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Genetic engineering

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Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. [1]

227 relations: Abiotic stress, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Alanine, Alfred Hershey, Alipogene tiparvovec, Allergy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Medical Association, Amflora, Animal feed, Animal husbandry, Annenberg Foundation, Antimicrobial resistance, AquAdvantage salmon, Artificial gene synthesis, Asilomar Conference Grounds, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bacteria, Base pair, Biofuel, Biological engineering, Biological patent, Biomining, Bioreactor, Bioremediation, Biotechnology, Blastocyst, Blue rose, British Medical Association, Bromoxynil, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, Cell (biology), Cell fusion, Cell nucleus, Chimeric antigen receptor, Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Chymosin, Cisgenesis, Clinical research, Clone (cell biology), Cloning, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Convenience food, CRISPR, CSIRO, Developmental biology, Diamond v. Chakrabarty, DNA, DNA microarray, ..., DNA repair, DNA sequencing, Domain (biology), Electroporation, ELISA, Embryo, Embryonic stem cell, Emmanuelle Charpentier, Endogeny (biology), Epidermolysis bullosa, Escherichia coli, European Commission, European Food Safety Authority, European Union, Extrachromosomal DNA, Factor VIII, False advertising, Fear, uncertainty and doubt, Flavr Savr, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Drug Administration, Food irradiation, Food security, Food Standards Australia New Zealand, Francis Crick, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Gene expression, Gene flow, Gene gun, Gene knockout, Gene targeting, Gene therapy, Genentech, Genetic disorder, Genetic engineering techniques, Genetic screen, Genetically modified bacterium, Genetically modified canola, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified fish, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified food controversies, Genetically modified livestock, Genetically modified mouse, Genetically modified organism, Genetically modified soybean, Genetically modified virus, Genome, Genome editing, Germline, GloFish, Glyphosate, Green fluorescent protein, Growth hormone, Health Canada, Heat shock, Herbert Boyer, Herbicide, Heredity, Homologous recombination, Human serum albumin, Hybrid (biology), Hybridoma technology, Ice-minus bacteria, Immunofluorescence, In vitro fertilisation, Industrial fermentation, Infection, Insulin, Insulin (medication), Intellectual property, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, J. Craig Venter Institute, Jack Williamson, James Watson, Jennifer Doudna, Knockout mouse, Lambda phage, Library (biology), Ligation (molecular biology), List of genetically modified crops, Lithium-ion battery, Maladaptation, Martha Chase, Materials science, Meganuclease, Micro-encapsulation, Microbial art, Microinjection, Microorganism, Model organism, Monoclonal antibody, Mutagenesis, Mutation, Mycoplasma laboratorium, Natural competence, Natural science, Natural selection, Non-homologous end joining, Northern blot, Nuclear envelope, Nuclease, Nucleic acid sequence, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, Oncomouse, Organism, Outcrossing, Parkinson's disease, Paul Berg, Pharming (genetics), Phenotype, Plant breeding, Plant tissue culture, Plasmid, Playing God (ethics), Polymerase chain reaction, Polyploid, Precautionary principle, Promoter (genetics), Promoter bashing, Protein & Cell, Protein production, Protein purification, Pseudomonas syringae, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Recombinant DNA, Regeneration (biology), Religious views on genetically modified foods, Replicate (biology), Restriction digest, Restriction enzyme, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Robert A. Swanson, Rome, Rudolf Jaenisch, Science fiction, Scientific consensus, Selectable marker, Selective breeding, Shelf life, Somatic (biology), Somatostatin, Southern blot, Stanley G. Weinbaum, Stanley Norman Cohen, Stem cell, Substantial equivalence, Substrate (chemistry), Supreme Court of the United States, SV40, Synonym, Synthetic biology, T cell, Terminator (genetics), The New York Times, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Transcription (biology), Transcription activator-like effector nuclease, Transcriptome, Transfer DNA, Transgene, Tryptophan, Umbellularia, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vaccine, Vector (molecular biology), Viral vector, Western blot, Whole genome sequencing, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, Xenotransplantation, Zinc finger nuclease. Expand index (177 more) »

Abiotic stress

Abiotic stress is defined as the negative impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment.

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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the lymphoid line of blood cells characterized by the development of large numbers of immature lymphocytes.

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Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Alfred Hershey

Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize–winning bacteriologist and geneticist.

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Alipogene tiparvovec

Alipogene tiparvovec (marketed under the trade name Glybera) is a gene therapy treatment, developed and marketed by uniQure N.V., that compensates for lipoprotein lipase deficiency (LPLD), a rare inherited disorder which can cause severe pancreatitis.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.

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Amflora (also known as EH92-527-1) is a genetically modified potato cultivar developed by BASF Plant Science.

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Animal feed

Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Annenberg Foundation

The Annenberg Foundation is a family foundation that provides funding and support to non-profit organizations in the United States and around the world.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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AquAdvantage salmon

AquAdvantage salmon is a genetically modified (GM) Atlantic salmon developed by AquaBounty Technologies.

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Artificial gene synthesis

Artificial gene synthesis, sometimes known as DNA printing is a method in synthetic biology that is used to create artificial genes in the laboratory.

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Asilomar Conference Grounds

Asilomar Conference Grounds is a conference center built for the Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA).

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Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA

The Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA was an influential conference organized by Paul Berg to discuss the potential biohazards and regulation of biotechnology, held in February 1975 at a conference center at Asilomar State Beach.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Biological engineering

Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.

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Biological patent

A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time.

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Biomining is a technique of extracting metals from ores and other solid materials typically using prokaryotes or fungi.

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A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.

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Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.

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Blue rose

A blue rose is a flower of the genus Rosa (family Rosaceae) that presents blue-to-violet pigmentation instead of the more common red, white, or yellow.

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British Medical Association

The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.

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Bromoxynil is an organic compound with the formula HOBr2C6H2CN.

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Canadian Food Inspection Agency

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is a regulatory agency that is dedicated to the safeguarding of food, animals, and plants, which enhance the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and economy.

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Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety

The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity effective since 2003.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell fusion

Cell fusion is an important cellular process in which several uninuclear cells (cells with a single nucleus) combine to form a multinuclear cell, known as a syncytium.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Chimeric antigen receptor

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, also known as chimeric immunoreceptors, chimeric T cell receptors or artificial T cell receptors) are engineered receptors that combine a new specificity with an immune cell to target cancer cells.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Chymosin or rennin is a protease found in rennet.

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Cisgenesis is a product designation for a category of genetically engineered plants.

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Clinical research

Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.

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Clone (cell biology)

A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is a free trade area with nineteen member states stretching from Libya to Swaziland.

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Convenience food

Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.

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CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.

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The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Diamond v. Chakrabarty

Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980), was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with whether genetically modified organisms can be patented.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell.

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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Embryonic stem cell

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells or ESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo.

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Emmanuelle Charpentier

Emmanuelle Marie Charpentier (born 11 December 1968) is a French professor and researcher in microbiology, genetics and biochemistry.

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Endogeny (biology)

Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

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Epidermolysis bullosa

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of genetic conditions that result in easy blistering of the skin and mucous membranes.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Food Safety Authority

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Extrachromosomal DNA

Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell.

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Factor VIII

Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).

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False advertising

False advertising is the use of false, misleading, or unproven information to advertise products to consumers or advertising that does not disclose its source.

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Fear, uncertainty and doubt

Fear, uncertainty and doubt (often shortened to FUD) is a disinformation strategy used in sales, marketing, public relations, talk radio, politics, cults, and propaganda.

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Flavr Savr

Flavr Savr (also known as CGN-89564-2; pronounced "flavor saver"), a genetically modified tomato, was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption.

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Follicle-stimulating hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Food irradiation

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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Food Standards Australia New Zealand

Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) (Māori: Te Mana Kounga Kai - Ahitereiria me Aotearoa), formerly Australia New Zealand Food Authority (ANZFA), is the governmental body responsible for developing food standards for Australia and New Zealand.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Gel electrophoresis

Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene flow

In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.

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Gene gun

A gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, originally designed for plant transformation, is a device for delivering exogenous DNA (transgenes) to cells.

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Gene knockout

A gene knockout (abbreviation: KO) is a genetic technique in which one of an organism's genes is made inoperative ("knocked out" of the organism).

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Gene targeting

Gene targeting (also, replacement strategy based on homologous recombination) is a genetic technique that uses homologous recombination to modify an endogenous gene.

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Gene therapy

In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

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Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetic engineering techniques

Genetic engineering has involved to encompass multiple techniques.

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Genetic screen

A genetic screen or mutagenesis screen is an experimental technique used to identify and select for individuals who possess a phenotype of interest in a mutagenized population.

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Genetically modified bacterium

Genetically modified bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to their simple genetics.

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Genetically modified canola

Genetically modified canola is a genetically modified crop.

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Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

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Genetically modified fish

Genetically modified fish (GM fish) are organisms from the taxonomic clade which includes the classes Agnatha (jawless fish), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) and Osteichthyes (bony fish) whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

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Genetically modified food

Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.

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Genetically modified food controversies

Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.

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Genetically modified livestock

Genetically modified livestock (GM livestock) are organisms from the group of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, birds, horses and fish kept for human consumption, whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.

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Genetically modified mouse

A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering techniques.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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Genetically modified soybean

A genetically modified soybean is a soybean (Glycine max) that has had DNA introduced into it using genetic engineering techniques.

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Genetically modified virus

A genetically modified virus is a virus that has gone through genetic modification for various biomedical purposes, agricultural purposes, bio-control and technological purposes.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome editing

Genome editing, or genome engineering is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism.

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In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.

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The GloFish is a patented and trademarked brand of genetically engineered fluorescent fish.

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Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.

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Green fluorescent protein

The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Health Canada

Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.

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Heat shock

In biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a temperature that is greater than the optimal temperature range of function of the cell.

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Herbert Boyer

Herbert Wayne "Herb" Boyer (born July 10, 1936) is a researcher and entrepreneur in biotechnology.

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Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Human serum albumin

Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hybridoma technology

Hybridoma technology is a method for producing large numbers of identical antibodies (also called monoclonal antibodies).

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Ice-minus bacteria

Ice-minus bacteria is a common name given to a variant of the common bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae).

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Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.

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In vitro fertilisation

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").

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Industrial fermentation

Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin (medication)

Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose.

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Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.

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International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications

The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) is a non-profit international organization that shares agricultural biotechnology, focusing on genetic engineering.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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J. Craig Venter Institute

The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.

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Jack Williamson

John Stewart Williamson (April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006), who wrote as Jack Williamson, was an American science fiction writer, often called the "Dean of Science Fiction" after the death of Robert Heinlein in 1988.

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James Watson

James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

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Jennifer Doudna

Jennifer Anne Doudna (born 19 February 1964) is an American biochemist, professor of chemistry at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Knockout mouse

A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.

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Lambda phage

Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).

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Library (biology)

In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning.

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Ligation (molecular biology)

In molecular biology, ligation is the joining of two nucleic acid fragments through the action of an enzyme.

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List of genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering techniques.

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Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

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A maladaptation is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful.

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Martha Chase

Martha Cowles Chase (November 30, 1927 – August 8, 2003), also known as Martha C. Epstein, was an American geneticist known for having in 1952, with Alfred Hershey, experimentally helped to confirm that DNA rather than protein is the genetic material of life.

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Materials science

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

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Meganucleases are endodeoxyribonucleases characterized by a large recognition site (double-stranded DNA sequences of 12 to 40 base pairs); as a result this site generally occurs only once in any given genome.

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Microencapsulation is a process in which tiny particles or droplets are surrounded by a coating to give small capsules, of many useful properties.

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Microbial art

Microbial art, agar art, or germ art is artwork created by culturing microorganisms in certain patterns.

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Microinjection is the use of a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic or borderline macroscopic level.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Mutagenesis is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed, resulting in a mutation.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mycoplasma laboratorium

Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.

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Natural competence

In microbiology, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, competence is the ability of a cell to alter its genetics by taking up extracellular ("naked") DNA from its environment in the process called transformation.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Non-homologous end joining

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.

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Northern blot

The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Office of Science and Technology Policy

The Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) is a department of the United States government, part of the Executive Office of the President (EOP), established by United States Congress on May 11, 1976, with a broad mandate to advise the President on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.

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Office of the Gene Technology Regulator

The Office of the Gene Technology Regulator, supports the Gene Technology Regulator (the Regulator), and is a part of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing.

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The OncoMouse or Harvard mouse is a type of laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) that has been genetically modified using modifications designed by Philip Leder and Timothy A Stewart of Harvard University to carry a specific gene called an activated oncogene (v-Ha-ras under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter).

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Out-crossing or out-breeding means that the crossing between different breeds.This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Paul Berg

Paul Berg (born June 30, 1926) is an American biochemist and professor emeritus at Stanford University.

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Pharming (genetics)

Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Plant breeding

Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.

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Plant tissue culture

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition.

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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Playing God (ethics)

Playing God refers to someone supposedly taking on the role of God for other purposes, also referred to as apotheosis.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.

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Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

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Promoter bashing

Promoter bashing is a technique used in molecular biology to identify how certain regions of a DNA strand, commonly promoters, affect the transcription of downstream genes.

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Protein & Cell

Protein & Cell is a monthly peer-reviewed open access journal covering protein and cell biology.

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Protein production

Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.

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Protein purification

Protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, tissues or whole organisms.

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Pseudomonas syringae

Pseudomonas syringae is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium with polar flagella.

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Pure and Applied Chemistry

Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Regeneration (biology)

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

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Religious views on genetically modified foods

Religious views on genetically modified foods have been mixed, although as yet, no genetically modified foods ("GM" foods) have been designated as unacceptable by religious authorities.

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Replicate (biology)

In the biological sciences, a replicate is an exact copy of a sample that is being analyzed, such as a cell, organism or molecule, on which exactly the same procedure is done.

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Restriction digest

A restriction digest is a procedure used in molecular biology to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.

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Robert A. Swanson

Robert "Bob" Swanson (1947–1999) was an American venture capitalist who cofounded the biotechnology giant Genentech in 1976 with Herbert Boyer.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rudolf Jaenisch

Rudolf Jaenisch (born 22 April 1942) is a Professor of Biology at MIT and a founding member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Scientific consensus

Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.

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Selectable marker

A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection.

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Selective breeding

Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

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Shelf life

Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.

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Somatic (biology)

The term somatic is often used in biology to refer to the cells of the body in contrast to the germ line cells which usually give rise to the gametes (ovum or sperm).

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Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.

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Southern blot

A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.

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Stanley G. Weinbaum

Stanley Grauman Weinbaum (April 4, 1902 – December 14, 1935) was an American science fiction writer.

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Stanley Norman Cohen

Stanley Norman Cohen (born February 17, 1935 in Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States) is an American geneticist and the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Substantial equivalence

In food safety, the concept of substantial equivalence holds that the safety of a new food, particularly one that has been genetically modified (GM), may be assessed by comparing it with a similar traditional food that has proven safe in normal use over time.

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Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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SV40 is an abbreviation for simian vacuolating virus 40 or simian virus 40, a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans.

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A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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Synthetic biology

Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Terminator (genetics)

In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Therapeutic Goods Administration

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transcription activator-like effector nuclease

Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) are restriction enzymes that can be engineered to cut specific sequences of DNA.

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The transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules in one cell or a population of cells.

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Transfer DNA

The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes(actually an Ri plasmid.

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A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.

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Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Umbellularia californica is a large hardwood tree native to coastal forests of California, as well as to coastal forests extending into Oregon.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Vector (molecular biology)

In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).

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Viral vector

Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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Whole genome sequencing

Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.

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X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) is an immunodeficiency disorder in which the body produces very few T cells and NK cells.

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Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.

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Zinc finger nuclease

Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are artificial restriction enzymes generated by fusing a zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain.

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Applications of genetic engineering, Applied genetics, GM Technology, GM technology, Gene manipulation, Gene technology, Genetic Engeneering, Genetic Engineering, Genetic Enginering, Genetic Modification, Genetic control, Genetic engeering, Genetic engineer, Genetic engineering in agriculture, Genetic engineering technology, Genetic engineers, Genetic manipulation, Genetic modification, Genetic modifications, Genetic modificiation, Genetic splicing, Genetical engineering, Genetically Modified, Genetically augmented, Genetically engineer, Genetically engineered, Genetically-engineered, Genetically-modified, Genetically-modifying, Genetics engineering, Gengineering, Genomancy, Green gene technology, Intelligent selection, Red gene technology.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_engineering

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