on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersex people and cultures.
Queer theory is a field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and women's studies.
Robert Jesse Stoller (December 15, 1924 – September 6, 1991), was an American Professor of Psychiatry at UCLA Medical School and a researcher at the UCLA Gender Identity Clinic.
The Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center (also commonly referred to as UCLA Medical Center or "the Reagan") is a hospital located on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles in Westwood, Los Angeles, California, United States.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity).
Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sex reassignment surgery or SRS (also known as gender reassignment surgery, gender confirmation surgery, genital reconstruction surgery, gender-affirming surgery, or sex realignment surgery) is the surgical procedure (or procedures) by which a transgender person's physical appearance and function of their existing sexual characteristics are altered to resemble that socially associated with their identified gender.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.
Sexual characteristics are physical or behavioral traits of an organism (typically of a sexually dimorphic organism) which are indicative of its biological sex.
Sexual differentiation in humans is the process of development of sex differences in humans.
Sexual identity is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
The social construction of gender is a belief in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies.
Social learning theory is a theory of learning and social behavior which proposes that new behaviors can be acquired by observing and imitating others.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stuff.co.nz is a New Zealand news website published by Fairfax Digital, a division of Fairfax New Zealand Ltd, a subsidiary of Australian company Fairfax Media Ltd.
A textbook or coursebook (UK English) is a manual of instruction in any branch of study.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie), sometimes titled Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, is a 1905 work by Sigmund Freud which advanced his theory of sexuality, in particular its relation to childhood.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
From John Addington Symonds' 1891 book ''A Problem in Modern Ethics''. Uranian is a 19th-century term that referred to a person of a third sex—originally, someone with "a female psyche in a male body" who is sexually attracted to men, and later extended to cover homosexual gender variant females, and a number of other sexual types.
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The Yogyakarta Principles is a 35-page document about human rights in the areas of sexual orientation and gender identity, published as the outcome of an international meeting of human rights groups in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November 2006.
Atypical gender identities, Core gender identity, Gender Identity, Gender Spectrum, Gender continuum, Gender descriptor, Gender identification, Gender identities, Gender spectrum, Girl oriented, Sex identity, Sexuality (gender).