143 relations: /æ/ raising, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accent reduction, Affricate consonant, African Americans, African-American English, African-American Vernacular English, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, American Civil War, American English, American English regional vocabulary, Approximant consonant, Back vowel, Boston, Brill Publishers, Canadian English, Canadian raising, Central vowel, Charles Boberg, Chicano English, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Comparison of General American and Received Pronunciation, Complementary distribution, Consonant, Cot–caught merger, Dental and alveolar flaps, Diphthong, Eastern New England English, English language in England, English phonology, English studies, English-language spelling reform, English-language vowel changes before historic /r/, Flapping, Free variation, Fresh Air, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, German dialects, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Great Lakes region, Hal Leonard Corporation, Hawaiian Pidgin, Homophone, Inland Northern American English, Interdental consonant, Intervocalic consonant, ..., John C. Wells, John Samuel Kenyon, Journalist, L-vocalization, Labial consonant, Language change, Leiden, Linda Ellerbee, Linguistic prescription, Linguistics, List of dialects of the English language, List of English words from indigenous languages of the Americas, Markedness, Mass media, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic accent, Mid-Atlantic American English, Midland American English, Midwestern United States, Monophthong, Nasal consonant, Natural class, New England, New England English, New York City English, New York metropolitan area, News broadcasting, North American English, North-Central American English, Northern American English, NPR, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Palatal consonant, Pennsylvania, Phoneme, Phonological change, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Quebec, R-colored vowel, Raising (phonetics), Received Pronunciation, Retroflex consonant, Rhoticity in English, Sari, Schwa, Sociolinguistics, Sound change, Southern American English, Southern United States, Standard Canadian English, Standard English, Standard written English, Stephen Colbert, Stop consonant, Suburbanization, Syllabic consonant, T-glottalization, Television network, Tenseness, Texan English, The Atlas of North American English, The New Yorker, Thomas Mann, Umbrella term, United Kingdom, Unreleased stop, Upper Midwest, Upstate New York, Variety (linguistics), Velar consonant, Velarization, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Webster's Dictionary, West Virginia, Western American English, Western New England English, Western Pennsylvania, Western Pennsylvania English, Western United States, White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, William Labov, World Englishes, World War II, 60 Minutes. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
In the sociolinguistics of the English language, raising or short-a raising is a phenomenon in most American and many Canadian English accents, by which the "short a" vowel, the North American vowel (found in such words as ash, bath, man, lamp, pal, rag, sack, trap, etc.), is pronounced with a raising of the tongue.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
Accent reduction, also known as accent modification or accent neutralization, is a systematic approach for learning or adopting a new speech accent.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in North American linguistics, is the set of English dialects primarily spoken by most black people in North America; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ranging from African-American Vernacular English to a more standard English.
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Regional vocabulary within American English varies.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Canadian raising is an allophonic rule of phonology in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points.
A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Charles Boberg is a researcher and educator in the field of sociolinguistics, specializing in language variation and change, dialectology, and North American English.
Chicano English, or Mexican-American English, is a dialect of American English spoken primarily by Mexican Americans (sometimes known as Chicanos), particularly in the Southwestern United States, ranging from Texas to CaliforniaNewman, Michael.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
One aspect of the differences between American and British English is that of pronunciation, as described in American and British English pronunciation differences.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The cot–caught merger (also known as the low back merger or the merger) is a phonemic merger that has taken place in some varieties of English, between the phonemes which are conventionally represented in the IPA as (which is usually written with au, aw, al or ough as in caught and thought) and (which is usually written with o as in cot and lot).
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
Eastern New England English, historically known as the Yankee dialect since at least the nineteenth century, is the traditional regional dialect of Maine, New Hampshire, and the eastern half of Massachusetts.
The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.
Like many other languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
English studies (usually called simply English) is an academic discipline taught in primary, secondary, and post-secondary education in English-speaking countries; it is not to be confused with English taught as a foreign language, which is a distinct discipline.
For centuries, there has been a movement to reform the spelling of English.
In English, many vowel shifts only affect vowels followed by in rhotic dialects, or vowels that were historically followed by an that has since been elided in non-rhotic dialects.
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).
Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers.
Fresh Air is an American radio talk show broadcast on National Public Radio stations across the United States since 1985.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario.
Hal Leonard Corporation is a United States music publishing and distribution company founded in Winona, Minnesota, by Harold "Hal" Edstrom, his brother, Everett "Leonard" Edstrom, and fellow musician Roger Busdicker.
Hawaiian Pidgin English (alternately Hawaiian Creole English or HCE, known locally as Pidgin) is an English-based creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi (L1: 600,000; L2: 400,000).
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English dialect spoken primarily by White Americans in a geographic band reaching from Central New York westward along the Erie Canal, through much of the U.S. Great Lakes region, to eastern Iowa.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
In phonetics and phonology, an intervocalic consonant is a consonant that occurs in the middle of a word, between two vowels.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
John Samuel Kenyon (July 26, 1874 – September 6, 1959) was an American linguist.
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.
L-vocalization, in linguistics, is a process by which a lateral approximant sound such as, or, more often, velarized, is replaced by a vowel or a semivowel.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Language change is variation over time in a language's phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Linda Ellerbee (born August 15, 1944) is an American journalist who is most known for several jobs at NBC News, including Washington, D.C. correspondent, and also as host of the Nickelodeon network's Nick News with Linda Ellerbee.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.
This is a list of English language words borrowed from indigenous languages of the Americas, either directly or through intermediate European languages such as Spanish or French.
In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States.
The Mid-Atlantic accent, or Transatlantic accent, is a consciously acquired accent of English, intended to blend together the "standard" speech of both American English and British Received Pronunciation.
Mid-Atlantic American English, Middle Atlantic American English, or Delaware Valley English is a class of American English, considered by The Atlas of North American English to be a single dialect, spoken in the southern Mid-Atlantic states of the United States (i.e. the Delaware Valley, southeastern Pennsylvania, South Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland).
Midland American English is a regional dialect or super-dialect of American English, geographically lying between the traditionally-defined Northern and Southern United States.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonology, a natural class is a set of phonemes in a language that share certain distinctive features.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New England English collectively refers to the various distinct dialects and varieties of American English originating in the New England area.
New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.
The New York metropolitan area, also referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 mi2 (11,642 km2).
News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism.
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.
North-Central American English (also known as the Upper Midwestern or North Central dialect in the United States) is an American English dialect native to the Upper Midwestern United States, an area that somewhat overlaps with speakers of the separate Inland North dialect, centered more around the eastern Great Lakes region.
Northern American English or Northern U.S. English (also, Northern AmE) is a class of distinct American English dialects, spoken by predominantly white Americans, best documented in the greater metropolitan areas of Rhode Island, Connecticut, Western Massachusetts, Western and Central New York, Northwestern New Jersey, Northeastern Pennsylvania, Northern Illinois, Northern Ohio, Eastern South Dakota, and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, plus parts of Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and even the Canadian region of Southern Ontario.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.
The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, through Old and Middle English to the present.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
In phonology and phonetics, raising is a sound change in which a vowel or consonant becomes higher or raised, meaning that the tongue becomes more elevated or positioned closer to the roof of the mouth than before.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Standard Canadian English is the greatly homogeneous variety of Canadian English spoken particularly all across central and western Canada, as well as throughout Canada among urban middle-class speakers from English-speaking families, excluding the regional dialects of Atlantic Canadian English.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
Standard written English refers to the preferred form of English as it is written according to prescriptive authorities associated with publishing houses and schools; the standard varieties of English around the world largely align to either British or American English spelling standards.
Stephen Tyrone Colbert (born May 13, 1964) is an American comedian, writer, producer, actor, and television host.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of (sub)urban sprawl.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers.
In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.
Texan English is the array of American English spoken in Texas, primarily falling under the regional dialects of Southern and Midland U.S. English.
The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change (ANAE; formerly, the Phonological Atlas of North America) is an overview of the pronunciation patterns (accents) in all the major urbanized regional dialects of the English language spoken in the United States and Canada.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.
An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A stop with no audible release, also known as an unreleased stop or an applosive, is a stop consonant with no release burst: no audible indication of the end of its occlusion (hold).
The Upper Midwest is a region in the northern portion of the U.S. Census Bureau's Midwestern United States.
Upstate New York is the portion of the American state of New York lying north of the New York metropolitan area.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Western American English (also known as Western U.S. English or in the U.S., simply, Western) is a variety of American English that largely unites the entire western half of the United States as a single dialect region, including the states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.
Western New England English refers to the varieties of New England English native to Vermont, Connecticut, and the western half of Massachusetts; New York State's Hudson Valley (from Albany to Poughkeepsie) also aligns to this classification.
Western Pennsylvania refers to the western third of the state of Pennsylvania in the United States.
Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly by outsiders as Pittsburghese, is a dialect of American English native primarily to the western half of Pennsylvania, centered on the city of Pittsburgh, but potentially appearing as far north as Erie County, as far east as Sunbury, Pennsylvania, as far west as metropolitan Youngstown (Ohio), and as far south as micropolitan Clarksburg (West Virginia).
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) is an informal acronym that refers to social group of wealthy and well-connected white Americans of Protestant and predominantly British ancestry, many of whom trace their ancestry to the American colonial period.
William "Bill" Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.
World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
60 Minutes is an American newsmagazine television program broadcast on the CBS television network.
Accentless American English, American Broadcast English, GenAm, General American English, General American dialect, General american, Standard American dialect, Standard Midwestern, Standard U.S. English, Standard midwestern.