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Gender role

Index Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality. [1]

253 relations: A Room of One's Own, Abbess, Adam's apple, Afghan National Police, Agriculture, Albert Ellis, American League, American Psychological Association, Androgyny, Backlash (sociology), Baron Northbourne, Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Betty Friedan, Bigender, Bisexuality, Bishop, Boy, Campus Reform, Carol Gilligan, Center for American Progress, Challenge hypothesis, Charisma, Child Development (journal), Childhood gender nonconformity, Chromosome, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Cloacal exstrophy, Colorado Springs, Colorado, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Conscription, Construction, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Crime, David Amess, David Buss, David Reimer, Decision-making, Developmental Psychology (journal), Discrimination, Doctor of the Church, Domestic partnership, Domestic violence, Dominatrix, Double bind, Drag king, Drag queen, Eastern Orthodox Church, Education, Elsevier, Emerald Group Publishing, ..., Employment discrimination, Equal Rights Amendment, Evolutionary psychology, Externalization, Family law, Female, Femininity, Feminism, Foreign policy, Geert Hofstede, Gender, Gender & Society, Gender advertisement, Gender and emotional expression, Gender equality, Gender identity, Gender mainstreaming, Gender neutrality, Gender pay gap, Gender polarization, Gender policing, Gender role, Gender roles in childhood, Gender roles in non-heterosexual communities, Gender schema theory, Gender studies, Gender Trouble, Gender-neutral language, Genderqueer, Gilbert Herdt, Giordana Grossi, Girl, GLAAD, Glass ceiling, Gonad, Grammatical gender, Greco-Roman world, Heteronormativity, Heteropatriarchy, Heterosexism, Heterosexuality, Heuristics in judgment and decision-making, Hijra (South Asia), Hillary Clinton, Hinduism, Homosexuality, Hormone, Human sexual activity, Human sexuality, Implicit stereotype, Implicit-association test, In a Different Voice, Infrastructure, Internalization, Intersectionality, Intersex, Intersex medical interventions, John Money, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Judith Butler, Kindergarten, Leadership Institute, LGBT social movements, Liberal feminism, Libido, List of transgender-related topics, Londa Schiebinger, Male, Man, Marriage gap, Mary, mother of Jesus, Masculinity, Masculism, Matriarchy, Media and gender, Men's liberation movement, Men's movement, Michael Messner, Michel Foucault, Middle class, Midwife, Minister for Women and Equalities, Misandry, Modesty, Muhammad, National Academy of Sciences, National League, Nature Publishing Group, New Testament household code, Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Non-heterosexual, Nova Science Publishers, Nuclear family, Official, Online game, Oslo, Parachurch organization, Paraphilia, Parental leave, Parenting, Patriarch, Patriarchy, Paul the Apostle and women, Pentecostalism, Personal Attributes Questionnaire, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Pope, Poverty, President of the United States, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Profession, Protestantism, Psychosexual development, PsycINFO, Queer theory, Raewyn Connell, Reproduction, Review of General Psychology, Rhesus macaque, Rhetoric, Right of asylum, Role, Role theory, Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Rowman & Littlefield, RuPaul, SAGE Publications, Sally Shuttleworth, Salon (website), Sandra Bem, Scientific American, Second-wave feminism, Seduction, Sex and gender distinction, Sex and gender roles in the Catholic Church, Sex assignment, Sex differences in humans, Sex segregation, Sexual harassment, Sexual inversion (sexology), Sexual orientation, Sexual orientation hypothesis, Simon Baron-Cohen, Simone de Beauvoir, Social cognitive theory, Social construction of gender, Social constructionism, Social control, Social norm, Socialization, Sociology of gender, Sociology of the family, Solomon Islands, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanford Graduate School of Business, Status quo, Stereotype, Stereotype threat, Subliminal stimuli, Suburb, Taboo, Talcott Parsons, The Feminine Mystique, The New York Times, The Oprah Winfrey Show, Third gender, Third-party punishment, Tony Blair, Trans woman, Transsexual, Transvestic fetishism, Transvestism, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, Ukulele, Undoing Gender, United Arab Emirates, United States, Vern Bullough, Virginia Woolf, Vox (website), Warren Farrell, Westminster John Knox, Wikinews, Wiley-Blackwell, Witch-hunt, Woman, Women in Christianity, Women in Islam, Women in the workforce, Women of color, Women's rights, Women's suffrage, Women's suffrage in the United States, World Health Organization, World Values Survey, World War I, World War II, Yogyakarta Principles, 5α-Reductase deficiency. Expand index (203 more) »

A Room of One's Own

A Room of One's Own is an extended essay by Virginia Woolf.

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In Christianity, an abbess (Latin abbatissa, feminine form of abbas, abbot) is the female superior of a community of nuns, which is often an abbey.

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Adam's apple

The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.

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Afghan National Police

The Afghan National Police (ANP; د افغانستان ملي پولیس; پلیس ملی افغانستان) is the national police force of Afghanistan, serving as a single law enforcement agency all across the country.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Albert Ellis

Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).

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American League

The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League (AL), is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Androgyny is the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.

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Backlash (sociology)

A "backlash" is an adverse reaction to something which has gained popularity, prominence, or influence.

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Baron Northbourne

Baron Northbourne, of Betteshanger in the County of Kent, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Bem Sex-Role Inventory

The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) is a measure of gender expression and gender roles, put in terms of masculinity and femininity.

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Betty Friedan

Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American writer, activist, and feminist.

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Bigender, bi-gender or dual gender is a gender identity that includes any two gender identities and behaviors, possibly depending on context.

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Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity; this latter aspect is sometimes alternatively termed pansexuality. The term bisexuality is mainly used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, and the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum.

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A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

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A boy is a young male human, usually a child or adolescent.

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Campus Reform

Campus Reform is an American conservative, alt-lite news website focused on higher education.

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Carol Gilligan

Carol Gilligan (born November 28, 1936) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics.

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Center for American Progress

The Center for American Progress (CAP) is a progressive public policy research and advocacy organization.

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Challenge hypothesis

The challenge hypothesis outlines the dynamic relationship between testosterone and aggression in mating contexts.

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The term charisma (pl. charismata, adj. charismatic) has two senses.

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Child Development (journal)

Child Development is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering developmental psychology from the fetal period to adolescence.

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Childhood gender nonconformity

Childhood gender nonconformity (CGN) is a phenomenon in which prepubescent children do not conform to expected gender-related sociological or psychological patterns, or identify with the opposite sex/gender.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Cloacal exstrophy

Cloacal exstrophy (EC) is a severe birth defect wherein much of the abdominal organs (the bladder and intestines) are exposed.

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Colorado Springs, Colorado

Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality that is the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, Colorado, United States.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).

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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.

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In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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David Amess

Sir David Anthony Andrew Amess (born 26 March 1952) is a British Conservative Party politician.

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David Buss

David M. Buss (born April 14, 1953) is a professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, known for his evolutionary psychology theorizing and research on human sex differences in mate selection, with a focus on systems in which males are allowed violence against women in mating.

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David Reimer

David Peter Reimer (1965–2004) was a Canadian man born male but reassigned as a girl and raised female following medical advice and intervention after his penis was accidentally destroyed during a botched circumcision in infancy.

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In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

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Developmental Psychology (journal)

Developmental Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association covering research in developmental psychology.

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In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.

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Doctor of the Church

Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.

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Domestic partnership

A domestic partnership is an interpersonal relationship between two individuals who live together and share a common domestic life but are not married (to each other or to anyone else), but they receive a lot of benefits that guarantee rights of survivor ship, hospital visitation and others.

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Domestic violence

Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.

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A dominatrix, plural dominatrixes or dominatrices, is a woman who takes the dominant role in BDSM activities.

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Double bind

A double bind is an emotionally distressing dilemma in communication in which an individual (or group) receives two or more conflicting messages, and one message negates the other.

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Drag king

Drag kings are mostly female performance artists who dress in masculine drag and personify male gender stereotypes as part of an individual or group routine.

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Drag queen

A drag queen is a person who usually dresses in hyper-feminized or gender non-conforming clothing, and often acts with exaggerated femininity and in feminine gender roles for the purpose of entertainment.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Emerald Group Publishing

Emerald Publishing Limited is a scholarly publisher of academic journals and books in the fields of management, business, education, library studies, health care, and engineering.

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Employment discrimination

Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.

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Equal Rights Amendment

The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex; it seeks to end the legal distinctions between men and women in terms of divorce, property, employment, and other matters.

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Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.

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In Freudian psychology, externalization (or externalisation) is an unconscious defense mechanism by which an individual "projects" his or her own internal characteristics onto the outside world, particularly onto other people.

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Family law

Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.

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Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).

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Femininity (also called girlishness, womanliness or womanhood) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with girls and women.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Foreign policy

A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.

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Geert Hofstede

Gerard Hendrik (Geert) Hofstede (born 2 October 1928) is a Dutch social psychologist, former IBM employee, and Professor Emeritus of Organizational Anthropology and International Management at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, well known for his pioneering research on cross-cultural groups and organizations.

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Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.

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Gender & Society

Gender & Society is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers research in the field of gender studies.

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Gender advertisement

Gender advertisement refers to the images in advertising that depict stereotypical gender roles and displays.

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Gender and emotional expression

The topic of gender and emotion is often reduced to attempts to identify the differences between women, men, and the various ways in which they express their emotions.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Gender identity

Gender identity is one's personal experience of one's own gender.

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Gender mainstreaming

Gender mainstreaming is the public policy concept of assessing the different implications for women and men of any planned policy action, including legislation and programmes, in all areas and levels.

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Gender neutrality

Gender neutrality (adjective form: gender-neutral), also known as gender-neutralism or the gender neutrality movement, describes the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions should avoid distinguishing roles according to people's sex or gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that there are social roles for which one gender is more suited than another.

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Gender pay gap

The gender pay gap is the average difference between the remuneration for men and women who are working.

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Gender polarization

Gender polarization is a concept in sociology by American psychologist Sandra Bem which states that societies tend to define femininity and masculinity as polar opposite genders, such that male-acceptable behaviors and attitudes are not seen as appropriate for women, and vice versa.

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Gender policing

Gender policing is the imposition or enforcement of normative gender expressions on an individual who is perceived as not adequately performing, through appearance or behavior, the sex that was assigned to them at birth (see gender performativity).

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Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

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Gender roles in childhood

Gender roles are the social and behavioral norms considered appropriate in social situations for people of different genders.

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Gender roles in non-heterosexual communities

Gender roles in non-heterosexual communities are a topic of much debate; some people believe traditional, heterosexual gender roles are often erroneously enforced on non-heterosexual relationships by means of heteronormative culture and attitudes towards these non-conformative relationships.

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Gender schema theory

Gender schema theory was formally introduced by Sandra Bem in 1981 as a cognitive theory to explain how individuals become gendered in society, and how sex-linked characteristics are maintained and transmitted to other members of a culture.

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Gender studies

Gender studies is a field for interdisciplinary study devoted to gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.

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Gender Trouble

Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (1990; second edition 1999) is a book by the philosopher Judith Butler, in which the author argues that gender is a kind of improvised performance.

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Gender-neutral language

Gender-neutral language or gender-inclusive language is language that avoids bias toward a particular sex or social gender.

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Genderqueer, also known as non-binary, is a catch-all category for gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminineidentities which are outside the gender binary and cisnormativity.

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Gilbert Herdt

Gilbert H. Herdt (born February 24, 1949) is Professor of Human Sexuality Studies and Anthropology and a Founder of the Department of Sexuality Studies and National Sexuality Resource Center at San Francisco State University.

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Giordana Grossi

Giordana Grossi is a cognitive neuroscientist and professor of psychology at SUNY New Paltz, New York, and a member of The NeuroGenderings Network.

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A girl is a young female human, usually a child or an adolescent.

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GLAAD (formerly the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation) is a U.S. non-governmental media monitoring organization founded by LGBT people in the media.

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Glass ceiling

A glass ceiling is a metaphor used to represent an invisible barrier that keeps a given demographic (typically applied to minorities) from rising beyond a certain level in a hierarchy.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.

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Heteronormativity is the belief that people fall into distinct and complementary genders (male and female) with natural roles in life.

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Heteropatriarchy (etymologically from heterosexuality and patriarchy) is a socio-political system where cisgendered males and heterosexuality have authority over cisgendered females and over other sexual orientations.

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Heterosexism is a system of attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships.

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Heterosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between persons of the opposite sex or gender.

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Heuristics in judgment and decision-making

In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions.

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Hijra (South Asia)

Hijra is a term given to eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people in South Asia.

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Hillary Clinton

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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Implicit stereotype

An implicit bias, or implicit stereotype, is the unconscious attribution of particular qualities to a member of a certain social group.

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Implicit-association test

The implicit-association test (IAT) is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person's automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory.

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In a Different Voice

In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development is a book on gender studies by American professor Carol Gilligan, published in 1982, which Harvard University Press calls "the little book that started a revolution".

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Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.

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Internalization (or internalisation) has different definitions depending on the field that the term is used in.

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Intersectionality is an analytic framework which attempts to identify how interlocking systems of power impact those who are most marginalized in society.

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Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".

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Intersex medical interventions

Intersex medical interventions are surgical, hormonal and other medical interventions performed to modify atypical or ambiguous genitalia and other sex characteristics, primarily for the purposes of making a person's appearance more normal and to reduce the likelihood of future problems.

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John Money

John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender.

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Jones & Bartlett Learning

Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.

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Journal of Educational Psychology

The Journal of Educational Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1910 and covers educational psychology.

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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering social psychology.

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association that was established in 1965.

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Judith Butler

Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.

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Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.

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Leadership Institute

The Leadership Institute is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization located in Arlington, Virginia that teaches "political technology." The Institute was founded in 1979 by conservative activist Morton C. Blackwell.

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LGBT social movements

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT+ people in society.

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Liberal feminism

Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices.

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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

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List of transgender-related topics

The term transgender is multi-faceted and complex, especially where consensual and precise definitions have not yet been reached.

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Londa Schiebinger

Londa Schiebinger (shē/bing/ǝr; born May 13, 1952) is the John L. Hinds Professor of History of Science, Department of History, and by courtesy the d-school, Stanford University.

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A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.

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A man is a male human.

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Marriage gap

The marriage gap describes observed economic and political disparities in the US between those who are married and those who are single.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Masculinity (manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.

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Masculism or masculinism may variously refer to advocacy of the rights or needs of men and boys; and the adherence to or promotion of attributes (opinions, values, attitudes, habits) regarded as typical of men and boys.

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Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree.

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Media and gender

Media and gender refers to the relationship between media and gender, and how gender is represented within media platforms.

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Men's liberation movement

The consciousness and philosophy of men's liberation is critical of the restraints which a society imposes on men, informed by academic thought ranging from Plato to Paine to Marx to current male-oriented, rights based activism.

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Men's movement

The men's movement is a social movement consisting of groups and organizations of men and their allies who focus on gender issues and whose activities range from self-help and support to lobbying and activism.

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Michael Messner

Michael Alan Messner (born 1952) is an American sociologist.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Middle class

The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.

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A midwife is a professional in midwifery, specializing in pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum, women's sexual and reproductive health (including annual gynecological exams, family planning, menopausal care and others), and newborn care.

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Minister for Women and Equalities

The post of Minister for Women and Equalities (formerly, Minister for Women, and Minister for Women and Equality) is a ministerial position in the United Kingdom Government Equalities Office, an independent department within the wider Department for Education that has responsibility for addressing all forms of discrimination, with particular emphasis on gender inequality.

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Misandry is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against men or boys.

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Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National League

The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest current professional team sports league.

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Nature Publishing Group

Nature Publishing Group is a division of the international scientific publishing company Springer Nature that publishes academic journals, magazines, online databases, and services in science and medicine.

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New Testament household code

The New Testament Household Codes (Haustafeln), also known as New Testament Domestic Codes, consist of instructions in the New Testament writings of the apostles Paul and Peter to pairs of Christian people in different domestic and civil structures of society.

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Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex.

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Non-heterosexual is a sexual orientation or sexual identity that is not heterosexual.

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Nova Science Publishers

Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.

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Nuclear family

A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).

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An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority (either their own or that of their superior and/or employer, public or legally private).

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Online game

An online game is a video game that is either partially or primarily played through the Internet or any other computer network available.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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Parachurch organization

Parachurch organizations are Christian faith-based organizations that work outside and across denominations to engage in social welfare and evangelism.

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Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.

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Parental leave

Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.

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Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood.

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The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).

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Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.

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Paul the Apostle and women

The relationship between Paul the Apostle and Women is an important element in the theological debate about Christianity and women because Paul was the first writer to give ecclesiastical directives about the role of women in the Church.

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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.

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Personal Attributes Questionnaire

The Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) is a personality test measuring two scales "instrumentality" and "expressivity", commonly taken to be masculinity and femininity, respectively.

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Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin is a scientific journal published monthly published by SAGE Publications for the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP).

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Piaget's theory of cognitive development

Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.

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The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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A profession is a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, the purpose of which is to supply disinterested objective counsel and service to others, for a direct and definite compensation, wholly apart from expectation of other business gain.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Psychosexual development

In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.

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PsycINFO is a database of abstracts of literature in the field of psychology.

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Queer theory

Queer theory is a field of critical theory that emerged in the early 1990s out of the fields of queer studies and women's studies.

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Raewyn Connell

Raewyn Connell (born 3 January 1944) (also known as R.W. Connell, formerly Robert) is an Australian sociologist.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Review of General Psychology

Review of General Psychology is the quarterly scientific journal of the American Psychological Association Division 1: The Society for General Psychology.

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Right of asylum

The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.

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A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation.

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Role theory

Role theory is a perspective in sociology and in social psychology that considers most of everyday activity to be the acting out of socially defined categories (e.g., mother, manager, teacher).

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Rosabeth Moss Kanter

Rosabeth Moss Kanter (born March 15, 1943) is the Ernest L. Arbuckle professor of business at Harvard Business School.

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Rowman & Littlefield

Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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RuPaul Andre Charles (born November 17, 1960) is an American drag queen, actor, model, singer, songwriter, television personality, and author.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Sally Shuttleworth

Sally Ann Shuttleworth, FBA (born 5 September 1952) is a British academic specialising in Victorian literature.

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Salon (website)

Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.

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Sandra Bem

Sandra Ruth Lipsitz Bem (June 22, 1944 – May 20, 2014) was an American psychologist known for her works in androgyny and gender studies.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Second-wave feminism

Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that began in the United States in the early 1960s and lasted roughly two decades.

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Seduction is the process of deliberately enticing a person, to engage in a relationship, to lead astray, as from duty, rectitude, or the like; to corrupt, to persuade or induce to engage in sexual behaviour.

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Sex and gender distinction

The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity).

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Sex and gender roles in the Catholic Church

Sex and gender roles in the Roman Catholic Church have been the subject of both intrigue and controversy throughout the Church's history.

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Sex assignment

Sex assignment (sometimes known as gender assignment) is the determination of an infant's sex at birth.

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Sex differences in humans

Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.

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Sex segregation

Sex segregation is the physical, legal, and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex.

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Sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.

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Sexual inversion (sexology)

Sexual inversion is a term used by sexologists, primarily in the late 19th and early 20th century, to refer to homosexuality.

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Sexual orientation

Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.

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Sexual orientation hypothesis

The sexual orientation hypothesis is a hypothesis proposed by Donald McCreary in 1994 that attempts to explain the impact of gender stereotypes on judgments about sexual orientation.

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Simon Baron-Cohen

Simon Baron-Cohen (born 15 August 1958) is an English clinical psychologist, professor of developmental psychopathology at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom.

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Simone de Beauvoir

Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir (or;; 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist.

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Social cognitive theory

Social cognitive theory (SCT), used in psychology, education, and communication, holds that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences.

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Social construction of gender

The social construction of gender is a belief in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies.

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Social constructionism

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality (also social concept) is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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Social control

Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.

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Social norm

From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.

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In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society.

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Sociology of gender

Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology.

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Sociology of the family

Sociological studies of the family look at.

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Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stanford Graduate School of Business

The Stanford Graduate School of Business (also known as Stanford GSB or GSB) is the graduate business school of Stanford University in Stanford, California.

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Status quo

Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.

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In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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Stereotype threat

Stereotype threat is a situational predicament in which people are or feel themselves to be at risk of conforming to stereotypes about their social group.

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Subliminal stimuli

Subliminal stimuli (the prefix sup- literally "below, or less than", while the prefix sub- literally "up to"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception.

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A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.

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In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.

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Talcott Parsons

Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902 – May 8, 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism.

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The Feminine Mystique

The Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Oprah Winfrey Show

The Oprah Winfrey Show, often referred to simply Oprah, is an American syndicated talk show that aired nationally for 25 seasons from September 8, 1986 to May 25, 2011 in Chicago, Illinois.

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Third gender

Third gender or third sex is a concept in which individuals are categorized, either by themselves or by society, as neither man nor woman.

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Third-party punishment

Third-party punishment, or altruistic punishment, is punishment of a transgressor (first party) which is administered, not by a victim of the transgression (second party), but rather by a third party not directly affected by the transgression.

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Tony Blair

Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.

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Trans woman

A trans woman (sometimes trans-woman or transwoman) is a woman who was assigned male at birth.

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Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.

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Transvestic fetishism

Transvestic fetishism is a psychiatric diagnosis applied to those who are thought to have an excessive sexual or erotic interest in cross-dressing; this interest is often expressed in autoerotic behavior.

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Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex.

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Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

The IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world.

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The ukulele (from ukulele (oo-koo-leh-leh); variant: ukelele) is a member of the lute family of instruments.

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Undoing Gender

Undoing Gender is a 2004 book by the philosopher Judith Butler.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Vern Bullough

Vern Leroy Bullough (July 24, 1928 – June 21, 2006) was an American historian and sexologist.

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Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 188228 March 1941) was an English writer, who is considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

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Vox (website)

Vox is an American news and opinion website owned by Vox Media.

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Warren Farrell

Warren Thomas Farrell (born June 26, 1943) is an American educator, activist and author of seven books on men's and women's issues.

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Westminster John Knox

Westminster John Knox is a book publisher in Louisville, Kentucky and is part of Presbyterian Publishing Corporation, the publishing arm of the Louisville, Kentucky-based Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Their publishing focus is on books in.

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Wikinews is a free-content news source wiki and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.

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A woman is an adult female human being.

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Women in Christianity

The roles of women in Christianity can vary considerably today as they have varied historically since the third century New Testament church.

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Women in Islam

The experiences of Muslim women (Muslimāt, singular مسلمة Muslima) vary widely between and within different societies.

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Women in the workforce

Women in the workforce earning wages or salary are part of a modern phenomenon, one that developed at the same time as the growth of paid employment for men, but women have been challenged by inequality in the workforce.

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Women of color

Women of color (singular: woman of color, sometimes abbreviated as WOC) is a phrase used to describe female persons of color.

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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.

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Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.

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Women's suffrage in the United States

Women's suffrage in the United States of America, the legal right of women to vote, was established over the course of several decades, first in various states and localities, sometimes on a limited basis, and then nationally in 1920.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Values Survey

The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people’s values and beliefs, how they change over time and what social and political impact they have.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yogyakarta Principles

The Yogyakarta Principles is a 35-page document about human rights in the areas of sexual orientation and gender identity, published as the outcome of an international meeting of human rights groups in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in November 2006.

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5α-Reductase deficiency

5α-Reductase deficiency (5-ARD) is an autosomal recessive intersex condition caused by a mutation of the 5α reductase type II gene.

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Conservative gender roles, Gender (role), Gender Communication, Gender Role, Gender Roles, Gender barrier, Gender behavior, Gender code, Gender codes, Gender conformity, Gender norm, Gender norms, Gender paradigm, Gender relations, Gender role footnotes, Gender roles, Gender stereotype, Gender stereotypes, Gender stereotyping, How Social Structures Influence Gender Identity, Pejorative terms for failed gender roles, Prescriptions regarding gender roles, Role of women, Sex Roles, Sex role, Sex role stereotype, Sex role stereotypes, Sex roles, Sex-role, Sex-role stereotype, Sex-role stereotypes, Sexual stereotyping, Stereotypes of men, Stereotypes of women, Traditional sex roles.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender_role

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